David J. Calkins, Ph.D.

Professor

david.j.calkins@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Denis M. O'Day, M.B.B.S., Chair in Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesProfessor pf Pharmacology
Education
Ph.D., Neurosciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaB.S., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Office Address
11435 MRB IV
2215B Garland Avenue
Nashville, TN 37232-8808
Research Description
The laboratory focuses in the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in the visual pathways in health, aging and disease. The retina and optic nerve represent the early central nervous system components of the visual pathway, transmitting information from the eye to multiple relay centers in the brain. With aging, both become susceptible to degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and non-arteritic anterior optic neuropathy. Indeed glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, estimated to afflict some 80 million people by 2020. As such, as laboratory has developed a program to probe the earliest molecular events associated with neurodegeneration in glaucoma, focusing on cascades and pathways modulating sensitivity and susceptibility to glaucoma-related stressors, such as age and ocular pressure. Particular emphasis is placed on the intrinsic response of retinal neurons and their axons in the optic nerve to these stressors and on pharmacological and genetic means to modulate this response. The laboratory also focuses on extrinsic signals from glial cells in the retina and optic nerve that also affect neuronal survival and the pathogenesis of the disease. Tools include animal models, electrophysiology, cell culture preparations, in vivo imaging, functional transport assays, single-cell RT-PCR, protein localization and quantification, automated digital light and electron microscopy, and both genomic and proteomic approaches.
Research Keywords
Neurodegeneration, visual system, regenerative medicine, neuroprotection
Publications
Risner ML, Pasini S, Cooper ML, Lambert WS, Calkins DJ. Axogenic mechanism enhances retinal ganglion cell excitability during early progression in glaucoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar 3/6/2018; 115(10): E2393-E2402. PMID: 29463759, PII: 1714888115, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714888115, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Risner ML, Pasini S, Cooper ML, Lambert WS, Calkins DJ. Axogenic mechanism enhances retinal ganglion cell excitability during early progression in glaucoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar 3/6/2018; 115(10): E2393-E2402. PMID: 29463759, PII: 1714888115, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714888115, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Calkins DJ, Lambert WS, Formichella CR, McLaughlin WM, Sappington RM. The Microbead Occlusion Model of Ocular Hypertension in Mice. Methods Mol. Biol. 2018; 1695: 23-39. PMID: 29190015, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7407-8_3, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Calkins DJ, Lambert WS, Formichella CR, McLaughlin WM, Sappington RM. The Microbead Occlusion Model of Ocular Hypertension in Mice. Methods Mol. Biol. 2018; 1695: 23-39. PMID: 29190015, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7407-8_3, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Calkins DJ, Sternberg P. The Solar Eclipse of 2017-A (Protected) View From the Path of Totality. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 9/1/2017; 135(9): 907-8. PMID: 28820916, PII: 2648904, DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2936, ISSN: 2168-6173.

Calkins DJ, Sternberg P. The Solar Eclipse of 2017-A (Protected) View From the Path of Totality. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 9/1/2017; 135(9): 907-8. PMID: 28820916, PII: 2648904, DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2936, ISSN: 2168-6173.

Calkins DJ, Pekny M, Cooper ML, Benowitz L, . The challenge of regenerative therapies for the optic nerve in glaucoma. Exp. Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 157: 28-33. PMID: 28153739, PII: S0014-4835(17)30069-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2017.01.007, ISSN: 1096-0007.

Calkins DJ, Pekny M, Cooper ML, Benowitz L, . The challenge of regenerative therapies for the optic nerve in glaucoma. Exp. Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 157: 28-33. PMID: 28153739, PII: S0014-4835(17)30069-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2017.01.007, ISSN: 1096-0007.

Anderson DMG, Lambert W, Calkins DJ, Ablonczy Z, Crouch RK, Caprioli RM, Schey KL. Imaging MS of Rodent Ocular Tissues and the Optic Nerve. Methods Mol. Biol. 2017; 1618: 15-27. PMID: 28523496, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7051-3_3, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Lambert WS, Carlson BJ, Formichella CR, Sappington RM, Ahlem C, Calkins DJ. Oral Delivery of a Synthetic Sterol Reduces Axonopathy and Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Glaucoma. Front Neurosci. 2017; 11: 45. PMID: 28223915, PMCID: PMC5293777, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00045, ISSN: 1662-4548.

Lambert WS, Carlson BJ, Formichella CR, Sappington RM, Ahlem C, Calkins DJ. Oral Delivery of a Synthetic Sterol Reduces Axonopathy and Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Glaucoma. Front Neurosci. 2017; 11: 45. PMID: 28223915, PMCID: PMC5293777, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00045, ISSN: 1662-4548.

Anderson DMG, Lambert W, Calkins DJ, Ablonczy Z, Crouch RK, Caprioli RM, Schey KL. Imaging MS of Rodent Ocular Tissues and the Optic Nerve. Methods Mol. Biol. 2017; 1618: 15-27. PMID: 28523496, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7051-3_3, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Bosco A, Breen KT, Anderson SR, Steele MR, Calkins DJ, Vetter ML. Glial coverage in the optic nerve expands in proportion to optic axon loss in chronic mouse glaucoma. Exp. Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep; 150: 34-43. PMID: 26851485, PMCID: PMC4972706, PII: S0014-4835(16)30013-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2016.01.014, ISSN: 1096-0007.

Cooper ML, Crish SD, Inman DM, Horner PJ, Calkins DJ. Early astrocyte redistribution in the optic nerve precedes axonopathy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Exp. Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep; 150: 22-33. PMID: 26646560, PMCID: PMC4889569, PII: S0014-4835(15)30074-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2015.11.016, ISSN: 1096-0007.

Bosco A, Breen KT, Anderson SR, Steele MR, Calkins DJ, Vetter ML. Glial coverage in the optic nerve expands in proportion to optic axon loss in chronic mouse glaucoma. Exp. Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep; 150: 34-43. PMID: 26851485, PMCID: PMC4972706, PII: S0014-4835(16)30013-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2016.01.014, ISSN: 1096-0007.

Cooper ML, Crish SD, Inman DM, Horner PJ, Calkins DJ. Early astrocyte redistribution in the optic nerve precedes axonopathy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Exp. Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep; 150: 22-33. PMID: 26646560, PMCID: PMC4889569, PII: S0014-4835(15)30074-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2015.11.016, ISSN: 1096-0007.

Breen KT, Anderson SR, Steele MR, Calkins DJ, Bosco A, Vetter ML. Loss of Fractalkine Signaling Exacerbates Axon Transport Dysfunction in a Chronic Model of Glaucoma. Front Neurosci. 2016; 10: 526. PMID: 27932942, PMCID: PMC5123443, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00526, ISSN: 1662-4548.

Breen KT, Anderson SR, Steele MR, Calkins DJ, Bosco A, Vetter ML. Loss of Fractalkine Signaling Exacerbates Axon Transport Dysfunction in a Chronic Model of Glaucoma. Front Neurosci. 2016; 10: 526. PMID: 27932942, PMCID: PMC5123443, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00526, ISSN: 1662-4548.

Bond WS, Hines-Beard J, GoldenMerry YL, Davis M, Farooque A, Sappington RM, Calkins DJ, Rex TS. Virus-mediated EpoR76E Therapy Slows Optic Nerve Axonopathy in Experimental Glaucoma. Mol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/27/2015; PMID: 26502777, PII: mt2015198, DOI: 10.1038/mt.2015.198, ISSN: 1525-0024.

Crish SD, Calkins DJ. Central visual pathways in glaucoma: evidence for distal mechanisms of neuronal self-repair. J Neuroophthalmol. 2015 Sep; 35 Suppl 1: S29-37. PMID: 26274834, PII: 00041327-201509001-00005, DOI: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000291, ISSN: 1536-5166.

Lambert WS, Carlson BJ, van der Ende AE, Shih G, Dobish JN, Calkins DJ, Harth E. Nanosponge-Mediated Drug Delivery Lowers Intraocular Pressure. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2015 Jan; 4(1): 1. PMID: 25599009, PMCID: PMC4294067, DOI: 10.1167/tvst.4.1.1, ISSN: 2164-2591.

Sappington RM, Sidorova T, Ward NJ, Chakravarthy R, Ho KW, Calkins DJ. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) influences how retinal ganglion cell neurons respond to pressure-related stress. Channels (Austin). 2015; 9(2): 102-13. PMID: 25713995, PMCID: PMC4594535, DOI: 10.1080/19336950.2015.1009272, ISSN: 1933-6969.

Weitlauf C, Ward NJ, Lambert WS, Sidorova TN, Ho KW, Sappington RM, Calkins DJ. Short-term increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mediate stress-induced enhancement of neuronal excitation. J. Neurosci. 2014 Nov 11/12/2014; 34(46): 15369-81. PMID: 25392504, PMCID: PMC4228139, PII: 34/46/15369, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3424-14.2014, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Ho KW, Lambert WS, Calkins DJ. Activation of the TRPV1 cation channel contributes to stress-induced astrocyte migration. Glia [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep; 62(9): 1435-51. PMID: 24838827, PMCID: PMC4107153, DOI: 10.1002/glia.22691, ISSN: 1098-1136.

Ward NJ, Ho KW, Lambert WS, Weitlauf C, Calkins DJ. Absence of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 accelerates stress-induced axonopathy in the optic projection. J. Neurosci. 2014 Feb 2/26/2014; 34(9): 3161-70. PMID: 24573275, PMCID: PMC3935081, PII: 34/9/3161, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4089-13.2014, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Calkins DJ. Age-related changes in the visual pathways: blame it on the axon. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013 Dec; 54(14): ORSF37-41. PMID: 24335066, PMCID: PMC3864377, PII: 54/14/ORSF37, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.13-12784, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Dapper JD, Crish SD, Pang IH, Calkins DJ. Proximal inhibition of p38 MAPK stress signaling prevents distal axonopathy. Neurobiol. Dis [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 59: 26-37. PMID: 23859799, PMCID: PMC3775981, PII: S0969-9961(13)00195-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2013.07.001, ISSN: 1095-953X.

Crish SD, Dapper JD, MacNamee SE, Balaram P, Sidorova TN, Lambert WS, Calkins DJ. Failure of axonal transport induces a spatially coincident increase in astrocyte BDNF prior to synapse loss in a central target. Neuroscience [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan 1/15/2013; 229: 55-70. PMID: 23159315, PMCID: PMC3534890, PII: S0306-4522(12)01098-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.10.069, ISSN: 1873-7544.

Anderson DM, Mills D, Spraggins J, Lambert WS, Calkins DJ, Schey KL. High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry of lipids in rodent optic nerve tissue. Mol. Vis [print-electronic]. 2013; 19: 581-92. PMID: 23559852, PMCID: PMC3611942, ISSN: 1090-0535.

Calkins DJ. Critical pathogenic events underlying progression of neurodegeneration in glaucoma. Prog Retin Eye Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 31(6): 702-19. PMID: 22871543, PMCID: PMC3472111, PII: S1350-9462(12)00053-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.07.001, ISSN: 1873-1635.

Calkins DJ, Horner PJ. The cell and molecular biology of glaucoma: axonopathy and the brain. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012 May; 53(5): 2482-4. PMID: 22562846, PMCID: PMC3998097, PII: 53/5/2482, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.12-9483i, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Shih GC, Calkins DJ. Secondary neuroprotective effects of hypotensive drugs and potential mechanisms of action. Expert Rev Ophthalmol. 2012 Apr; 7(2): 161-75. PMID: 22737176, PMCID: PMC3379897, DOI: 10.1586/eop.12.13, ISSN: 1746-9899.

Ho KW, Ward NJ, Calkins DJ. TRPV1: a stress response protein in the central nervous system. Am J Neurodegener Dis [print-electronic]. 2012; 1(1): 1-14. PMID: 22737633, PMCID: PMC3560445, ISSN: 2165-591X.

Crish SD, Calkins DJ. Neurodegeneration in glaucoma: progression and calcium-dependent intracellular mechanisms. Neuroscience [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar 3/10/2011; 176: 1-11. PMID: 21187126, PMCID: PMC3040267, PII: S0306-4522(10)01641-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.12.036, ISSN: 1873-7544.

Lambert WS, Ruiz L, Crish SD, Wheeler LA, Calkins DJ. Brimonidine prevents axonal and somatic degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons. Mol Neurodegener. 2011; 6(1): 4. PMID: 21232114, PMCID: PMC3035592, PII: 1750-1326-6-4, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-4, ISSN: 1750-1326.

Chen H, Wei X, Cho KS, Chen G, Sappington R, Calkins DJ, Chen DF. Optic neuropathy due to microbead-induced elevated intraocular pressure in the mouse. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011 Jan; 52(1): 36-44. PMID: 20702815, PMCID: PMC3053285, PII: iovs.09-5115, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.09-5115, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Baltan S, Inman DM, Danilov CA, Morrison RS, Calkins DJ, Horner PJ. Metabolic vulnerability disposes retinal ganglion cell axons to dysfunction in a model of glaucomatous degeneration. J. Neurosci. 2010 Apr 4/21/2010; 30(16): 5644-52. PMID: 20410117, PMCID: PMC2884009, PII: 30/16/5644, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5956-09.2010, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Crish SD, Sappington RM, Inman DM, Horner PJ, Calkins DJ. Distal axonopathy with structural persistence in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar 3/16/2010; 107(11): 5196-201. PMID: 20194762, PMCID: PMC2841892, PII: 0913141107, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0913141107, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Sappington RM, Carlson BJ, Crish SD, Calkins DJ. The microbead occlusion model: a paradigm for induced ocular hypertension in rats and mice. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan; 51(1): 207-16. PMID: 19850836, PMCID: PMC2869054, PII: iovs.09-3947, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.09-3947, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Sappington RM, Sidorova T, Long DJ, Calkins DJ. TRPV1: contribution to retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and increased intracellular Ca2+ with exposure to hydrostatic pressure. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci [print-electronic]. 2009 Feb; 50(2): 717-28. PMID: 18952924, PMCID: PMC3549616, PII: iovs.08-2321, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.08-2321, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Wax MB, Tezel G, Yang J, Peng G, Patil RV, Agarwal N, Sappington RM, Calkins DJ. Induced autoimmunity to heat shock proteins elicits glaucomatous loss of retinal ganglion cell neurons via activated T-cell-derived fas-ligand. J. Neurosci. 2008 Nov 11/12/2008; 28(46): 12085-96. PMID: 19005073, PMCID: PMC2683273, PII: 28/46/12085, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3200-08.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Calkins DJ, Horner PJ, Roberts R, Gradianu M, Berkowitz BA. Manganese-enhanced MRI of the DBA/2J mouse model of hereditary glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov; 49(11): 5083-8. PMID: 18552381, PMCID: PMC2586056, PII: iovs.08-2205, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.08-2205, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Sappington RM, Calkins DJ. Contribution of TRPV1 to microglia-derived IL-6 and NFkappaB translocation with elevated hydrostatic pressure. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 49(7): 3004-17. PMID: 18362111, PMCID: PMC4139938, PII: iovs.07-1355, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.07-1355, ISSN: 1552-5783.

Bosco A, Inman DM, Steele MR, Wu G, Soto I, Marsh-Armstrong N, Hubbard WC, Calkins DJ, Horner PJ, Vetter ML. Reduced retina microglial activation and improved optic nerve integrity with minocycline treatment in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008 Apr; 49(4): 1437-46. PMID: 18385061, PII: 49/4/1437, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.07-1337, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Buckingham BP, Inman DM, Lambert W, Oglesby E, Calkins DJ, Steele MR, Vetter ML, Marsh-Armstrong N, Horner PJ. Progressive ganglion cell degeneration precedes neuronal loss in a mouse model of glaucoma. J. Neurosci. 2008 Mar 3/12/2008; 28(11): 2735-44. PMID: 18337403, PII: 28/11/2735, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4443-07.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Calkins, D.J.. A Neurological Perspective of Glaucoma. Glaucoma Today. 2008; ((September/October)): 18-20.

Berkowitz BA, Roberts R, Luan H, Bissig D, Bui BV, Gradianu M, Calkins DJ, Vingrys AJ. Manganese-enhanced MRI studies of alterations of intraretinal ion demand in models of ocular injury. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007 Aug; 48(8): 3796-804. PMID: 17652754, PMCID: PMC2041849, PII: 48/8/3796, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.06-1278, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Calkins DJ, Sterling P. Microcircuitry for two types of achromatic ganglion cell in primate fovea. J. Neurosci. 2007 Mar 3/7/2007; 27(10): 2646-53. PMID: 17344402, PII: 27/10/2646, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4739-06.2007, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Hanna MC, Calkins DJ. Expression of genes encoding glutamate receptors and transporters in rod and cone bipolar cells of the primate retina determined by single-cell polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Vis. 2007; 13: 2194-208. PMID: 18087239, PII: v13/a249, ISSN: 1090-0535.

Sappington RM, Calkins DJ. Pressure-induced regulation of IL-6 in retinal glial cells: involvement of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and NFkappaB. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006 Sep; 47(9): 3860-9. PMID: 16936098, PII: 47/9/3860, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-1408, ISSN: 0146-0404.

DiLoreto DA, Luo C, Calkins DJ, del Cerro M. An ultrastructural study of the pathology of the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and the choriocapillaris in the aged Fischer 344 rat. Curr. Eye Res. 2006 Sep; 31(9): 749-63. PMID: 16966148, PII: J762R60681856480, DOI: 10.1080/02713680600864782, ISSN: 0271-3683.

Sappington RM, Chan M, Calkins DJ. Interleukin-6 protects retinal ganglion cells from pressure-induced death. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006 Jul; 47(7): 2932-42. PMID: 16799036, PII: 47/7/2932, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-1407, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Inman DM, Sappington RM, Horner PJ, Calkins DJ. Quantitative correlation of optic nerve pathology with ocular pressure and corneal thickness in the DBA/2 mouse model of glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006 Mar; 47(3): 986-96. PMID: 16505033, PII: 47/3/986, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-0925, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Steele MR, Inman DM, Calkins DJ, Horner PJ, Vetter ML. Microarray analysis of retinal gene expression in the DBA/2J model of glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006 Mar; 47(3): 977-85. PMID: 16505032, PII: 47/3/977, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-0865, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Hanna MC, Calkins DJ. Expression and sequences of genes encoding glutamate receptors and transporters in primate retina determined using 3'-end amplification polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Vis. 2006; 12: 961-76. PMID: 16943768, PII: v12/a108, ISSN: 1090-0535.

Calkins DJ. Localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors to invaginating dendrites at the cone synapse in primate retina. Vis. Neurosci. 2005 Jul; 22(4): 469-77. PMID: 16212704, PII: S0952523805224082, DOI: 10.1017/S0952523805224082, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Calkins DJ. Remembering Bob Rodieck: 1937-2003. Vis. Neurosci. 2005 Jul; 22(4): 379-81. PMID: 16212696, PII: S0952523805224136, DOI: 10.1017/S0952523805224136, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Wilson JD, Bigelow CE, Calkins DJ, Foster TH. Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidative-stress-induced mitochondrial swelling. Biophys. J [print-electronic]. 2005 Apr; 88(4): 2929-38. PMID: 15653724, PMCID: PMC1305387, PII: S0006-3495(05)73345-2, DOI: 10.1529/biophysj.104.054528, ISSN: 0006-3495.

Calkins DJ, Sappington RM, Hendry SH. Morphological identification of ganglion cells expressing the alpha subunit of type II calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in the macaque retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 2005 Jan 1/10/2005; 481(2): 194-209. PMID: 15562509, DOI: 10.1002/cne.20368, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Calkins, DJ. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2004.

Sappington RM, Pearce DA, Calkins DJ. Optic nerve degeneration in a murine model of juvenile ceroid lipofuscinosis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003 Sep; 44(9): 3725-31. PMID: 12939285, ISSN: 0146-0404.

Pasternak, Tatiana; Bisley, James; Calkins, David J.. Visual processing in the primate brain. In Handbook of Psychology, Volume 3, Biological Psychology (M. Gallagher & R. Nelson, ed.), John Wiley and Sons. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2003.

Harvey DM, Calkins DJ. Localization of kainate receptors to the presynaptic active zone of the rod photoreceptor in primate retina. Vis. Neurosci. 2002 Sep; 19(5): 681-92. PMID: 12507334, PII: S0952523802195137, ISSN: 0952-5238.

Yao PJ, Coleman PD, Calkins DJ. High-resolution localization of clathrin assembly protein AP180 in the presynaptic terminals of mammalian neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 2002 May 5/27/2002; 447(2): 152-62. PMID: 11977118, DOI: 10.1002/cne.10217, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Calkins DJ. Seeing with S cones. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2001 May; 20(3): 255-87. PMID: 11286894, PII: S1350-9462(00)00026-4, ISSN: 1350-9462.

Calkins DJ. Representation of cone signals in the primate retina. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2000 Mar; 17(3): 597-606. PMID: 10708041, ISSN: 1084-7529.

Calkins DJ, Sterling P. Evidence that circuits for spatial and color vision segregate at the first retinal synapse. Neuron. 1999 Oct; 24(2): 313-21. PMID: 10571226, PII: S0896-6273(00)80846-6, ISSN: 0896-6273.

Calkins, David J.. Synaptic organization of cone pathways in the primate retina. In Color Vision: from Molecular Genetics to Perception (K. Gegenfurtner & L. Sharpe, eds.), Cambridge University Press. 1999.

Hendry SH, Calkins DJ. Neuronal chemistry and functional organization in the primate visual system. Trends Neurosci. 1998 Aug; 21(8): 344-9. PMID: 9720602, PII: S0166-2236(98)01245-4, ISSN: 0166-2236.

Calkins DJ, Tsukamoto Y, Sterling P.. Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina. J Neurosci. 1998; 18((9)): 3373-85.

Calkins DJ, Tsukamoto Y, Sterling P. Foveal cones form basal as well as invaginating junctions with diffuse ON bipolar cells. Vision Res. 1996 Nov; 36(21): 3373-81. PMID: 8977004, PII: 0042-6989(95)00333-9, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Calkins DJ, Sterling P. Absence of spectrally specific lateral inputs to midget ganglion cells in primate retina. Nature. 1996 Jun 6/13/1996; 381(6583): 613-5. PMID: 8637598, DOI: 10.1038/381613a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Calkins DJ, Schein SJ, Tsukamoto Y, Sterling P. M and L cones in macaque fovea connect to midget ganglion cells by different numbers of excitatory synapses. Nature. 1994 Sep 9/1/1994; 371(6492): 70-2. PMID: 8072528, DOI: 10.1038/371070a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Calkins DJ, Thornton JE, Pugh EN. Monochromatism determined at a long-wavelength/middle-wavelength cone-antagonistic locus. Vision Res. 1992 Dec; 32(12): 2349-67. PMID: 1288011, PII: 0042-6989(92)90098-4, ISSN: 0042-6989.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 8/7/2014
The laboratory seeks highly motivated neuroscientists for studies of mechanisms of neurodegeneration, neuronal self-repair, and regenerative medicine. Applicants must have excellent communication skills and references.