Randolph Blake, Ph.D.



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Faculty Appointments
Vice Chair of Psychology Centennial Professor of Psychology Centennial Professor of PsychologyProfessor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Ph.D., Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeM.A., Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeB.A., University of Texas, Austin, Texas
Office Address
512 Wilson Hall
Nashville, TN
Research Description
Dr. Blake studies visual perception, with particular emphasis
on the roles of stereopsis and motion in specifying the three-
dimensional (3D) layout of objects in the visual scene. This
research involves empirical investigations of binocular
single vision, stereopsis, rivalry and structure from motion.
Theoretical work centers around development of neural
models of 3D perception. Related problems of interest
include the role of knowledge in perception, temporal
synchrony's role in promotion of feature binding and the
interplay of memory, imagery and vision. In collaboration
with investigators in the Medical School, neuroimaging
techniques are being used to study brain activation patterns
associated with visual perception.

Research Keywords
Visual neurscience, brain imaging, visual perception
Kang MS, Blake R. Enhancement of bistable perception associated with visual stimulus rivalry. Psychon Bull Rev. 2008 Jun; 15(3): 586-91. PMID: 18567259, PMCID: PMC2654572, ISSN: 1069-9384.

Blake R, Rizzo M, McEvoy S. Aging and perception of visual form from temporal structure. Psychol Aging. 2008 Mar; 23(1): 181-9. PMID: 18361665, PMCID: PMC2654573, PII: 2008-02853-018, DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.181, ISSN: 0882-7974.

Hong SW, Blake R. Early visual mechanisms do not contribute to synesthetic color experience. Vision Res [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 48(8): 1018-26. PMID: 18316107, PMCID: PMC2423348, PII: S0042-6989(08)00050-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2008.01.024, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Kim J, Blake R, Park S, Shin YW, Kang DH, Kwon JS. Selective impairment in visual perception of biological motion in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2008; 25(7): E15-25. PMID: 17994588, DOI: 10.1002/da.20402, ISSN: 1520-6394.

Maruya K, Yang E, Blake R. Voluntary action influences visual competition. Psychol Sci. 2007 Dec; 18(12): 1090-8. PMID: 18031417, PII: PSCI2030, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02030.x, ISSN: 0956-7976.

Yang E, Zald DH, Blake R. Fearful expressions gain preferential access to awareness during continuous flash suppression. Emotion. 2007 Nov; 7(4): 882-6. PMID: 18039058, PMCID: PMC4038625, PII: 2007-17748-021, DOI: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.882, ISSN: 1528-3542.

Kim CY, Blake R. Illusory colors promote interocular grouping during binocular rivalry. Psychon Bull Rev. 2007 Apr; 14(2): 356-62. PMID: 17694926, ISSN: 1069-9384.

Kim CY, Blake R. Brain activity accompanying perception of implied motion in abstract paintings. Spat Vis. 2007; 20(6): 545-60. PMID: 18338460, ISSN: 0169-1015.

Pearson J, Tadin D, Blake R. The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual rivalry. J Vis. 2007; 7(7): 2.1-11. PMID: 17685798, PII: 7/7/2, DOI: 10.1167/7.7.2, ISSN: 1534-7362.

Guttman SE, Gilroy LA, Blake R. Spatial grouping in human vision: temporal structure trumps temporal synchrony. Vision Res [print-electronic]. 2007 Jan; 47(2): 219-30. PMID: 17112563, PMCID: PMC1866300, PII: S0042-6989(06)00435-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2006.09.012, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Tadin D, Kim J, Doop ML, Gibson C, Lappin JS, Blake R, Park S. Weakened center-surround interactions in visual motion processing in schizophrenia. J. Neurosci. 2006 Nov 11/1/2006; 26(44): 11403-12. PMID: 17079669, PII: 26/44/11403, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2592-06.2006, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Tong F, Meng M, Blake R. Neural bases of binocular rivalry. Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov; 10(11): 502-11. PMID: 16997612, PII: S1364-6613(06)00240-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.09.003, ISSN: 1364-6613.

Kim J, Doop ML, Blake R, Park S. Impaired visual recognition of biological motion in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 2005 Sep 9/15/2005; 77(2-3): 299-307. PMID: 15922565, PII: S0920-9964(05)00140-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2005.04.006, ISSN: 0920-9964.

Kim CY, Blake R. Psychophysical magic: rendering the visible 'invisible'. Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.). 2005 Aug; 9(8): 381-8. PMID: 16006172, PII: S1364-6613(05)00184-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.06.012, ISSN: 1364-6613.

Guttman SE, Gilroy LA, Blake R. Mixed messengers, unified message: spatial grouping from temporal structure. Vision Res. 2005 Apr; 45(8): 1021-30. PMID: 15695187, PII: S0042-6989(04)00540-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2004.10.014, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Blake R, Lee SH. The role of temporal structure in human vision. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev. 2005 Mar; 4(1): 21-42. PMID: 15886401, PII: 4/1/21, DOI: 10.1177/1534582305276839, ISSN: 1534-5823.

Guttman SE, Gilroy LA, Blake R. Hearing what the eyes see: auditory encoding of visual temporal sequences. Psychol Sci. 2005 Mar; 16(3): 228-35. PMID: 15733204, PMCID: PMC1431611, PII: PSCI808, DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.00808.x, ISSN: 0956-7976.

Tadin D, Blake R. Motion perception getting better with age?. Neuron. 2005 Feb 2/3/2005; 45(3): 325-7. PMID: 15694315, PII: S0896-6273(05)00049-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.01.017, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Gilroy LA, Blake R. Physics embedded in visual perception of three-dimensional shape from motion. Nat. Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2004 Sep; 7(9): 921-2. PMID: 15300254, PII: nn1297, DOI: 10.1038/nn1297, ISSN: 1097-6256.

James TW, Blake R. Perceiving object motion using vision and touch. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2004 Jun; 4(2): 201-7. PMID: 15460926, ISSN: 1530-7026.

Blake R, Sobel KV, James TW. Neural synergy between kinetic vision and touch. Psychol Sci. 2004 Jun; 15(6): 397-402. PMID: 15147493, PII: PSCI691, DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00691.x, ISSN: 0956-7976.

Lee SH, Blake R. A fresh look at interocular grouping during binocular rivalry. Vision Res. 2004 May; 44(10): 983-91. PMID: 15031091, PII: S0042698903007922, DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2003.12.007, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Blake R, Sobel KV, Gilroy LA. Visual motion retards alternations between conflicting perceptual interpretations. Neuron. 2003 Aug 8/28/2003; 39(5): 869-78. PMID: 12948452, PII: S0896627303004951, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Tadin D, Lappin JS, Gilroy LA, Blake R. Perceptual consequences of centre-surround antagonism in visual motion processing. Nature. 2003 Jul 7/17/2003; 424(6946): 312-5. PMID: 12867982, PII: nature01800, DOI: 10.1038/nature01800, ISSN: 1476-4687.

Sobel KV, Blake R. Subjective contours and binocular rivalry suppression. Vision Res. 2003 Jun; 43(14): 1533-40. PMID: 12782067, PII: S0042698903001780, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Blake R, Turner LM, Smoski MJ, Pozdol SL, Stone WL. Visual recognition of biological motion is impaired in children with autism. Psychol Sci. 2003 Mar; 14(2): 151-7. PMID: 12661677, ISSN: 0956-7976.

Aslin C, Blake R, Chun MM. Perceptual learning of temporal structure. Vision Res. 2002 Dec; 42(28): 3019-30. PMID: 12480072, PII: S0042698902003863, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Tadin D, Lappin JS, Blake R, Grossman ED. What constitutes an efficient reference frame for vision?. Nat. Neurosci. 2002 Oct; 5(10): 1010-5. PMID: 12219092, PMCID: PMC4613799, PII: nn914, DOI: 10.1038/nn914, ISSN: 1097-6256.

Grossman ED, Blake R. Brain Areas Active during Visual Perception of Biological Motion. Neuron. 2002 Sep 9/12/2002; 35(6): 1167-75. PMID: 12354405, PII: S0896627302008978, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Palmeri TJ, Blake R, Marois R, Flanery MA, Whetsell W. The perceptual reality of synesthetic colors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002 Mar 3/19/2002; 99(6): 4127-31. PMID: 11904456, PMCID: PMC122659, PII: 99/6/4127, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.022049399, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Sobel KV, Blake R. How context influences predominance during binocular rivalry. Perception. 2002; 31(7): 813-24. PMID: 12206529, PMCID: PMC3507470, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Blake R, Logothetis N. Visual competition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2002 Jan; 3(1): 13-21. PMID: 11823801, PII: nrn701, DOI: 10.1038/nrn701, ISSN: 1471-003X.

Lee SH, Blake R. Neural synergy in visual grouping: when good continuation meets common fate. Vision Res. 2001 Jul; 41(16): 2057-64. PMID: 11403790, PII: S0042-6989(01)00086-4, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Grossman ED, Blake R. Brain activity evoked by inverted and imagined biological motion. Vision Res. 2001; 41(10-11): 1475-82. PMID: 11322987, PII: S0042-6989(00)00317-5, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Grossman E, Donnelly M, Price R, Pickens D, Morgan V, Neighbor G, Blake R. Brain areas involved in perception of biological motion. J Cogn Neurosci. 2000 Sep; 12(5): 711-20. PMID: 11054914, ISSN: 0898-929X.

Kham K, Blake R. Depth capture by kinetic depth and by stereopsis. Perception. 2000; 29(2): 211-20. PMID: 10820602, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Grossman ED, Blake R. Perception of coherent motion, biological motion and form-from-motion under dim-light conditions. Vision Res. 1999 Nov; 39(22): 3721-7. PMID: 10746142, PII: S0042-6989(99)00084-X, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Alais D, Blake R. Grouping visual features during binocular rivalry. Vision Res. 1999 Oct; 39(26): 4341-53. PMID: 10789428, PII: S0042-6989(99)00146-7, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Lee SH, Blake R. Detection of temporal structure depends on spatial structure. Vision Res. 1999 Sep; 39(18): 3033-48. PMID: 10664802, PII: S0042-6989(98)00333-2, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Lee SH, Blake R. Visual form created solely from temporal structure. Science. 1999 May 5/14/1999; 284(5417): 1165-8. PMID: 10325226, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Lee SH, Blake R. Rival ideas about binocular rivalry. Vision Res. 1999 Apr; 39(8): 1447-54. PMID: 10343813, PII: S0042-6989(98)00269-7, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Lee SH and Blake R. Rival ideas about binocular rivalry. 1999.

Blake R, Ahlstrom U and Alais D. Perceptual priming by invisible motion. 1999.

Alais, D & Blake, R. Neural strength of visual attention gauged by motion adaptation. 1999.

Gros BL, Blake R, Hiris E. Anisotropies in visual motion perception: a fresh look. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1998 Aug; 15(8): 2003-11. PMID: 9691484, ISSN: 1084-7529.

Alais D, Blake R, Lee SH. Visual features that vary together over time group together over space. Nat. Neurosci. 1998 Jun; 1(2): 160-4. PMID: 10195133, DOI: 10.1038/414, ISSN: 1097-6256.

Alais D, Blake R. Interactions between global motion and local binocular rivalry. Vision Res. 1998 Mar; 38(5): 637-44. PMID: 9604095, PII: S0042698997001909, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Kojima H, Blake R. Role of spatial and temporal coincidence in depth organization. Perception. 1998; 27(5): 541-52. PMID: 10070554, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Blake R, Yu K, Lokey M, Norman H. Binocular rivalry and motion perception. J Cogn Neurosci. 1998 Jan; 10(1): 46-60. PMID: 9526082, ISSN: 0898-929X.

Cave C, Blake R and McNamara T. Binocular rivalry disrupts visual priming. 1998.

Blake R, Yang Y. Spatial and temporal coherence in perceptual binding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997 Jun 6/24/1997; 94(13): 7115-9. PMID: 9192701, PMCID: PMC21294, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Blake R, Cepeda NJ, Hiris E. Memory for visual motion. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1997 Apr; 23(2): 353-69. PMID: 9103999, ISSN: 0096-1523.

Ahlström V, Blake R, Ahlström U. Perception of biological motion. Perception. 1997; 26(12): 1539-48. PMID: 9616481, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Hiris E, Blake R. Direction repulsion in motion transparency. Vis. Neurosci. 1996 Jan; 13(1): 187-97. PMID: 8730999, PII: S0952523800007227, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Yang Y, Blake R. On the accuracy of surface reconstruction from disparity interpolation. Vision Res. 1995 Apr; 35(7): 949-60. PMID: 7762152, PII: 004269899400177N, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Hiris E, Blake R. Discrimination of coherent motion when local motion varies in speed and direction. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1995 Apr; 21(2): 308-17. PMID: 7714474, ISSN: 0096-1523.

Yang Y, Blake R. Broad tuning for spatial frequency of neural mechanisms underlying visual perception of coherent motion. Nature. 1994 Oct 10/27/1994; 371(6500): 793-6. PMID: 7935839, DOI: 10.1038/371793a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Blake R. Gibson's inspired but latent prelude to visual motion perception. Psychol Rev. 1994 Apr; 101(2): 324-8. PMID: 8022963, ISSN: 0033-295X.

Steiner V, Blake R, Rose D. Interocular transfer of expansion, rotation, and translation motion aftereffects. Perception. 1994; 23(10): 1197-202. PMID: 7899035, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Schall JD, Nawrot M, Blake R, Yu K. Visually guided attention is neutralized when informative cues are visible but unperceived. Vision Res. 1993 Oct; 33(15): 2057-64. PMID: 8266647, PII: 0042-6989(93)90004-G, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Blake R, Hiris E. Another means for measuring the motion aftereffect. Vision Res. 1993 Jul; 33(11): 1589-92. PMID: 8351831, PII: 0042-6989(93)90152-M, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Nawrot M, Blake R. On the perceptual identity of dynamic stereopsis and kinetic depth. Vision Res. 1993 Jul; 33(11): 1561-71. PMID: 8351828, PII: 0042-6989(93)90149-Q, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Nawrot M, Blake R. Visual alchemy: stereoscopic adaptation produces kinetic depth from random noise. Perception. 1993; 22(6): 635-42. PMID: 8255695, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Yu K, Blake R. Do recognizable figures enjoy an advantage in binocular rivalry?. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1992 Nov; 18(4): 1158-73. PMID: 1431750, ISSN: 0096-1523.

Hiris E, Blake R. Another perspective on the visual motion aftereffect. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992 Oct 10/1/1992; 89(19): 9025-8. PMID: 1409598, PMCID: PMC50057, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Wiesenfelder H, Blake R. Binocular rivalry suppression disrupts recovery from motion adaptation. Vis. Neurosci. 1992 Aug; 9(2): 143-8. PMID: 1504023, PII: S0952523800009603, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Fukuda H, Blake R. Spatial interactions in binocular rivalry. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1992 May; 18(2): 362-70. PMID: 1593223, ISSN: 0096-1523.

Yang Y, Rose D, Blake R. On the variety of percepts associated with dichoptic viewing of dissimilar monocular stimuli. Perception. 1992; 21(1): 47-62. PMID: 1528703, ISSN: 0301-0066.

Blake R, Wilson HR. Neural models of stereoscopic vision. Trends Neurosci. 1991 Oct; 14(10): 445-52. PMID: 1722363, ISSN: 0166-2236.

Blake R, Yang Y, Westendorf D. Discriminating binocular fusion from false fusion. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1991 Sep; 32(10): 2821-5. PMID: 1894479, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Nawrot M, Blake R. A neural network model of kinetic depth. Vis. Neurosci. 1991 Mar; 6(3): 219-27. PMID: 2054325, PII: S0952523800006234, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Nawrot M, Blake R. The interplay between stereopsis and structure from motion. Percept Psychophys. 1991 Mar; 49(3): 230-44. PMID: 2011461, ISSN: 0031-5117.

Wiesenfelder H, Blake R. Apparent motion can survive binocular rivalry suppression. Vision Res. 1991; 31(9): 1589-99. PMID: 1949627, PII: 0042-6989(91)90135-R, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Blake R, Yang YD, Wilson HR. On the coexistence of stereopsis and binocular rivalry. Vision Res. 1991; 31(7-8): 1191-203. PMID: 1891811, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Yang Y, Blake R. Spatial frequency tuning of human stereopsis. Vision Res. 1991; 31(7-8): 1177-89. PMID: 1891810, PII: 0042-6989(91)90043-5, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Blake R, Westendorf D, Fox R. Temporal perturbations of binocular rivalry. Percept Psychophys. 1990 Dec; 48(6): 593-602. PMID: 2270191, ISSN: 0031-5117.

Mowafy L, Blake R, Lappin JS. Detection and discrimination of coherent motion. Percept Psychophys. 1990 Dec; 48(6): 583-92. PMID: 2270190, ISSN: 0031-5117.

Wiesenfelder H, Blake R. The neural site of binocular rivalry relative to the analysis of motion in the human visual system. J. Neurosci. 1990 Dec; 10(12): 3880-8. PMID: 2269889, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Nawrot M, Blake R. Neural integration of information specifying structure from stereopsis and motion. Science. 1989 May 5/12/1989; 244(4905): 716-8. PMID: 2717948, ISSN: 0036-8075.