James G. Patton, Ph.D.

Professor

james.g.patton@vanderbilt.edu

Visit Lab Site


Faculty Appointments
Professor of Biological Sciences Stevenson Chair of Biological SciencesProfessor of Cell and Developmental BiologyProfessor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Education
Ph.D., Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MinnesotaB.S., University of Saint Thomas, Saint Paul, Minnesota
Office Address
2325 Stevenson Center
Box 1820 Station B
TN
Research Description
The Patton lab has 4 ongoing projects. The first is investigation into the function of miRNAs during early vertebrate development using zebrafish as a model organism. We use gain and loss of function experiments to determine miRNA function at specific developmental times. As an example, we recently discovered a role for miR-27 in craniofacial bone development by regulating chondrogenesis. The second project studies regeneration in fish and mice. Zebrafish are remarkable in that they can regenerate severed spinal cords, hearts, fins, retina, and other organs and tissues. After initially studying the role that miRNAs play in fin and retina regeneration, we are now focused on the mechanisms that regulate initiation of retina regeneration and control of progenitor cell proliferation. We can blind zebrafish and they amazingly regain eyesight in about three weeks. Why can fish do this and why can’t humans? Especially when the cells and architecture of the retina are nearly identical between fish and humans. The third project studies a novel cell-cell communication system via extracellular RNA. We have discovered that RNAs can be packaged in extracellular vesicles and be transferred from donor to recipient cells in a way that challenges traditional beliefs about cell autonomous RNA. Our focus is how RNAs get packaged into extracellular vesicles and how they move between cells to affect things like the tumor microenvironment and metastasis. Our last project merges the extracellular vesicle work with our regeneration studies to test whether exosomes derived from stem cells can induce a regenerative response in the retina, screening first in zebrafish and then testing in mice, in collaboration with Ed Levine’s lab.
Research Keywords
RNA, miRNA, Regeneration, Cancer, Retina, Development, Exosomes, exRNA, GABA
Publications
Kara N, Wei C, Commanday AC, Patton JG. MiR-27 regulates chondrogenesis by suppressing focal adhesion kinase during pharyngeal arch development. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2017 Jun 6/16/2017; PMID: 28625871, PII: S0012-1606(16)30850-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.06.013, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Rao MB, Didiano D, Patton JG. Neurotransmitter-Regulated Regeneration in the Zebrafish Retina. Stem Cell Reports [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr 4/11/2017; 8(4): 831-42. PMID: 28285877, PMCID: PMC5390103, PII: S2213-6711(17)30074-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.02.007, ISSN: 2213-6711.

Flynt AS, Rao M, Patton JG. Blocking Zebrafish MicroRNAs with Morpholinos. Methods Mol. Biol. 2017; 1565: 59-78. PMID: 28364234, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6817-6_6, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Dou Y, Cha DJ, Franklin JL, Higginbotham JN, Jeppesen DK, Weaver AM, Prasad N, Levy S, Coffey RJ, Patton JG, Zhang B. Circular RNAs are down-regulated in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells and can be transferred to exosomes. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 11/28/2016; 6: 37982. PMID: 27892494, PMCID: PMC5125100, PII: srep37982, DOI: 10.1038/srep37982, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Khuansuwan S, Clanton JA, Dean BJ, Patton JG, Gamse JT. A transcription factor network controls cell migration and fate decisions in the developing zebrafish pineal complex. Development [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/15/2016; 143(14): 2641-50. PMID: 27317804, PMCID: PMC4958332, PII: dev.131680, DOI: 10.1242/dev.131680, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Broadus MR, Chen TW, Neitzel LR, Ng VH, Jodoin JN, Lee LA, Salic A, Robbins DJ, Capobianco AJ, Patton JG, Huppert SS, Lee E. Identification of a Paralog-Specific Notch1 Intracellular Domain Degron. Cell Rep [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/31/2016; 15(9): 1920-9. PMID: 27210761, PMCID: PMC4889555, PII: S2211-1247(16)30514-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.04.070, ISSN: 2211-1247.

McKenzie AJ, Hoshino D, Hong NH, Cha DJ, Franklin JL, Coffey RJ, Patton JG, Weaver AM. KRAS-MEK Signaling Controls Ago2 Sorting into Exosomes. Cell Rep [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/3/2016; 15(5): 978-87. PMID: 27117408, PMCID: PMC4857875, PII: S2211-1247(16)30387-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.03.085, ISSN: 2211-1247.

Yin L, Maddison LA, Li M, Kara N, LaFave MC, Varshney GK, Burgess SM, Patton JG, Chen W. Multiplex Conditional Mutagenesis Using Transgenic Expression of Cas9 and sgRNAs. Genetics [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 200(2): 431-41. PMID: 25855067, PMCID: PMC4492370, PII: genetics.115.176917, DOI: 10.1534/genetics.115.176917, ISSN: 1943-2631.

Olena AF, Rao MB, Thatcher EJ, Wu SY, Patton JG. MiR-216a regulates snx5, a novel notch signaling pathway component, during zebrafish retinal development. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr 4/1/2015; 400(1): 72-81. PMID: 25645681, PMCID: PMC4361363, PII: S0012-1606(15)00036-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.01.016, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Cha DJ, Franklin JL, Dou Y, Liu Q, Higginbotham JN, Demory Beckler M, Weaver AM, Vickers K, Prasad N, Levy S, Zhang B, Coffey RJ, Patton JG. KRAS-dependent sorting of miRNA to exosomes. Elife. 2015; 4: e07197. PMID: 26132860, PMCID: PMC4510696, DOI: 10.7554/eLife.07197, ISSN: 2050-084X.

Patton JG, Franklin JL, Weaver AM, Vickers K, Zhang B, Coffey RJ, Ansel KM, Blelloch R, Goga A, Huang B, L'Etoille N, Raffai RL, Lai CP, Krichevsky AM, Mateescu B, Greiner VJ, Hunter C, Voinnet O, McManus MT. Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015; 4: 27494. PMID: 26320939, PMCID: PMC4553266, PII: 27494, ISSN: 2001-3078.

Rajaram K, Harding RL, Bailey T, Patton JG, Hyde DR. Dynamic miRNA expression patterns during retinal regeneration in zebrafish: reduced dicer or miRNA expression suppresses proliferation of Müller glia-derived neuronal progenitor cells. Dev. Dyn [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 243(12): 1591-605. PMID: 25220904, PMCID: PMC4237695, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.24188, ISSN: 1097-0177.

Rajaram K, Harding RL, Hyde DR, Patton JG. MiR-203 regulates progenitor cell proliferation during adult zebrafish retina regeneration. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug 8/15/2014; 392(2): 393-403. PMID: 24858486, PMCID: PMC4104251, PII: S0012-1606(14)00260-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.05.005, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Rajaram K, Summerbell ER, Patton JG. Technical brief: Constant intense light exposure to lesion and initiate regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish. Mol. Vis. 2014; 20: 1075-84. PMID: 25324680, PMCID: PMC4119235, ISSN: 1090-0535.

Andrews OE, Cha DJ, Wei C, Patton JG. RNAi-mediated gene silencing in zebrafish triggered by convergent transcription. Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 5222. PMID: 24909225, PMCID: PMC4048883, PII: srep05222, DOI: 10.1038/srep05222, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Noto JM, Piazuelo MB, Chaturvedi R, Bartel CA, Thatcher EJ, Delgado A, Romero-Gallo J, Wilson KT, Correa P, Patton JG, Peek RM. Strain-specific suppression of microRNA-320 by carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori promotes expression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec; 305(11): G786-96. PMID: 24136787, PMCID: PMC3882435, PII: ajpgi.00279.2013, DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00279.2013, ISSN: 1522-1547.

Wei C, Thatcher EJ, Olena AF, Cha DJ, Perdigoto AL, Marshall AF, Carter BD, Broadie K, Patton JG. MiR-153 regulates SNAP-25, synaptic transmission, and neuronal development. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2013; 8(2): e57080. PMID: 23451149, PMCID: PMC3581580, PII: PONE-D-12-37460, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057080, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Wei C, Salichos L, Wittgrove CM, Rokas A, Patton JG. Transcriptome-wide analysis of small RNA expression in early zebrafish development. RNA [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 18(5): 915-29. PMID: 22408181, PMCID: PMC3334700, PII: rna.029090.111, DOI: 10.1261/rna.029090.111, ISSN: 1469-9001.

Li N, Wei C, Olena AF, Patton JG. Regulation of endoderm formation and left-right asymmetry by miR-92 during early zebrafish development. Development [print-electronic]. 2011 May; 138(9): 1817-26. PMID: 21447552, PMCID: PMC3074454, PII: dev.056697, DOI: 10.1242/dev.056697, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Li N, Wei C, Olena AF, Patton JG. Regulation of endoderm formation and left-right asymmetry by miR-92 during early zebrafish development. Development [print-electronic]. 2011 May; 138(9): 1817-26. PMID: 21447552, PMCID: PMC3074454, PII: dev.056697, DOI: 10.1242/dev.056697, ISSN: 1477-9129.

Solis AS, Patton JG. Analysis of SRrp86-regulated alternative splicing: control of c-Jun and I¿Bß activity. RNA Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul; 7(4): 486-94. PMID: 20400856, PMCID: PMC3070911, PII: 11567, ISSN: 1555-8584.

Solis AS, Patton JG. Analysis of SRrp86-regulated alternative splicing: control of c-Jun and I¿Bß activity. RNA Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul; 7(4): 486-94. PMID: 20400856, PMCID: PMC3070911, PII: 11567, ISSN: 1555-8584.

Thatcher EJ, Patton JG. Small RNAs have a big impact on regeneration. RNA Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 May; 7(3): 333-8. PMID: 20458186, PMCID: PMC4444050, PII: 12085, ISSN: 1555-8584.

Thatcher EJ, Patton JG. Small RNAs have a big impact on regeneration. RNA Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 May; 7(3): 333-8. PMID: 20458186, PMCID: PMC4444050, PII: 12085, ISSN: 1555-8584.

Olena AF, Patton JG. Genomic organization of microRNAs. J. Cell. Physiol. 2010 Mar; 222(3): 540-5. PMID: 20020507, PMCID: PMC4028663, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21993, ISSN: 1097-4652.

Olena AF, Patton JG. Genomic organization of microRNAs. J. Cell. Physiol. 2010 Mar; 222(3): 540-5. PMID: 20020507, PMCID: PMC4028663, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21993, ISSN: 1097-4652.

Flynt AS, Patton JG. Crosstalk between planar cell polarity signaling and miR-8 control of NHERF1-mediated actin reorganization. Cell Cycle [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan 1/15/2010; 9(2): 235-7. PMID: 20023383, PMCID: PMC4020509, PII: 10434, ISSN: 1551-4005.

Flynt AS, Patton JG. Crosstalk between planar cell polarity signaling and miR-8 control of NHERF1-mediated actin reorganization. Cell Cycle [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan 1/15/2010; 9(2): 235-7. PMID: 20023383, PMCID: PMC4020509, PII: 10434, ISSN: 1551-4005.

Hamid R, Phillips JA, Holladay C, Cogan JD, Austin ED, Backeljauw PF, Travers SH, Patton JG. A molecular basis for variation in clinical severity of isolated growth hormone deficiency type II. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2009 Dec; 94(12): 4728-34. PMID: 19837935, PMCID: PMC2795644, PII: jc.2009-0746, DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-0746, ISSN: 1945-7197.

Hamid R, Phillips JA, Holladay C, Cogan JD, Austin ED, Backeljauw PF, Travers SH, Patton JG. A molecular basis for variation in clinical severity of isolated growth hormone deficiency type II. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab [print-electronic]. 2009 Dec; 94(12): 4728-34. PMID: 19837935, PMCID: PMC2795644, PII: jc.2009-0746, DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-0746, ISSN: 1945-7197.

Qiu R, Liu K, Liu Y, Mo W, Flynt AS, Patton JG, Kar A, Wu JY, He R. The role of miR-124a in early development of the Xenopus eye. Mech. Dev [print-electronic]. 2009 Oct; 126(10): 804-16. PMID: 19703558, PMCID: PMC4445405, PII: S0925-4773(09)01444-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.mod.2009.08.002, ISSN: 1872-6356.

Flynt AS, Thatcher EJ, Burkewitz K, Li N, Liu Y, Patton JG. MiR-8 microRNAs regulate the response to osmotic stress in zebrafish embryos. J. Cell Biol [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr 4/6/2009; 185(1): 115-27. PMID: 19332888, PMCID: PMC2700511, PII: jcb.200807026, DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200807026, ISSN: 1540-8140.

Flynt AS, Thatcher EJ, Burkewitz K, Li N, Liu Y, Patton JG. MiR-8 microRNAs regulate the response to osmotic stress in zebrafish embryos. J. Cell Biol [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr 4/6/2009; 185(1): 115-27. PMID: 19332888, PMCID: PMC2700511, PII: jcb.200807026, DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200807026, ISSN: 1540-8140.

Flynt, A.S., Thatcher, E.J., and Patton, J.G.. Regulation of Gene Expression by Small RNAs. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2009. (CRC Press).

Shariat N, Holladay CD, Cleary RK, Phillips JA, Patton JG. Isolated growth hormone deficiency type II caused by a point mutation that alters both splice site strength and splicing enhancer function. Clin. Genet [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 74(6): 539-45. PMID: 18554279, PMCID: PMC4445398, PII: CGE1042, DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2008.01042.x, ISSN: 1399-0004.

Shariat N, Holladay CD, Cleary RK, Phillips JA, Patton JG. Isolated growth hormone deficiency type II caused by a point mutation that alters both splice site strength and splicing enhancer function. Clin. Genet [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 74(6): 539-45. PMID: 18554279, PMCID: PMC4445398, PII: CGE1042, DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2008.01042.x, ISSN: 1399-0004.

Thatcher EJ, Paydar I, Anderson KK, Patton JG. Regulation of zebrafish fin regeneration by microRNAs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/25/2008; 105(47): 18384-9. PMID: 19015519, PMCID: PMC2587605, PII: 0803713105, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0803713105, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Thatcher EJ, Paydar I, Anderson KK, Patton JG. Regulation of zebrafish fin regeneration by microRNAs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/25/2008; 105(47): 18384-9. PMID: 19015519, PMCID: PMC2587605, PII: 0803713105, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0803713105, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Solis AS, Peng R, Crawford JB, Phillips JA, Patton JG. Growth hormone deficiency and splicing fidelity: two serine/arginine-rich proteins, ASF/SF2 and SC35, act antagonistically. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug 8/29/2008; 283(35): 23619-26. PMID: 18586677, PMCID: PMC2527097, PII: M710175200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M710175200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Solis AS, Peng R, Crawford JB, Phillips JA, Patton JG. Growth hormone deficiency and splicing fidelity: two serine/arginine-rich proteins, ASF/SF2 and SC35, act antagonistically. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug 8/29/2008; 283(35): 23619-26. PMID: 18586677, PMCID: PMC2527097, PII: M710175200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M710175200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Li N, Flynt AS, Kim HR, Solnica-Krezel L, Patton JG. Dispatched Homolog 2 is targeted by miR-214 through a combination of three weak microRNA recognition sites. Nucleic Acids Res [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 36(13): 4277-85. PMID: 18583362, PMCID: PMC2490740, PII: gkn388, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkn388, ISSN: 1362-4962.

Li N, Flynt AS, Kim HR, Solnica-Krezel L, Patton JG. Dispatched Homolog 2 is targeted by miR-214 through a combination of three weak microRNA recognition sites. Nucleic Acids Res [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 36(13): 4277-85. PMID: 18583362, PMCID: PMC2490740, PII: gkn388, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkn388, ISSN: 1362-4962.

Shariat N, Ryther RC, Phillips JA, Robinson IC, Patton JG. Rescue of pituitary function in a mouse model of isolated growth hormone deficiency type II by RNA interference. Endocrinology [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 149(2): 580-6. PMID: 18006625, PMCID: PMC2219309, PII: en.2007-1360, DOI: 10.1210/en.2007-1360, ISSN: 0013-7227.

Shariat N, Ryther RC, Phillips JA, Robinson IC, Patton JG. Rescue of pituitary function in a mouse model of isolated growth hormone deficiency type II by RNA interference. Endocrinology [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 149(2): 580-6. PMID: 18006625, PMCID: PMC2219309, PII: en.2007-1360, DOI: 10.1210/en.2007-1360, ISSN: 0013-7227.

Solis AS, Shariat N, Patton JG. Splicing fidelity, enhancers, and disease. Front. Biosci. 2008; 13: 1926-42. PMID: 17981680, PII: 2812, ISSN: 1093-9946.

Thatcher EJ, Bond J, Paydar I, Patton JG. Genomic organization of zebrafish microRNAs. BMC Genomics. 2008; 9: 253. PMID: 18510755, PMCID: PMC2427041, PII: 1471-2164-9-253, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-253, ISSN: 1471-2164.

Thatcher EJ, Bond J, Paydar I, Patton JG. Genomic organization of zebrafish microRNAs. BMC Genomics. 2008; 9: 253. PMID: 18510755, PMCID: PMC2427041, PII: 1471-2164-9-253, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-253, ISSN: 1471-2164.

Solis AS, Shariat N, Patton JG. Splicing fidelity, enhancers, and disease. Front. Biosci. 2008; 13: 1926-42. PMID: 17981680, PII: 2812, ISSN: 1093-9946.

Thatcher EJ, Flynt AS, Li N, Patton JR, Patton JG. MiRNA expression analysis during normal zebrafish development and following inhibition of the Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways. Dev. Dyn. 2007 Aug; 236(8): 2172-80. PMID: 17584857, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.21211, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Thatcher EJ, Flynt AS, Li N, Patton JR, Patton JG. MiRNA expression analysis during normal zebrafish development and following inhibition of the Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways. Dev. Dyn. 2007 Aug; 236(8): 2172-80. PMID: 17584857, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.21211, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Flynt AS, Li N, Thatcher EJ, Solnica-Krezel L, Patton JG. Zebrafish miR-214 modulates Hedgehog signaling to specify muscle cell fate. Nat. Genet [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb; 39(2): 259-63. PMID: 17220889, PMCID: PMC3982799, PII: ng1953, DOI: 10.1038/ng1953, ISSN: 1061-4036.

Crawford JB, Patton JG. Activation of alpha-tropomyosin exon 2 is regulated by the SR protein 9G8 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H and F. Mol. Cell. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Dec; 26(23): 8791-802. PMID: 17000773, PMCID: PMC1636816, PII: MCB.01677-06, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.01677-06, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Peng R, Hawkins I, Link AJ, Patton JG. The splicing factor PSF is part of a large complex that assembles in the absence of pre-mRNA and contains all five snRNPs. RNA Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Apr; 3(2): 69-76. PMID: 17114945, PII: 3017, ISSN: 1555-8584.

Shav-Tal Y, Blechman J, Darzacq X, Montagna C, Dye BT, Patton JG, Singer RH, Zipori D. Dynamic sorting of nuclear components into distinct nucleolar caps during transcriptional inhibition. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2005 May; 16(5): 2395-413. PMID: 15758027, PMCID: PMC1087244, PII: E04-11-0992, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E04-11-0992, ISSN: 1059-1524.

Ryther RC, Flynt AS, Phillips JA, Patton JG. SiRNA therapeutics: big potential from small RNAs. Gene Ther. 2005 Jan; 12(1): 5-11. PMID: 15496962, PII: 3302356, DOI: 10.1038/sj.gt.3302356, ISSN: 0969-7128.

Ryther RC, Flynt AS, Harris BD, Phillips JA, Patton JG. GH1 splicing is regulated by multiple enhancers whose mutation produces a dominant-negative GH isoform that can be degraded by allele-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Endocrinology [print-electronic]. 2004 Jun; 145(6): 2988-96. PMID: 14988388, PII: en.2003-1724, DOI: 10.1210/en.2003-1724, ISSN: 0013-7227.

Li J, Hawkins IC, Harvey CD, Jennings JL, Link AJ, Patton JG. Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and its interacting proteins. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2003 Nov; 23(21): 7437-47. PMID: 14559993, PMCID: PMC207616, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Ryther RC, McGuinness LM, Phillips JA, Moseley CT, Magoulas CB, Robinson IC, Patton JG. Disruption of exon definition produces a dominant-negative growth hormone isoform that causes somatotroph death and IGHD II. Hum. Genet [print-electronic]. 2003 Jul; 113(2): 140-8. PMID: 12720086, DOI: 10.1007/s00439-003-0949-x, ISSN: 0340-6717.

Zolotukhin, A.S., Michalowski, D., Bear, J., Smulevitch, S.V., Traish, A.M., Peng, R, Patton, J.G., and Felber, B.K.. PSF Acts through the HIV-1 mRNA instability elements to regulate virus expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2003; 23: 6618-30.

Li J, Barnard DC, Patton JG. A unique glutamic acid-lysine (EK) domain acts as a splicing inhibitor. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Oct 10/18/2002; 277(42): 39485-92. PMID: 12183448, PII: M201784200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M201784200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Peng R, Dye BT, Pérez I, Barnard DC, Thompson AB, Patton JG. PSF and p54nrb bind a conserved stem in U5 snRNA. RNA. 2002 Oct; 8(10): 1334-47. PMID: 12403470, PMCID: PMC1370341, ISSN: 1355-8382.

Barnard DC, Li J, Peng R, Patton JG. Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 through coactivation and repression of specific SR proteins. RNA. 2002 Apr; 8(4): 526-33. PMID: 11991645, PMCID: PMC1370273, ISSN: 1355-8382.

Shav-Tal Y, Cohen M, Lapter S, Dye B, Patton JG, Vandekerckhove J, Zipori D. Nuclear relocalization of the pre-mRNA splicing factor PSF during apoptosis involves hyperphosphorylation, masking of antigenic epitopes, and changes in protein interactions. Mol. Biol. Cell. 2001 Aug; 12(8): 2328-40. PMID: 11514619, PMCID: PMC58597, ISSN: 1059-1524.

Dye BT, Patton JG. An RNA recognition motif (RRM) is required for the localization of PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) to subnuclear speckles. Exp. Cell Res. 2001 Feb 2/1/2001; 263(1): 131-44. PMID: 11161712, PII: S0014-4827(00)95097-3, DOI: 10.1006/excr.2000.5097, ISSN: 0014-4827.

Patton, J.G. and Smith, C.W.J. Alternative pre-mRNA Splicing: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Disease. Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine. 2001.

Barnard DC, Patton JG. Identification and characterization of a novel serine-arginine-rich splicing regulatory protein. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2000 May; 20(9): 3049-57. PMID: 10757789, PMCID: PMC85584, ISSN: 0270-7306.

Coolidge CJ, Patton JG. A new double-stranded RNA-binding protein that interacts with PKR. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Mar 3/15/2000; 28(6): 1407-17. PMID: 10684936, PMCID: PMC111047, PII: gkd255, ISSN: 1362-4962.

Chanas-Sacré G, Mazy-Servais C, Wattiez R, Pirard S, Rogister B, Patton JG, Belachew S, Malgrange B, Moonen G, Leprince P. Identification of PSF, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor, as a developmentally regulated neuronal protein. J. Neurosci. Res. 1999 Jul 7/1/1999; 57(1): 62-73. PMID: 10397636, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19990701)57:1<62::AID-JNR7>3.0.CO;2-Y, ISSN: 0360-4012.

Dye BT, Buvoli M, Mayer SA, Lin CH, Patton JG. Enhancer elements activate the weak 3' splice site of alpha-tropomyosin exon 2. RNA. 1998 Dec; 4(12): 1523-36. PMID: 9848651, PMCID: PMC1369723, ISSN: 1355-8382.

Buvoli M, Mayer SA, Patton JG. Functional crosstalk between exon enhancers, polypyrimidine tracts and branchpoint sequences. EMBO J. 1997 Dec 12/1/1997; 16(23): 7174-83. PMID: 9384594, PMCID: PMC1170318, DOI: 10.1093/emboj/16.23.7174, ISSN: 0261-4189.

Pérez I, McAfee JG, Patton JG. Multiple RRMs contribute to RNA binding specificity and affinity for polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Biochemistry. 1997 Sep 9/30/1997; 36(39): 11881-90. PMID: 9305981, PII: bi9711745, DOI: 10.1021/bi9711745, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Pérez I, Lin CH, McAfee JG, Patton JG. Mutation of PTB binding sites causes misregulation of alternative 3' splice site selection in vivo. RNA. 1997 Jul; 3(7): 764-78. PMID: 9214659, PMCID: PMC1369523, ISSN: 1355-8382.

Coolidge CJ, Seely RJ, Patton JG. Functional analysis of the polypyrimidine tract in pre-mRNA splicing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Feb 2/15/1997; 25(4): 888-96. PMID: 9016643, PMCID: PMC146492, PII: gka144, ISSN: 0305-1048.

Hirano K, Erdödi F, Patton JG, Hartshorne DJ. Interaction of protein phosphatase type 1 with a splicing factor. FEBS Lett. 1996 Jul 7/1/1996; 389(2): 191-4. PMID: 8766827, PII: 0014-5793(96)00577-7, ISSN: 0014-5793.

Kaminski A, Hunt SL, Patton JG, Jackson RJ. Direct evidence that polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is essential for internal initiation of translation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. RNA. 1995 Nov; 1(9): 924-38. PMID: 8548657, PMCID: PMC1369341, ISSN: 1355-8382.

Coolidge CJ, Patton JG. Run-around PCR: a novel way to create duplications using polymerase chain reaction. BioTechniques. 1995 May; 18(5): 762-4. PMID: 7619472, ISSN: 0736-6205.

Lin CH, Patton JG. Regulation of alternative 3' splice site selection by constitutive splicing factors. RNA. 1995 May; 1(3): 234-45. PMID: 7489496, PMCID: PMC1369077, ISSN: 1355-8382.

Gozani O, Patton JG, Reed R. A novel set of spliceosome-associated proteins and the essential splicing factor PSF bind stably to pre-mRNA prior to catalytic step II of the splicing reaction. EMBO J. 1994 Jul 7/15/1994; 13(14): 3356-67. PMID: 8045264, PMCID: PMC395233, ISSN: 0261-4189.

Borman A, Howell MT, Patton JG, Jackson RJ. The involvement of a spliceosome component in internal initiation of human rhinovirus RNA translation. J. Gen. Virol. 1993 Sep; 74 ( Pt 9): 1775-88. PMID: 8397279, DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-74-9-1775, ISSN: 0022-1317.

Patton JG, Porro EB, Galceran J, Tempst P, Nadal-Ginard B. Cloning and characterization of PSF, a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor. Genes Dev. 1993 Mar; 7(3): 393-406. PMID: 8449401, ISSN: 0890-9369.

Zamore PD, Patton JG, Green MR. Cloning and domain structure of the mammalian splicing factor U2AF. Nature. 1992 Feb 2/13/1992; 355(6361): 609-14. PMID: 1538748, DOI: 10.1038/355609a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Patton JG, Mayer SA, Tempst P, Nadal-Ginard B. Characterization and molecular cloning of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein: a component of a complex necessary for pre-mRNA splicing. Genes Dev. 1991 Jul; 5(7): 1237-51. PMID: 1906036, ISSN: 0890-9369.

Mullen MP, Smith CW, Patton JG, Nadal-Ginard B. Alpha-tropomyosin mutually exclusive exon selection: competition between branchpoint/polypyrimidine tracts determines default exon choice. Genes Dev. 1991 Apr; 5(4): 642-55. PMID: 2010089, ISSN: 0890-9369.

Nadal-Ginard B, Smith CW, Patton JG, Breitbart RE. Alternative splicing is an efficient mechanism for the generation of protein diversity: contractile protein genes as a model system. Adv. Enzyme Regul. 1991; 31: 261-86. PMID: 1877390, ISSN: 0065-2571.

Smith CW, Porro EB, Patton JG, Nadal-Ginard B. Scanning from an independently specified branch point defines the 3' splice site of mammalian introns. Nature. 1989 Nov 11/16/1989; 342(6247): 243-7. PMID: 2812024, DOI: 10.1038/342243a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Smith CW, Patton JG, Nadal-Ginard B. Alternative splicing in the control of gene expression. Annu. Rev. Genet. 1989; 23: 527-77. PMID: 2694943, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ge.23.120189.002523, ISSN: 0066-4197.

Patton JG, Wieben ED. U1 precursors: variant 3' flanking sequences are transcribed in human cells. J. Cell Biol. 1987 Feb; 104(2): 175-82. PMID: 3805120, PMCID: PMC2114412, ISSN: 0021-9525.

Hurt RD, Briones ER, Offord KP, Patton JG, Mao SJ, Morse RM, Kottke BA. Plasma lipids and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels in alcoholic patients. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1986 Apr; 43(4): 521-9. PMID: 3962905, ISSN: 0002-9165.

Badimon, J.J., Patton, J.G., Fleming, C.R., and Mao, S.J.T.. Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in Patients Receiving Home Parenteral Nutrition. Am. Jo. Clin. Nutr. 1986; 45: 414-22.

Patton JG, Badimon JJ, Mao SJ. Monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low-density lipoproteins. II. Evaluation for use in radioimmunoassay for apolipoprotein B in patients with coronary artery disease. Clin. Chem. 1983 Nov; 29(11): 1898-903. PMID: 6627628, ISSN: 0009-9147.

Mao SJ, Patton JG, Badimon JJ, Kottke BA, Alley MC, Cardin AD. Monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low-density lipoproteins. I. Enhanced binding of 125I-labeled low-density lipoproteins by combined use of two monoclonal antibodies. Clin. Chem. 1983 Nov; 29(11): 1890-7. PMID: 6627627, ISSN: 0009-9147.

Patton JG, Alley MC, Mao SJ. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low density lipoproteins. A requirement for lipids to maintain antigenic structure. J. Immunol. Methods. 1982 Dec 12/17/1982; 55(2): 193-203. PMID: 6186741, PII: 0022-1759(82)90031-X, ISSN: 0022-1759.

Patton JG, Dinh DM, Mao SJ. Phospholipid enhances triglyceride quantitation using an enzyme kit methods. Clin. Chim. Acta. 1982 Jan 1/5/1982; 118(1): 125-8. PMID: 7053903, ISSN: 0009-8981.