Bruce M. Damon, Ph.D.


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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Radiology & Radiological Sciences Associate Professor of Biomedical EngineeringAssociate Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Ph.D., Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IllinoisM.S., Kinesiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IllinoisB.S., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts
Office Address
1161 21st Avenue South
MCN AA-1105
Nashville, TN 37232-2310
Research Description
Bruce Damon, Ph.D., a 1987 cum laude B.S. graduate of the University of Massachusetts, earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Following a post-doctoral fellowship at Yale University, Dr. Damon joined the Vanderbilt faculty in 2002. Dr. Damon is currently appointed as Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics and is also a core faculty member of the Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science (VUIIS). He is also engaged in many intramural and extramural service activities and directs the Chemical and Physical Biology PhD Program. His research uses in vivo imaging and spectroscopy to assess healthy and pathological human physiology, with focus on skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissues. Current research projects include:

Physiology of Human Brown Adipose Tissue
About 10 years ago, several research groups published the unexpected finding that functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) exists in adult humans. Although there has been intensive research during the time since those discoveries, fascinating questions persist about BAT. These include BAT’s potential involvement in processes such as the thermoregulatory response to cold, weight maintenance, and lipid and glucose homeostasis; how these functions are controlled physiologically; and how BAT interacts with other organs in the body during the period following a meal and during cold exposure. Our specific aims for this project are: 1) to advance non-invasive imaging methods for studying the structure and function of brown adipose tissue and 2) to understand the interactions among skeletal muscle, liver, and white and brown adipose tissues during the post-prandial period and cold exposure, both in health and in states of metabolic disease.

Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function
At every level of biological complexity, muscle structure significantly influences muscle function. These properties include the intermediate-scale relationships known as muscle architecture: the shape and orientation of a muscle’s fibers with respect to its mechanical line of action. Our understanding of how muscle architecture affects muscle function remains incomplete, however, and our tools for studying these relationships are insufficiently developed. As a result, there are critical gaps in our understanding of how pathologically altered muscle architecture in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy impairs muscle function. Our specific aims for this project are: 1) to validate MRI methods for quantifying muscle architecture in a broad range of states of muscle health and disease, at rest and during contraction; 2) to advance the quantitative understanding of the functional impact of muscle architecture in healthy and dystrophic human muscle; and 3) to distribute data and software for MRI-based muscle structure-function analysis.

Quantitative MRI in Muscle Disease
In muscle diseases such as the muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies, there is a significant and urgent need for quantitative, objective biomarkers that can be used to understand disease natural history and perform clinical trials. Advanced, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging methods are sensitive to relevant aspects of disease state; but these methods are typically used only in research contexts, not in clinical radiology clinics. Instead, clinical radiology exams are based on qualitative descriptions of images obtained using conventional imaging methods. This precludes the quantitative comparison of MRI findings to other medically relevant data. As a result, the development of biomarkers that can advance the understanding and treatment of human muscle disease is impaired. However, we have recently obtained promising preliminary results suggesting that image texture analysis methods can be applied to conventionally obtained radiology images and used to predict the degree of muscle wasting and fat infiltration in muscle diseases. Our future goals for this project are: 1) to develop improved statistical models for predicting the degree of muscle wasting and fat infiltration in muscle diseases from image texture measurements; 2) to understand the relationship between image texture measurements and other medically and functionally relevant data; and 3) to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of image texture measurements.

Section: Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Research Keywords
skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue, imaging, spectroscopy, in vivo, human, physiology, muscular dystrophy, obesity, diabetes
Bush EC, Gifford A, Coolbaugh CL, Towse TF, Damon BM, Welch EB. Fat-Water Phantoms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Validation: A Flexible and Scalable Protocol. J Vis Exp. 2018 Sep 9/7/2018; (139): PMID: 30247483, DOI: 10.3791/57704, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Damon BM, Froeling M, Buck AK, Oudeman J, Ding Z, Nederveen AJ, Bush EC, Strijkers GJ. Skeletal muscle diffusion tensor-MRI fiber tracking: rationale, data acquisition and analysis methods, applications and future directions. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2017 Mar; 30(3): PMID: 27257975, PMCID: PMC5136336, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3563, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Soslow JH, Markham LW, Burnette WB, Galindo CL, Feoktistov I, Raucci FJ, Damon BM, Sawyer DB, Ryzhov S. Increased Number of Circulating CD8/CD26 T Cells in the Blood of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Is Associated with Augmented Binding of Adenosine Deaminase and Higher Muscular Strength Scores. Front Pharmacol. 2017; 8: 914. PMID: 29326589, PMCID: PMC5741593, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00914, ISSN: 1663-9812.

Damon BM, Li K, Dortch RD, Welch EB, Park JH, Buck AK, Towse TF, Does MD, Gochberg DF, Bryant ND. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease. J Vis Exp. 2016 Dec 12/18/2016; (118): PMID: 28060254, DOI: 10.3791/52352, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Towse TF, Elder CP, Bush EC, Klockenkemper SW, Bullock JT, Dortch RD, Damon BM. Post-contractile BOLD contrast in skeletal muscle at 7¿T reveals inter-individual heterogeneity in the physiological responses to muscle contraction. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2016 Dec; 29(12): 1720-8. PMID: 27753155, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3593, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Coolbaugh CL, Bush EC, Caskey CF, Damon BM, Towse TF. FloWave.US: validated, open-source, and flexible software for ultrasound blood flow analysis. J. Appl. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct 10/1/2016; 121(4): 849-57. PMID: 27516540, PMCID: PMC5142308, PII: japplphysiol.00819.2015, DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00819.2015, ISSN: 1522-1601.

Towse TF, Childs BT, Sabin SA, Bush EC, Elder CP, Damon BM. Comparison of muscle BOLD responses to arterial occlusion at 3 and 7 Tesla. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar; 75(3): 1333-40. PMID: 25884888, PMCID: PMC4609213, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25562, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Soslow JH, Damon SM, Crum K, Lawson MA, Slaughter JC, Xu M, Arai AE, Sawyer DB, Parra DA, Damon BM, Markham LW. Increased myocardial native T1 and extracellular volume in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2016 Jan 1/21/2016; 18: 5. PMID: 26795569, PMCID: PMC4722665, PII: 10.1186/s12968-016-0224-7, DOI: 10.1186/s12968-016-0224-7, ISSN: 1532-429X.

Damon BM, Li K, Bryant ND. Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle disease. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016; 136: 827-42. PMID: 27430444, PII: B978-0-444-53486-6.00041-7, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53486-6.00041-7, ISSN: 0072-9752.

Hooijmans MT, Damon BM, Froeling M, Versluis MJ, Burakiewicz J, Verschuuren JJ, Niks EH, Webb AG, Kan HE. Evaluation of skeletal muscle DTI in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 28(11): 1589-97. PMID: 26449628, PMCID: PMC4670831, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3427, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Buck AK, Elder CP, Donahue MJ, Damon BM. Matching of postcontraction perfusion to oxygen consumption across submaximal contraction intensities in exercising humans. J. Appl. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug 8/1/2015; 119(3): 280-9. PMID: 26066829, PMCID: PMC4526707, PII: japplphysiol.01027.2014, DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01027.2014, ISSN: 1522-1601.

Li K, Dortch RD, Kroop SF, Huston JW, Gochberg DF, Park JH, Damon BM. A rapid approach for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging in thigh muscles using the pulsed saturation method. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul; 33(6): 709-17. PMID: 25839394, PMCID: PMC4755108, PII: S0730-725X(15)00090-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2015.03.003, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Miller CO, Cao J, Chekmenev EY, Damon BM, Cherrington AD, Gore JC. Noninvasive measurements of glycogen in perfused mouse livers using chemical exchange saturation transfer NMR and comparison to (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Anal. Chem [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun 6/2/2015; 87(11): 5824-30. PMID: 25946616, PMCID: PMC4920106, DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b01296, ISSN: 1520-6882.

Soslow JH, Damon BM, Saville BR, Lu Z, Burnette WB, Lawson MA, Parra DA, Sawyer DB, Markham LW. Evaluation of post-contrast myocardial t1 in duchenne muscular dystrophy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 36(1): 49-56. PMID: 25070387, PMCID: PMC4439095, DOI: 10.1007/s00246-014-0963-x, ISSN: 1432-1971.

Buck AK, Ding Z, Elder CP, Towse TF, Damon BM. Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(5): e0126953. PMID: 26010830, PMCID: PMC4444336, PII: PONE-D-14-28260, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126953, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Skinner JT, Robison RK, Elder CP, Newton AT, Damon BM, Quarles CC. Evaluation of a multiple spin- and gradient-echo (SAGE) EPI acquisition with SENSE acceleration: applications for perfusion imaging in and outside the brain. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 32(10): 1171-80. PMID: 25179133, PMCID: PMC4253546, PII: S0730-725X(14)00263-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2014.08.032, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Li K, Dortch RD, Welch EB, Bryant ND, Buck AK, Towse TF, Gochberg DF, Does MD, Damon BM, Park JH. Multi-parametric MRI characterization of healthy human thigh muscles at 3.0 T - relaxation, magnetization transfer, fat/water, and diffusion tensor imaging. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep; 27(9): 1070-84. PMID: 25066274, PMCID: PMC4153695, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3159, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Bryant ND, Li K, Does MD, Barnes S, Gochberg DF, Yankeelov TE, Park JH, Damon BM. Multi-parametric MRI characterization of inflammation in murine skeletal muscle. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 27(6): 716-25. PMID: 24777935, PMCID: PMC4134016, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3113, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Williams SE, Heemskerk AM, Welch EB, Li K, Damon BM, Park JH. Quantitative effects of inclusion of fat on muscle diffusion tensor MRI measurements. J Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 38(5): 1292-7. PMID: 23418124, PMCID: PMC3664247, DOI: 10.1002/jmri.24045, ISSN: 1522-2586.

Hartley KG, Damon BM, Patterson GT, Long JH, Holt GE. MRI techniques: a review and update for the orthopaedic surgeon. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012 Dec; 20(12): 775-87. PMID: 23203937, PII: 20/12/775, DOI: 10.5435/JAAOS-20-12-775, ISSN: 1067-151X.

Damon BM, Heemskerk AM, Ding Z. Polynomial fitting of DT-MRI fiber tracts allows accurate estimation of muscle architectural parameters. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 30(5): 589-600. PMID: 22503094, PMCID: PMC3348398, PII: S0730-725X(12)00044-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2012.02.003, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Berglund ED, Lustig DG, Baheza RA, Hasenour CM, Lee-Young RS, Donahue EP, Lynes SE, Swift LL, Charron MJ, Damon BM, Wasserman DH. Hepatic glucagon action is essential for exercise-induced reversal of mouse fatty liver. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 60(11): 2720-9. PMID: 21885872, PMCID: PMC3198076, PII: db11-0455, DOI: 10.2337/db11-0455, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Damon BM, Buck AK, Ding Z. Diffusion-Tensor MRI Based Skeletal Muscle Fiber Tracking. Imaging Med. 2011 Nov; 3(6): 675-87. PMID: 25429308, PMCID: PMC4241547, DOI: 10.2217/iim.11.60, ISSN: 1755-5191.

Sanchez OA, Copenhaver EA, Chance MA, Fowler MJ, Towse TF, Kent-Braun JA, Damon BM. Postmaximal contraction blood volume responses are blunted in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects in a muscle-specific manner. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 301(2): H418-27. PMID: 21572006, PMCID: PMC3154659, PII: ajpheart.00060.2011, DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00060.2011, ISSN: 1522-1539.

Englund EK, Elder CP, Xu Q, Ding Z, Damon BM. Combined diffusion and strain tensor MRI reveals a heterogeneous, planar pattern of strain development during isometric muscle contraction. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2011 May; 300(5): R1079-90. PMID: 21270344, PMCID: PMC3094039, PII: ajpregu.00474.2010, DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00474.2010, ISSN: 1522-1490.

Elder CP, Cook RN, Wilkens KL, Chance MA, Sanchez OA, Damon BM. A method for detecting the temporal sequence of muscle activation during cycling using MRI. J. Appl. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar; 110(3): 826-33. PMID: 21164153, PMCID: PMC3069631, PII: japplphysiol.00185.2010, DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00185.2010, ISSN: 1522-1601.

Damon BM, Buck AKW, Ding Z. Diffusion-tensor MRI based skeletal muscle fiber tracking. Imaging in Medicine. 2011; 3((6)): 675-87.

Elder CP, Cook RN, Chance MA, Copenhaver EA, Damon BM. Image-based calculation of perfusion and oxyhemoglobin saturation in skeletal muscle during submaximal isometric contractions. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Sep; 64(3): 852-61. PMID: 20806379, PMCID: PMC4437700, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22475, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Sanchez OA, Copenhaver EA, Elder CP, Damon BM. Absence of a significant extravascular contribution to the skeletal muscle BOLD effect at 3 T. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Aug; 64(2): 527-35. PMID: 20665796, PMCID: PMC2914541, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22449, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Heemskerk AM, Sinha TK, Wilson KJ, Ding Z, Damon BM. Repeatability of DTI-based skeletal muscle fiber tracking. NMR Biomed. 2010 Apr; 23(3): 294-303. PMID: 20099372, PMCID: PMC4416059, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1463, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Yankeelov TE, Avison MJ, Damon BM, Manning HC, Peterson TE, Gore JC. Frontiers of Biomedical Imaging Science 2009: workshop report and research opportunities. Cancer Res [print-electronic]. 2009 Oct 10/15/2009; 69(20): 7902-4. PMID: 19808955, PMCID: PMC2763022, PII: 0008-5472.CAN-09-2521, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2521, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Sanchez OA, Louie EA, Copenhaver EA, Damon BM. Repeatability of a dual gradient-recalled echo MRI method for monitoring post-isometric contraction blood volume and oxygenation changes. NMR Biomed. 2009 Aug; 22(7): 753-61. PMID: 19382156, PMCID: PMC4440456, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1388, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Kan JH, Heemskerk AM, Ding Z, Gregory A, Mencio G, Spindler K, Damon BM. DTI-based muscle fiber tracking of the quadriceps mechanism in lateral patellar dislocation. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Mar; 29(3): 663-70. PMID: 19243049, PMCID: PMC2676427, DOI: 10.1002/jmri.21687, ISSN: 1053-1807.

Louie EA, Gochberg DF, Does MD, Damon BM. Transverse relaxation and magnetization transfer in skeletal muscle: effect of pH. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Mar; 61(3): 560-9. PMID: 19097244, PMCID: PMC2649690, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21847, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Heemskerk AM, Sinha TK, Wilson KJ, Ding Z, Damon BM. Quantitative assessment of DTI-based muscle fiber tracking and optimal tracking parameters. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Feb; 61(2): 467-72. PMID: 19161166, PMCID: PMC2632726, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21819, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Lee DJ, Mencio GA, Hernanz-Schulman M, Nealy BJ, Damon BM, Kan JH. Comparison of acute and subacute treatment of buckle fractures in the pediatric population. Journal of Family Practice. 2009; 58: E1-E6.

Damon BM, Wadington MC, Lansdown DA, Hornberger JL. Spatial heterogeneity in the muscle functional MRI signal intensity time course: effect of exercise intensity. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 26(8): 1114-21. PMID: 18508220, PMCID: PMC2614829, PII: S0730-725X(08)00051-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2008.01.023, ISSN: 0730-725X.

Damon BM. Effects of image noise in muscle diffusion tensor (DT)-MRI assessed using numerical simulations. Magn Reson Med. 2008 Oct; 60(4): 934-44. PMID: 18816814, PMCID: PMC2570042, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21707, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Kan JH, Hernanz-Schulman M, Damon BM, Yu C, Connolly SA. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study. Clin Radiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 63(7): 805-12. PMID: 18555039, PII: S0009-9260(08)00038-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.crad.2007.06.013, ISSN: 0009-9260.

Lansdown DA, Ding Z, Wadington M, Hornberger JL, Damon BM. Quantitative diffusion tensor MRI-based fiber tracking of human skeletal muscle. J. Appl. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 103(2): 673-81. PMID: 17446411, PMCID: PMC4440488, PII: 00290.2007, DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00290.2007, ISSN: 8750-7587.

Damon BM, Wadington MC, Hornberger JL, Lansdown DA. Absolute and relative contributions of BOLD effects to the muscle functional MRI signal intensity time course: effect of exercise intensity. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Aug; 58(2): 335-45. PMID: 17654591, PMCID: PMC4440487, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21319, ISSN: 0740-3194.

Damon BM, Louie EA, Sanchez OA. Physiological basis of muscle functional MRI. J Gravit Physiol. 2007 Jul; 14(1): P85-8. PMID: 18372712, PMCID: PMC4437701, ISSN: 1077-9248.

Damon BM, Hornberger JL, Wadington MC, Lansdown DA, Kent-Braun JA. Dual gradient-echo MRI of post-contraction changes in skeletal muscle blood volume and oxygenation. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Apr; 57(4): 670-9. PMID: 17390346, PMCID: PMC4437703, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21191, ISSN: 0740-3194.

Maguire MA, Weaver TW, Damon BM. Delayed blood reoxygenation following maximum voluntary contraction. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Feb; 39(2): 257-67. PMID: 17277589, PII: 00005768-200702000-00007, DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000246990.25858.47, ISSN: 0195-9131.

Heemskerk AM and Damon BM. Diffusion Tensor MRI Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Architecture. Current Medical Imaging Reviews. 2007; 3(( )): 152-60.

Heemskerk AM, Damon BM. Diffusion Tensor MRI Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Architecture. Curr Med Imaging Rev. 2007; 3(3): 152-60. PMID: 26236177, PMCID: PMC4520247, DOI: 10.2174/157340507781386988, ISSN: 1573-4056.

Damon BM, Gore JC. Physiological basis of muscle functional MRI: predictions using a computer model. J. Appl. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2005 Jan; 98(1): 264-73. PMID: 15333610, PII: 00369.2004, DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00369.2004, ISSN: 8750-7587.

Damon BM, Gore JC. Biophysical basis of magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. Meth. Enzymol. 2004; 385: 19-40. PMID: 15130731, PII: S007668790485002X, DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(04)85002-X, ISSN: 0076-6879.

Damon BM, Gore JC. Biophysical basis of magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. Methods in Enzymology. 2004; 385(()): 19-40.

Wigmore DM, Damon BM, Pober DM, Kent-Braun JA.. MRI Measures of Perfusion-Related Changes in Human Skeletal Muscle During Progressive Contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004; 97(()): 2385-94.

Damon BM, Wigmore DM, Ding Z, Gore JC, Kent-Braun JA. Cluster analysis of muscle functional MRI data. J. Appl. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2003 Sep; 95(3): 1287-96. PMID: 12766178, PII: 00178.2003, DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00178.2003, ISSN: 8750-7587.

Damon BM, Hsu AC, Stark HJ, Dawson MJ. The carnosine C-2 proton's chemical shift reports intracellular pH in oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers. Magn Reson Med. 2003 Feb; 49(2): 233-40. PMID: 12541242, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.10384, ISSN: 0740-3194.

Price TB, Kamen G, Damon BM, Knight CA, Applegate B, Gore JC, Eward K, Signorile JF. Comparison of MRI and EMG to study muscle activation by dynamic plantar flexion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2003; 21((8)): 853-61.

Damon BM, Ding Z, Anderson AW, Freyer AS, Gore JC. Validation of diffusion tensor MRI-based muscle fiber tracking. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2002; 48: 97-104.

Ivy JL, Goforth HW, Damon BM, McCauley TR, Parsons EC, Price TB. Early post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2002; 93: 1337-44.

Damon BM, Gregory CD, Hall KL, Stark HJ, Gulani V, Dawson MJ. Intracellular acidification and volume increases explain 1H R2 decreases during exercise. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2002; 47: 14-23.

Bruce BC, Carragher BO, Damon BM, Dawson MJ, Eurell JA, Gregory CD, Lauterbur PC, Marjanovic MM, Mason-Fossum B, Morris HD, Potter CS, Thakkar U. Chickscope: an interactive MRI classroom curriculum innovation for K-12. Computers and Education Special Issue on Multimedia. 1997; 29: 73-87.