Jo-Anne Bachorowski, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

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Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Psychology
Ph.D., Clinical Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WisconsinM.S., PSYCHOLOGY MS, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WisconsinA.B., Holy Cross College, Notre Dame, Indiana
Office Address
307 Wilson Hall
Nashville, TN
Research Description
Bachorowski's research is broadly concerned with vocal communication. Several specific areas of interest include laughter, vocal expression of emotion, and acoustic cues to talker sex and individual identity in speech. Some of the overarching goals of this research program include understanding how vocal acoustics provide information concerning motivational state, elicit emotional responses in listeners, and contribute to fundamental aspects of relationships, such as auditory recognition of individuals. Research strategies typically involve detailed acoustic analysis of vocal signals and follow-up perceptual tests of the importance of these production-related findings to listeners. For example, in our laughter-related work, we record laughter samples from research participants who are tested in particular social and behavioral contexts. These laugh samples are then subjected to acoustic analysis in which acoustic cues associated with vocal fold vibration and supralaryngeal vocal tract filtering are measured. Among other results, we are finding that laugh acoustics vary with both the sex of and level of familiarity with one's social partner. Confirmation of the importance of these acoustic differences is now being sought by testing listeners' responses to various laugh stimuli under controlled conditions. Interests in psychopathology include both autism and maternal depression, and includes studying the impact of depressed mothers' infant-directed speech on infant learning and development.
Research Keywords
Vocal acoustics and emotion
Owren M.J., Rendall, D., & Bachorowski, J-A.. Conscious and unconscious emotion in nonlinguistic vocal communication. New York: Guilford. 2005; ((Barrett, P. Niedenthal, & P Winkielman Eds, Emotion and Consciousness)): 185-204.

Smoski MJ, Bachorowski JA. Antiphonal laughter in developing friendships. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 Dec; 1000: 300-3. PMID: 14766642, ISSN: 0077-8923.

Bachorowski JA, Owren MJ. Sounds of emotion: production and perception of affect-related vocal acoustics. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 Dec; 1000: 244-65. PMID: 14766635, ISSN: 0077-8923.

Owren, M.J., Bachorowski, J.-A.. Reconsidering the evolution of nonlinguistic communication:The case of laughter. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 2003; 27: 183-200.

Russell, J.-A., Bachorowski, J, -A., & Fernandez-Dols, J.-M.. Facial and Vocal expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology. 2003; 54: 329-49.

Kaplan, P.S., Bachorowski, J, -A., Smoski, M.J., & Hudenko, W.J.. Infants of depressed mothers, although competent earners, fail to learn in response to their own mother's infant-directed speech. Psychological Science. 2002; 13: 268-71.

Bachorowski JA, Smoski MJ, Owren MJ. The acoustic features of human laughter. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2001 Sep; 110(3 Pt 1): 1581-97. PMID: 11572368, ISSN: 0001-4966.

Bachorowski JA, Owren MJ. Not all laughs are alike: voiced but not unvoiced laughter readily elicits positive affect. Psychol Sci. 2001 May; 12(3): 252-7. PMID: 11437310, ISSN: 0956-7976.

Owren M.J., & Bachorowski, J. -A.. The Evolution of Emotional Expession: A "selfish-Gene" Account of Smiling and Laughter in Early Hominids and Humans. In T. Mayne & G.A. Bonanno (Eds). 2001; ((Emotions Current issue and future development)): 152-91.

Bachorowski JA, Owren MJ. Acoustic correlates of talker sex and individual talker identity are present in a short vowel segment produced in running speech. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1999 Aug; 106(2): 1054-63. PMID: 10462810, ISSN: 0001-4966.

Kaplan PS, Bachorowski JA and Zarlengo-Strouse P. Child-directed speech produced by mothers with symptoms of depression fails to promote associative learning in 4-month- old infants. 1999.

Bachorowski J-A. Vocal expression and perception of emotion. 1999.

Bachorowski, J.-A. Vocal expression and perception of emotion. 1999.

Kring, A. M. & Bachorowski, J.-A. Emotions and psychopathology. 1999.

Bachorowski, J.-A., & Owren, M.J.. Vocal expression of emotion:acoustic properties of speech are associated with emotional intensity and context. Psychological Science. 1995; 6: 219-24.