Gordon R. Bernard, M.D.


Faculty Appointments
Senior Associate Dean for Clinical Research Professor of Medicine Melinda Owen Bass Chair in Medicine
M.D., Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LouisianaB.S., Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Office Address
T-1208 MCN
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Nashville, TN 37232-2650
Clinical Description
Dr. Bernard received his undergraduate degree from the University of Louisiana, Lafayette in 1972 and his M.D from Louisiana State University in 1978. He trained in Internal Medicine at the University of Kentucky and completed subspecialty training at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine from 1976-1981, where he was the Parker B. Francis Fellow in Pulmonary Medicine and completed his Pulmonary and Critical Care Fellowship.
Research Keywords
Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Jiang K, Feng S, Song Q, Calix RA, Gupta M, Bernard GR. Identifying tweets of personal health experience through word embedding and LSTM neural network. BMC Bioinformatics. 2018 Jun 6/13/2018; 19(Suppl 8): 210. PMID: 29897323, PMCID: PMC5998756, PII: 10.1186/s12859-018-2198-y, DOI: 10.1186/s12859-018-2198-y, ISSN: 1471-2105.

Pulley JM, Jerome RN, Shirey-Rice JK, Zaleski NM, Naylor HM, Pruijssers AJ, Jackson JC, Bernard GR, Holroyd KJ. Advocating for mutually beneficial access to shelved compounds. Future Med Chem [print-electronic]. 2018 Jun 6/1/2018; 10(12): 1395-8. PMID: 29788759, DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2018-0090, ISSN: 1756-8927.

Semler MW, Self WH, Wang L, Bernard GR, Rice TW, . Reply to Vincent and De Backer: We Do Not Appreciate SALT. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2018 May 5/15/2018; 197(10): 1362. PMID: 29509507, PMCID: PMC5955063, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201803-0392LE, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Yiadom MYAB, Mumma BE, Baugh CW, Patterson BW, Mills AM, Salazar G, Tanski M, Jenkins CA, Vogus TJ, Miller KF, Jackson BE, Lehmann CU, Dorner SC, West JL, Wang TJ, Collins SP, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Storrow AB, Liu D. Measuring outcome differences associated with STEMI screening and diagnostic performance: a multicentred retrospective cohort study protocol. BMJ Open. 2018 May 5/3/2018; 8(5): e022453. PMID: 29724744, PMCID: PMC5942471, PII: bmjopen-2018-022453, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022453, ISSN: 2044-6055.

Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Wang L, Byrne DW, Collins SP, Slovis CM, Lindsell CJ, Ehrenfeld JM, Siew ED, Shaw AD, Bernard GR, Rice TW, . Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Noncritically Ill Adults. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar 3/1/2018; 378(9): 819-28. PMID: 29485926, PMCID: PMC5846618, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1711586, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, Wang L, Byrne DW, Stollings JL, Kumar AB, Hughes CG, Hernandez A, Guillamondegui OD, May AK, Weavind L, Casey JD, Siew ED, Shaw AD, Bernard GR, Rice TW, . Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar 3/1/2018; 378(9): 829-39. PMID: 29485925, PMCID: PMC5846085, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1711584, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Girard TD, Thompson JL, Pandharipande PP, Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Patel MB, Hughes CG, Chandrasekhar R, Pun BT, Boehm LM, Elstad MR, Goodman RB, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Clinical phenotypes of delirium during critical illness and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Mar; 6(3): 213-22. PMID: 29508705, PII: S2213-2600(18)30062-6, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30062-6, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Semler MW, Andrews B, Bernard GR. Early Resuscitation for Adults With Sepsis in a Low-income Country-Reply [letter]. JAMA. 2018 Feb 2/13/2018; 319(6): 614-5. PMID: 29450521, PII: 2672627, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.20410, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Pulley JM, Jerome RN, Ogletree ML, Bernard GR, Lavieri RR, Zaleski NM, Hong CC, Shirey-Rice JK, Arteaga CL, Mayer IA, Holroyd KJ, Cook RS. Motivation for Launching a Cancer Metastasis Inhibition (CMI) Program. Target Oncol. 2018 Feb; 13(1): 61-8. PMID: 29218624, PMCID: PMC5826865, PII: 10.1007/s11523-017-0542-1, DOI: 10.1007/s11523-017-0542-1, ISSN: 1776-260X.

Jiang K, Chen T, Huang L, Calix RA, Bernard GR. A Data-Driven Method of Discovering Misspellings of Medication Names on Twitter. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2018; 247: 136-40. PMID: 29677938, PMCID: PMC6009827, ISSN: 0926-9630.

Pulley JM, Jerome RN, Zaleski NM, Shirey-Rice JK, Pruijssers AJ, Lavieri RR, Chettiar SN, Naylor HM, Aronoff DM, Edwards DA, Niswender CM, Dugan LL, Crofford LJ, Bernard GR, Holroyd KJ. When Enough Is Enough: Decision Criteria for Moving a Known Drug into Clinical Testing for a New Indication in the Absence of Preclinical Efficacy Data. Assay Drug Dev Technol [print-electronic]. 2017 Dec; 15(8): 354-61. PMID: 29193979, PMCID: PMC5731541, DOI: 10.1089/adt.2017.821, ISSN: 1557-8127.

Brummel NE, Boehm LM, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Hughes CG, Patel MB, Han JH, Vasilevskis EE, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Subsyndromal Delirium and Institutionalization Among Patients With Critical Illness. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2017 Nov; 26(6): 447-55. PMID: 29092867, PMCID: PMC5831547, PII: 26/6/447, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2017263, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Andrews B, Semler MW, Muchemwa L, Kelly P, Lakhi S, Heimburger DC, Mabula C, Bwalya M, Bernard GR. Effect of an Early Resuscitation Protocol on In-hospital Mortality Among Adults With Sepsis and Hypotension: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 Oct 10/3/2017; 318(13): 1233-40. PMID: 28973227, PMCID: PMC5710318, PII: 2654854, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.10913, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Jolley SE, Hough CL, Clermont G, Hayden D, Hou S, Schoenfeld D, Smith NL, Thompson BT, Bernard GR, Angus DC, . Relationship between Race and the Effect of Fluids on Long-term Mortality after Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Secondary Analysis of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Sep; 14(9): 1443-9. PMID: 28708421, PMCID: PMC5711400, DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201611-906OC, ISSN: 2325-6621.

McKown AC, Wang L, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld J, Rice TW, Bernard GR, Semler MW. Predicting Major Adverse Kidney Events among Critically Ill Adults Using the Electronic Health Record. J Med Syst. 2017 Aug 8/31/2017; 41(10): 156. PMID: 28861688, PMCID: PMC5821255, PII: 10.1007/s10916-017-0806-4, DOI: 10.1007/s10916-017-0806-4, ISSN: 1573-689X.

Zhao Z, Wickersham N, Kangelaris KN, May AK, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Koyama T, Ware LB. External validation of a biomarker and clinical prediction model for hospital mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug; 43(8): 1123-31. PMID: 28593401, PMCID: PMC5978765, PII: 10.1007/s00134-017-4854-5, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-017-4854-5, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Brummel NE, Bell SP, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Gill TM, Ely EW. Frailty and Subsequent Disability and Mortality among Patients with Critical Illness. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Jul 7/1/2017; 196(1): 64-72. PMID: 27922747, PMCID: PMC5519959, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201605-0939OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, Stollings JL, Self WH, Siew ED, Wang L, Byrne DW, Shaw AD, Bernard GR, Rice TW, , . Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in the Intensive Care Unit. The SALT Randomized Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2017 May 5/15/2017; 195(10): 1362-72. PMID: 27749094, PMCID: PMC5443900, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201607-1345OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, Byrne DW, Wang L, Atchison L, Felbinger M, Jones ID, Russ S, Shaw AD, Bernard GR, Rice TW. Saline versus balanced crystalloids for intravenous fluid therapy in the emergency department: study protocol for a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial. Trials. 2017 Apr 4/13/2017; 18(1): 178. PMID: 28407811, PMCID: PMC5390477, PII: 10.1186/s13063-017-1923-6, DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-1923-6, ISSN: 1745-6215.

Pulley JM, Shirey-Rice JK, Lavieri RR, Jerome RN, Zaleski NM, Aronoff DM, Bastarache L, Niu X, Holroyd KJ, Roden DM, Skaar EP, Niswender CM, Marnett LJ, Lindsley CW, Ekstrom LB, Bentley AR, Bernard GR, Hong CC, Denny JC. Accelerating Precision Drug Development and Drug Repurposing by Leveraging Human Genetics. Assay Drug Dev Technol [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 15(3): 113-9. PMID: 28379727, PMCID: PMC5399743, DOI: 10.1089/adt.2016.772, ISSN: 1557-8127.

Semler MW, Self WH, Wang L, Byrne DW, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, Stollings JL, Kumar AB, Hernandez A, Guillamondegui OD, May AK, Siew ED, Shaw AD, Bernard GR, Rice TW, , . Balanced crystalloids versus saline in the intensive care unit: study protocol for a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial. Trials. 2017 Mar 3/16/2017; 18(1): 129. PMID: 28302179, PMCID: PMC5356286, PII: 10.1186/s13063-017-1871-1, DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-1871-1, ISSN: 1745-6215.

Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, Levy MM, Antonelli M, Ferrer R, Kumar A, Sevransky JE, Sprung CL, Nunnally ME, Rochwerg B, Rubenfeld GD, Angus DC, Annane D, Beale RJ, Bellinghan GJ, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith C, De Backer DP, French CJ, Fujishima S, Gerlach H, Hidalgo JL, Hollenberg SM, Jones AE, Karnad DR, Kleinpell RM, Koh Y, Lisboa TC, Machado FR, Marini JJ, Marshall JC, Mazuski JE, McIntyre LA, McLean AS, Mehta S, Moreno RP, Myburgh J, Navalesi P, Nishida O, Osborn TM, Perner A, Plunkett CM, Ranieri M, Schorr CA, Seckel MA, Seymour CW, Shieh L, Shukri KA, Simpson SQ, Singer M, Thompson BT, Townsend SR, Van der Poll T, Vincent JL, Wiersinga WJ, Zimmerman JL, Dellinger RP. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Mar; 43(3): 304-77. PMID: 28101605, PII: 10.1007/s00134-017-4683-6, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-017-4683-6.

Russell DW, Janz DR, Emerson WL, May AK, Bernard GR, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Ware LB. Early exposure to hyperoxia and mortality in critically ill patients with severe traumatic injuries. BMC Pulm Med. 2017 Feb 2/3/2017; 17(1): 29. PMID: 28158980, PMCID: PMC5291954, PII: 10.1186/s12890-017-0370-1, DOI: 10.1186/s12890-017-0370-1, ISSN: 1471-2466.

Stenner SP, Chakravarthy R, Johnson KB, Miller WL, Olson J, Wickizer M, Johnson NN, Ohmer R, Uskavitch DR, Bernard GR, Neal EB, Lehmann CU. EPrescribing: Reducing Costs through In-Class Therapeutic Interchange. Appl Clin Inform. 2016 Dec 12/14/2016; 7(4): 1168-81. PMID: 27966005, PMCID: PMC5228150, PII: 2016-09-RA-0160, DOI: 10.4338/ACI-2016-09-RA-0160, ISSN: 1869-0327.

Seeley EJ, Bernard GR. Therapeutic Targets in Sepsis: Past, Present, and Future. Clin. Chest Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 37(2): 181-9. PMID: 27229636, PII: S0272-5231(16)30014-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccm.2016.01.015, ISSN: 1557-8216.

Bernard GR, Artigas A. The definition of ARDS revisited: 20 years later [editorial]. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2016 May; 42(5): 640-2. PMID: 26942447, PII: 10.1007/s00134-016-4281-z, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-016-4281-z, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Bernard GR. Giants in Chest Medicine: Arthur P. Wheeler, MD, FCCP [editorial]. Chest. 2016 May; 149(5): 1126-7. PMID: 27157211, PII: S0012-3692(16)01265-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.02.645, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Semler MW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, Bernard GR, Wiedemann HP, Rice TW, . Impact of Initial Central Venous Pressure on Outcomes of Conservative Versus Liberal Fluid Management in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Apr; 44(4): 782-9. PMID: 26741580, PMCID: PMC4792704, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001555, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Jerome RN, Edwards TL, Boswell HC, Bernard GR, Harris PA, Pulley JM. Recommendations to Facilitate Expanded Access to Investigational Therapies for Seriously Ill Patients. Acad Med. 2016 Mar; 91(3): 305-9. PMID: 26445080, PMCID: PMC4767550, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000914, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, Bellomo R, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith CM, Hotchkiss RS, Levy MM, Marshall JC, Martin GS, Opal SM, Rubenfeld GD, van der Poll T, Vincent JL, Angus DC. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 2/23/2016; 315(8): 801-10. PMID: 26903338, PII: 2492881, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.0287, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Joosten YA, Israel TL, Williams NA, Boone LR, Schlundt DG, Mouton CP, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Wilkins CH. Community Engagement Studios: A Structured Approach to Obtaining Meaningful Input From Stakeholders to Inform Research. Acad Med. 2015 Dec; 90(12): 1646-50. PMID: 26107879, PMCID: PMC4654264, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000794, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Chen W, Janz DR, Shaver CM, Bernard GR, Bastarache JA, Ware LB. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes Are Similar in ARDS Diagnosed by Oxygen Saturation/Fio2 Ratio Compared With Pao2/Fio2 Ratio. Chest. 2015 Dec; 148(6): 1477-83. PMID: 26271028, PMCID: PMC4665739, PII: S0012-3692(15)50112-8, DOI: 10.1378/chest.15-0169, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Shaver CM, Chen W, Janz DR, May AK, Darbar D, Bernard GR, Bastarache JA, Ware LB. Atrial Fibrillation Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Oct; 43(10): 2104-11. PMID: 26154932, PMCID: PMC4725582, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001166, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz NL, Ware LB. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9): 1790-7. PMID: 26010690, PMCID: PMC4737582, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001089, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Harris PA, Kirby J, Swafford JA, Edwards TL, Zhang M, Yarbrough TR, Lane LD, Helmer T, Bernard GR, Pulley JM. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking. Acad Med. 2015 Aug; 90(8): 1043-50. PMID: 25901872, PMCID: PMC4519358, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000732, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Semler MW, Weavind L, Hooper MH, Rice TW, Gowda SS, Nadas A, Song Y, Martin JB, Bernard GR, Wheeler AP. An Electronic Tool for the Evaluation and Treatment of Sepsis in the ICU: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Aug; 43(8): 1595-602. PMID: 25867906, PMCID: PMC4506222, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001020, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Calfee CS, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Kangelaris KN, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Distinct molecular phenotypes of direct vs indirect ARDS in single-center and multicenter studies. Chest. 2015 Jun; 147(6): 1539-48. PMID: 26033126, PMCID: PMC4451708, PII: S0012-3692(15)37209-3, DOI: 10.1378/chest.14-2454, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Chen W, Janz DR, Bastarache JA, May AK, O'Neal HR, Bernard GR, Ware LB. Prehospital aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill patients: a propensity-adjusted analysis. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Apr; 43(4): 801-7. PMID: 25559436, PMCID: PMC4359645, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000789, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Janz DR, Bastarache JA, Rice TW, Bernard GR, Warren MA, Wickersham N, Sills G, Oates JA, Roberts LJ, Ware LB, . Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acetaminophen for the reduction of oxidative injury in severe sepsis: the Acetaminophen for the Reduction of Oxidative Injury in Severe Sepsis trial. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Mar; 43(3): 534-41. PMID: 25474535, PMCID: PMC4336619, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000718, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Noto MJ, Domenico HJ, Byrne DW, Talbot T, Rice TW, Bernard GR, Wheeler AP. Chlorhexidine bathing and health care-associated infections: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Jan 1/27/2015; 313(4): 369-78. PMID: 25602496, PMCID: PMC4383133, PII: 2091544, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.18400, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Andrews B, Muchemwa L, Kelly P, Lakhi S, Heimburger DC, Bernard GR. Simplified severe sepsis protocol: a randomized controlled trial of modified early goal-directed therapy in Zambia. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Nov; 42(11): 2315-24. PMID: 25072757, PMCID: PMC4199893, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000541, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Morandi A, Hughes CG, Thompson JL, Pandharipande PP, Shintani AK, Vasilevskis EE, Han JH, Jackson JC, Laskowitz DT, Bernard GR, Ely EW, Girard TD. Statins and delirium during critical illness: a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Aug; 42(8): 1899-909. PMID: 24810528, PMCID: PMC4103957, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000398, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Brummel NE, Thompson JL, Hughes CG, Pun BT, Vasilevskis EE, Morandi A, Shintani AK, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 2(5): 369-79. PMID: 24815803, PMCID: PMC4107313, PII: S2213-2600(14)70051-7, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70051-7, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Bernard GR, Francois B, Mira JP, Vincent JL, Dellinger RP, Russell JA, Larosa SP, Laterre PF, Levy MM, Dankner W, Schmitt N, Lindemann J, Wittebole X. Evaluating the efficacy and safety of two doses of the polyclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-a fragment antibody AZD9773 in adult patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study*. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Mar; 42(3): 504-11. PMID: 24335445, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000043, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Dittus RS, Gill TM, Bernard GR, Ely EW, Girard TD. Delirium in the ICU and subsequent long-term disability among survivors of mechanical ventilation. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Feb; 42(2): 369-77. PMID: 24158172, PMCID: PMC3947028, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a645bd, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Barnett N, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Janz DR, Wang CY, May AK, Bernard GR, Ware LB. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of acute lung injury in severe sepsis and severe trauma: a case-control study. Ann Intensive Care. 2014; 4(1): 5. PMID: 24559079, PMCID: PMC3944729, PII: 2110-5820-4-5, DOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-4-5, ISSN: 2110-5820.

Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Pun BT, Brummel NE, Hughes CG, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani AK, Moons KG, Geevarghese SK, Canonico A, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Oct 10/3/2013; 369(14): 1306-16. PMID: 24088092, PMCID: PMC3922401, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301372, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Watson PL, Pandharipande P, Gehlbach BK, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Dittus BS, Bernard GR, Malow BA, Ely EW. Atypical sleep in ventilated patients: empirical electroencephalography findings and the path toward revised ICU sleep scoring criteria. Crit. Care Med. 2013 Aug; 41(8): 1958-67. PMID: 23863228, PMCID: PMC3875326, PII: 00003246-201308000-00016, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828a3f75, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Watson PL, Pandharipande P, Gehlbach BK, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Dittus BS, Bernard GR, Malow BA, Ely EW. Atypical Sleep in Ventilated Patients: Empirical Electroencephalography Findings and the Path Toward Revised ICU Sleep Scoring Criteria. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun 6/12/2013; PMID: 23764974, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b01e1828af75, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Janz DR, Zhao Z, Koyama T, May AK, Bernard GR, Bastarache JA, Young PP, Ware LB. Longer storage duration of red blood cells is associated with an increased risk of acute lung injury in patients with sepsis. Ann Intensive Care. 2013; 3(1): 33. PMID: 24059842, PMCID: PMC3848804, PII: 2110-5820-3-33, DOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-3-33, ISSN: 2110-5820.

Girard TD, Ware LB, Bernard GR, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Associations of markers of inflammation and coagulation with delirium during critical illness. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 38(12): 1965-73. PMID: 22903241, PMCID: PMC3606929, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-012-2678-x, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Byrne DW, Biaggioni I, Bernard GR, Helmer TT, Boone LR, Pulley JM, Edwards T, Dittus RS. Clinical and translational research studios: a multidisciplinary internal support program. Acad Med. 2012 Aug; 87(8): 1052-9. PMID: 22722360, PMCID: PMC3406254, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31825d29d4, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Pulley JM, Denny JC, Peterson JF, Bernard GR, Vnencak-Jones CL, Ramirez AH, Delaney JT, Bowton E, Brothers K, Johnson K, Crawford DC, Schildcrout J, Masys DR, Dilks HH, Wilke RA, Clayton EW, Shultz E, Laposata M, McPherson J, Jirjis JN, Roden DM. Operational implementation of prospective genotyping for personalized medicine: the design of the Vanderbilt PREDICT project. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 92(1): 87-95. PMID: 22588608, PMCID: PMC3581305, PII: clpt2011371, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.371, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Rice TW, Rubinson L, Uyeki TM, Vaughn FL, John BB, Miller RR, Higgs E, Randolph AG, Smoot BE, Thompson BT, . Critical illness from 2009 pandemic influenza A virus and bacterial coinfection in the United States. Crit. Care Med. 2012 May; 40(5): 1487-98. PMID: 22511131, PMCID: PMC3653183, PII: 00003246-201205000-00013, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182416f23, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, deBoisblanc BP, Steingrub J, Rock P, . Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury. JAMA [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct 10/12/2011; 306(14): 1574-81. PMID: 21976613, PMCID: PMC3770348, PII: jama.2011.1435, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.1435, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Harris PA, Swafford JA, Edwards TL, Zhang M, Nigavekar SS, Yarbrough TR, Lane LD, Helmer T, Lebo LA, Mayo G, Masys DR, Bernard GR, Pulley JM. StarBRITE: the Vanderbilt University Biomedical Research Integration, Translation and Education portal. J Biomed Inform [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 44(4): 655-62. PMID: 21310264, PMCID: PMC3118397, PII: S1532-0464(11)00016-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2011.01.014, ISSN: 1532-0480.

Hooper MH, Bernard GR. Pharmacogenetic treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011 Jun; 77(6): 624-36. PMID: 21617626, PII: R02116338, ISSN: 1827-1596.

Rice TW, Mogan S, Hays MA, Bernard GR, Jensen GL, Wheeler AP. Randomized trial of initial trophic versus full-energy enteral nutrition in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Crit. Care Med. 2011 May; 39(5): 967-74. PMID: 21242788, PMCID: PMC3102124, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820a905a, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ware LB, Koyama T, Billheimer D, Landeck M, Johnson E, Brady S, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, . Advancing donor management research: design and implementation of a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intensive Care. 2011; 1(1): 20. PMID: 21906362, PMCID: PMC3224478, PII: 2110-5820-1-20, DOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-1-20, ISSN: 2110-5820.

Rice TW, Ware LB, Haponik EF, Chiles C, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Steingrub JS, Hite RD, Matthay MA, Wright P, Ely EW, . Vascular pedicle width in acute lung injury: correlation with intravascular pressures and ability to discriminate fluid status. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2011; 15(2): R86. PMID: 21385351, PMCID: PMC3219344, PII: cc10084, DOI: 10.1186/cc10084, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Angus DC, Aikawa N, Demeyer I, Sainati S, Amlot N, Cao C, Ii M, Matsuda H, Mouri K, Cohen J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of TAK-242 for the treatment of severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Aug; 38(8): 1685-94. PMID: 20562702, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e7c5c9, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Jackson JC, Girard TD, Gordon SM, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Thomason JW, Pun BT, Canonico AE, Dunn JG, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Long-term cognitive and psychological outcomes in the awakening and breathing controlled trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul 7/15/2010; 182(2): 183-91. PMID: 20299535, PMCID: PMC2913233, PII: 200903-0442OC, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200903-0442OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Girard TD, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Gordon SM, Canonico AE, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Jul; 38(7): 1513-20. PMID: 20473145, PMCID: PMC3638813, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e47be1, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pulley J, Hassan NN, Bernard GR, Jirjis JN, Schildcrout J, Robertson D, Masys DR, Harris P. Identifying unpredicted drug benefit through query of patient experiential knowledge: a proof of concept web-based system. Clin Transl Sci. 2010 Jun; 3(3): 98-103. PMID: 20590678, PMCID: PMC2910903, PII: CTS200, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00200.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Fremont RD, Koyama T, Calfee CS, Wu W, Dossett LA, Bossert FR, Mitchell D, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, May AK, Ware LB. Acute lung injury in patients with traumatic injuries: utility of a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis and pathogenesis. J Trauma. 2010 May; 68(5): 1121-7. PMID: 20038857, PMCID: PMC3347639, DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181c40728, ISSN: 1529-8809.

Pulley J, Clayton E, Bernard GR, Roden DM, Masys DR. Principles of human subjects protections applied in an opt-out, de-identified biobank. Clin Transl Sci. 2010 Feb; 3(1): 42-8. PMID: 20443953, PMCID: PMC3075971, PII: CTS175, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00175.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Carson SS, Schmidt GA, Wright PE, Canonico AE, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Meltzer HY, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of antipsychotics for intensive care unit delirium: the MIND randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Feb; 38(2): 428-37. PMID: 20095068, PMCID: PMC3645269, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ware LB, Koyama T, Billheimer DD, Wu W, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Brower RG, Standiford TJ, Martin TR, Matthay MA, . Prognostic and pathogenetic value of combining clinical and biochemical indices in patients with acute lung injury. Chest [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb; 137(2): 288-96. PMID: 19858233, PMCID: PMC2816641, PII: chest.09-1484, DOI: 10.1378/chest.09-1484, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Bernard GR. Statins for acutely hospitalized patients: randomized controlled trials are long overdue. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2010; 14(2): 141. PMID: 20416118, PMCID: PMC2887175, PII: cc8950, DOI: 10.1186/cc8950, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Pulley JM, Harris PA, Yarbrough T, Swafford J, Edwards T, Bernard GR. An informatics-based tool to assist researchers in initiating research at an academic medical center: Vanderbilt Customized Action Plan. Acad Med. 2010 Jan; 85(1): 164-8. PMID: 20042844, PMCID: PMC3767144, PII: 00001888-201001000-00041, DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181c481bf, ISSN: 1938-808X.

Pulley JM, Bernard GR. Proven processes: The Vanderbilt Institute for clinical and translational research. Clin Transl Sci. 2009 Jun; 2(3): 180-2. PMID: 20443890, PII: CTS113, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2008.00113.x, ISSN: 1752-8062.

Pandharipande PP, Shintani AK, Hagerman HE, St Jacques PJ, Rice TW, Sanders NW, Ware LB, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Derivation and validation of Spo2/Fio2 ratio to impute for Pao2/Fio2 ratio in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Apr; 37(4): 1317-21. PMID: 19242333, PMCID: PMC3776410, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819cefa9, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Patel RP, Gambrell M, Speroff T, Scott TA, Pun BT, Okahashi J, Strength C, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Burgess H, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Delirium and sedation in the intensive care unit: survey of behaviors and attitudes of 1384 healthcare professionals. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Mar; 37(3): 825-32. PMID: 19237884, PMCID: PMC3719180, PII: 00003246-200903000-00004, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819b8608, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Roden DM, Pulley JM, Basford MA, Bernard GR, Clayton EW, Balser JR, Masys DR. Development of a large-scale de-identified DNA biobank to enable personalized medicine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep; 84(3): 362-9. PMID: 18500243, PMCID: PMC3763939, PII: clpt200889, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2008.89, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Pulley JM, Brace MM, Bernard GR, Masys DR. Attitudes and perceptions of patients towards methods of establishing a DNA biobank. Cell Tissue Bank [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 9(1): 55-65. PMID: 17960495, DOI: 10.1007/s10561-007-9051-2, ISSN: 1389-9333.

Girard TD, Kress JP, Fuchs BD, Thomason JW, Schweickert WD, Pun BT, Taichman DB, Dunn JG, Pohlman AS, Kinniry PA, Jackson JC, Canonico AE, Light RW, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Gordon SM, Hall JB, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008 Jan 1/12/2008; 371(9607): 126-34. PMID: 18191684, PII: S0140-6736(08)60105-1, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60105-1, ISSN: 1474-547X.

Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, Maze M, Girard TD, Miller RR, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Jackson JC, Deppen SA, Stiles RA, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007 Dec 12/12/2007; 298(22): 2644-53. PMID: 18073360, PII: 298/22/2644, DOI: 10.1001/jama.298.22.2644, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Hayden DL, Schoenfeld DA, Ware LB, . Comparison of the SpO2/FIO2 ratio and the PaO2/FIO2 ratio in patients with acute lung injury or ARDS. Chest [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 132(2): 410-7. PMID: 17573487, PII: S0012-3692(15)37431-6, DOI: 10.1378/chest.07-0617, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a clinical review. Lancet. 2007 May 5/5/2007; 369(9572): 1553-64. PMID: 17482987, PII: S0140-6736(07)60604-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60604-7, ISSN: 1474-547X.

Girard TD, Bernard GR. Mechanical ventilation in ARDS: a state-of-the-art review. Chest. 2007 Mar; 131(3): 921-9. PMID: 17356115, PII: S0012-3692(15)38917-0, DOI: 10.1378/chest.06-1515, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Pulley JM, Brace M, Bernard GR, Masys D. Evaluation of the effectiveness of posters to provide information to patients about a DNA database and their opportunity to opt out. Cell Tissue Bank [print-electronic]. 2007; 8(3): 233-41. PMID: 17273897, DOI: 10.1007/s10561-007-9033-4, ISSN: 1389-9333.

Girard TD, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Gordon SM, Pun BT, Henderson MS, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2007; 11(1): R28. PMID: 17316452, PMCID: PMC2151865, PII: cc5708, DOI: 10.1186/cc5708, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Rice TW, Bernard GR. Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome: challenges in clinical trial design. Clin. Chest Med. 2006 Dec; 27(4): 733-54; abstract xi. PMID: 17085259, PII: S0272-5231(06)00074-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccm.2006.06.006, ISSN: 0272-5231.

Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Morris PE, Paz HL, Russell JA, Edens TR, Bernard GR. Safety and efficacy of affinity-purified, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ovine fab for injection (CytoFab) in severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2006 Sep; 34(9): 2271-81. PMID: 16810105, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000230385.82679.34, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bastarache JA, Ware LB, Bernard GR. The role of the coagulation cascade in the continuum of sepsis and acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Aug; 27(4): 365-76. PMID: 16909370, DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-948290, ISSN: 1069-3424.

Daniels TL, Dummer JS, Bernard GR, Milstone AP. A case series of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2006 Jun 6/27/2006; 81(12): 1739-42. PMID: 16794542, PII: 00007890-200606270-00020, DOI: 10.1097/01.tp.0000226077.87011.87, ISSN: 0041-1337.

, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Schoenfeld D, Wiedemann HP, deBoisblanc B, Connors AF, Hite RD, Harabin AL. Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2006 May 5/25/2006; 354(21): 2213-24. PMID: 16714768, PII: NEJMoa061895, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa061895, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Pandharipande P, Shintani A, Peterson J, Pun BT, Wilkinson GR, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Lorazepam is an independent risk factor for transitioning to delirium in intensive care unit patients. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jan; 104(1): 21-6. PMID: 16394685, PII: 00000542-200601000-00005, ISSN: 0003-3022.

Bernard GR. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a historical perspective. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2005 Oct 10/1/2005; 172(7): 798-806. PMID: 16020801, PMCID: PMC2718401, PII: 200504-663OE, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200504-663OE, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Pun BT, Gordon SM, Peterson JF, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Foss J, Harding SD, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Large-scale implementation of sedation and delirium monitoring in the intensive care unit: a report from two medical centers. Crit. Care Med. 2005 Jun; 33(6): 1199-205. PMID: 15942331, PII: 00003246-200506000-00002, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Rice TW, Bernard GR. Therapeutic intervention and targets for sepsis. Annu. Rev. Med. 2005; 56: 225-48. PMID: 15660511, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.med.56.082103.104356, ISSN: 0066-4219.

Rice TW, Bernard GR. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. Am. J. Med. Sci. 2004 Oct; 328(4): 205-14. PMID: 15486535, PII: S0002-9629(15)33974-4, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Ely EW, Truman B, Manzi DJ, Sigl JC, Shintani A, Bernard GR. Consciousness monitoring in ventilated patients: bispectral EEG monitors arousal not delirium. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2004 Aug; 30(8): 1537-43. PMID: 15127189, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-004-2298-1, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Bernard GR, Margolis BD, Shanies HM, Ely EW, Wheeler AP, Levy H, Wong K, Wright TJ, . Extended evaluation of recombinant human activated protein C United States Trial (ENHANCE US): a single-arm, phase 3B, multicenter study of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in severe sepsis. Chest. 2004 Jun; 125(6): 2206-16. PMID: 15189943, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Rice TW, Bernard GR. New additions to the intensive care armamentarium. Drugs Today. 2004 Feb; 40(2): 157-70. PMID: 15045037, PII: 799427, ISSN: 1699-3993.

Ely EW, Stephens RK, Jackson JC, Thomason JW, Truman B, Gordon S, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Current opinions regarding the importance, diagnosis, and management of delirium in the intensive care unit: a survey of 912 healthcare professionals. Crit. Care Med. 2004 Jan; 32(1): 106-12. PMID: 14707567, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000098033.94737.84, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Jiang K, Higgins SB, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. CommLog: a communication log system for clinical trials. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2003 Dec; 7(4): 378-83. PMID: 15000363, ISSN: 1089-7771.

Ely EW, Angus DC, Williams MD, Bates B, Qualy R, Bernard GR. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) treatment of older patients with severe sepsis. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2003 Jul 7/15/2003; 37(2): 187-95. PMID: 12856210, PII: CID30712, DOI: 10.1086/375775, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A, Thomason JW, Wheeler AP, Gordon S, Francis J, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Sessler CN, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). JAMA. 2003 Jun 6/11/2003; 289(22): 2983-91. PMID: 12799407, PII: 289/22/2983, DOI: 10.1001/jama.289.22.2983, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Dhainaut JF, Laterre PF, Janes JM, Bernard GR, Artigas A, Bakker J, Riess H, Basson BR, Charpentier J, Utterback BG, Vincent JL, . Drotrecogin alfa (activated) in the treatment of severe sepsis patients with multiple-organ dysfunction: data from the PROWESS trial. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2003 Jun; 29(6): 894-903. PMID: 12712239, PII: 10.1007/s00134-003-1731-1, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-003-1731-1, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Bernard GR, Macias WL, Joyce DE, Williams MD, Bailey J, Vincent JL. Safety assessment of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in the treatment of adult patients with severe sepsis. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2003 Apr; 7(2): 155-63. PMID: 12720562, PMCID: PMC270661, ISSN: 1364-8535.

Ely EW, Laterre PF, Angus DC, Helterbrand JD, Levy H, Dhainaut JF, Vincent JL, Macias WL, Bernard GR, . Drotrecogin alfa (activated) administration across clinically important subgroups of patients with severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2003 Jan; 31(1): 12-9. PMID: 12544987, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000046070.25223.79, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (recombinant human activated protein C) for the treatment of severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2003 Jan; 31(1 Suppl): S85-93. PMID: 12544981, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000042474.08838.A5, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, Ancukiewicz M, Steinberg KP, Bernard GR. Recovery rate and prognosis in older persons who develop acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 2002 Jan 1/1/2002; 136(1): 25-36. PMID: 11777361, PII: 200201010-00008, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Ely EW, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Gordon S, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Hart RP, Dittus R. Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). JAMA. 2001 Dec 12/5/2001; 286(21): 2703-10. PMID: 11730446, PII: jce10051, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Bernard GR, Ely EW, Wright TJ, Fraiz J, Stasek JE, Russell JA, Mayers I, Rosenfeld BA, Morris PE, Yan SB, Helterbrand JD. Safety and dose relationship of recombinant human activated protein C for coagulopathy in severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2001 Nov; 29(11): 2051-9. PMID: 11700394, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Margolin R, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Dittus R, Speroff T, Gautam S, Bernard GR, Inouye SK. Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients: validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Crit. Care Med. 2001 Jul; 29(7): 1370-9. PMID: 11445689, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ, . Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001 Mar 3/8/2001; 344(10): 699-709. PMID: 11236773, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200103083441001, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Martin GS, Bernard GR, . Airway and lung in sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2001; 27 Suppl 1: S63-79. PMID: 11307371.

Conner BD, Bernard GR. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Potential pharmacologic interventions. Clin. Chest Med. 2000 Sep; 21(3): 563-87. PMID: 11019728, ISSN: 0272-5231.

Mangialardi RJ, Martin GS, Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Christman BW, Dupont WD, Higgins SB, Swindell BB. Hypoproteinemia predicts acute respiratory distress syndrome development, weight gain, and death in patients with sepsis. Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group. Crit. Care Med. 2000 Sep; 28(9): 3137-45. PMID: 11008971, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR, Sopko G, Cerra F, Demling R, Edmunds H, Kaplan S, Kessler L, Masur H, Parsons P, Shure D, Webb C, Weidemann H, Weinmann G, Williams D. Pulmonary artery catheterization and clinical outcomes: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Food and Drug Administration Workshop Report. Consensus Statement. JAMA. 2000 May 5/17/2000; 283(19): 2568-72. PMID: 10815121, PII: jst90017, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Arons MM, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Christman BW, Russell JA, Schein R, Summer WR, Steinberg KP, Fulkerson W, Wright P, Dupont WD, Swindell BB. Effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of hypothermic sepsis. Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group. Crit. Care Med. 1999 Apr; 27(4): 699-707. PMID: 10321658, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR. Research in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome: are we changing course?. Crit. Care Med. 1999 Feb; 27(2): 434-6. PMID: 10075074, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Treating patients with severe sepsis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999 Jan 1/21/1999; 340(3): 207-14. PMID: 9895401, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199901213400307, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Price BJ, Bernard GR, Drew K, Foss J, Wheeler AP. Impact of a critical care pathway for unstable mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1998 Mar; 10(1): 75-85. PMID: 9644350, ISSN: 0899-5885.

Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Arons MM, Morris PE, Paz HL, Russell JA, Wright PE. A trial of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and procysteine in ARDS. The Antioxidant in ARDS Study Group. Chest. 1997 Jul; 112(1): 164-72. PMID: 9228372, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Russell JA, Schein R, Summer WR, Steinberg KP, Fulkerson WJ, Wright PE, Christman BW, Dupont WD, Higgins SB, Swindell BB. The effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of patients with sepsis. The Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997 Mar 3/27/1997; 336(13): 912-8. PMID: 9070471, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199703273361303, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Weikert LF, Bernard GR. Pharmacotherapy of sepsis. Clin. Chest Med. 1996 Jun; 17(2): 289-305. PMID: 8792067, ISSN: 0272-5231.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Applications of molecular biology and biotechnology: antibody therapy of sepsis. J Crit Care. 1996 Jun; 11(2): 77-94. PMID: 8727029, PII: S0883-9441(96)90023-4, ISSN: 0883-9441.

Carmichael LC, Dorinsky PM, Higgins SB, Bernard GR, Dupont WD, Swindell B, Wheeler AP. Diagnosis and therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults: an international survey. J Crit Care. 1996 Mar; 11(1): 9-18. PMID: 8904279, ISSN: 0883-9441.

Bernard GR, Pou NA, Coggeshall JW, Carroll FE, Snapper JR. Comparison of the pulmonary dysfunction caused by cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Chest. 1995 Sep; 108(3): 798-803. PMID: 7656636, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Bernard GR. Sepsis trials. Intersection of investigation, regulation, funding, and practice. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1995 Jul; 152(1): 4-10. PMID: 7599855, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.152.1.7599855, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Higgins SB, Jiang K, Plummer WD, Edens TR, Stroud MJ, Swindell BB, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Pivot/Remote: a distributed database for remote data entry in multi-center clinical trials. Medinfo. 1995; 8 Pt 2: 1097. PMID: 8591379, ISSN: 1569-6332.

Wright PE, Carmichael LC, Bernard GR. Effect of bronchodilators on lung mechanics in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Chest. 1994 Nov; 106(5): 1517-23. PMID: 7956413, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, Lamy M, Legall JR, Morris A, Spragg R. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994 Mar; 149(3 Pt 1): 818-24. PMID: 7509706, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.149.3.7509706, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Morris PE, Bernard GR. Significance of glutathione in lung disease and implications for therapy. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1994 Feb; 307(2): 119-27. PMID: 8141138, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, Lamy M, LeGall JR, Morris A, Spragg R. Report of the American-European consensus conference on ARDS: definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes and clinical trial coordination. The Consensus Committee. Intensive Care Med. 1994; 20(3): 225-32. PMID: 8014293, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Christman BW, Bernard GR. Antilipid mediator and antioxidant therapy in adult respiratory distress syndrome. New Horiz. 1993 Nov; 1(4): 623-30. PMID: 8087582, ISSN: 1063-7389.

Wheeler AP, Carroll FE, Bernard GR. Radiographic issues in adult respiratory distress syndrome. New Horiz. 1993 Nov; 1(4): 471-7. PMID: 8087568, ISSN: 1063-7389.

Christman BW, McPherson CD, Newman JH, King GA, Bernard GR, Groves BM, Loyd JE. An imbalance between the excretion of thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites in pulmonary hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992 Jul 7/9/1992; 327(2): 70-5. PMID: 1603138, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199207093270202, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Hardie WD, Wheeler AP, Wright PW, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. Effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition on amphotericin B-induced lung injury in awake sheep. J. Infect. Dis. 1992 Jul; 166(1): 134-8. PMID: 1607684, ISSN: 0022-1899.

Schriver EE, Davidson JM, Sutcliffe MC, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. Comparison of elastin peptide concentrations in body fluids from healthy volunteers, smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992 Apr; 145(4 Pt 1): 762-6. PMID: 1554198, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/145.4_Pt_1.762, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wheeler AP, Hardie WD, Bernard GR. The role of cyclooxygenase products in lung injury induced by tumor necrosis factor in sheep. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992 Mar; 145(3): 632-9. PMID: 1546845, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/145.3.632, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Morris P, Bernard GR. Adult respiratory distress syndrome. Strategies to provide support and enhance oxygen delivery. Postgrad Med. 1991 Dec; 90(8): 163-6, 169. PMID: 1749731, ISSN: 0032-5481.

Bernard GR, Reines HD, Halushka PV, Higgins SB, Metz CA, Swindell BB, Wright PE, Watts FL, Vrbanac JJ. Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 formation is increased in human sepsis syndrome. Effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991 Nov; 144(5): 1095-101. PMID: 1952438, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/144.5.1095, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Bernard GR. N-acetylcysteine in experimental and clinical acute lung injury. Am. J. Med. 1991 Sep 9/30/1991; 91(3C): 54S-59S. PMID: 1928212, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Bernard GR, Korley V, Chee P, Swindell B, Ford-Hutchinson AW, Tagari P. Persistent generation of peptido leukotrienes in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991 Aug; 144(2): 263-7. PMID: 1650152, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/144.2.263, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Onrot J, Bernard GR, Biaggioni I, Hollister AS, Robertson D. Direct vasodilator effect of hyperventilation-induced hypocarbia in autonomic failure patients. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1991 May; 301(5): 305-9. PMID: 1902350, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Hardie WD, Wright PE, Bernard GR. Effects of intravenous amphotericin B infusion on hemodynamics and airway mechanics in awake sheep. Chest. 1991 Feb; 99(2): 457-62. PMID: 1989809, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Higgins SB, Jiang K, Swindell BB, Bernard GR. A graphical ICU workstation. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care. 1991; 783-7. PMID: 1807712, PMCID: PMC2247637, ISSN: 0195-4210.

Watts FL, Bernard GR. Effects of ritodrine infusion on hemodynamics and lung lymph in awake sheep. Pulm Pharmacol. 1991; 4(1): 32-6. PMID: 1804492, PII: 0952-0600(91)90036-3, ISSN: 0952-0600.

Bernard GR. Potential of N-acetylcysteine as treatment for the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Eur Respir J Suppl. 1990 Oct; 11: 496s-498s. PMID: 2278610, ISSN: 0904-1850.

Cowan HB, Bernard GR. The adult respiratory distress syndrome. Compr Ther. 1990 Oct; 16(10): 66-71. PMID: 2249403, ISSN: 0098-8243.

Harris TR, Bernard GR, Brigham KL, Higgins SB, Rinaldo JE, Borovetz HS, Sibbald WJ, Kariman K, Sprung CL. Lung microvascular transport properties measured by multiple indicator dilution methods in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. A comparison between patients reversing respiratory failure and those failing to reverse. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1990 Feb; 141(2): 272-80. PMID: 2405756, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/141.2.272, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wheeler AP, Bernard GR. Minimal positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP): a safe, effective, defensible practice. Clin Intensive Care. 1990; 1(4): 175-9. PMID: 10149076, ISSN: 0956-3075.

Wright PE, Bernard GR. Mechanisms of late hemodynamic and airway dynamic responses to endotoxin in awake sheep. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989 Sep; 140(3): 672-8. PMID: 2782739, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/140.3.672, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wright PE, Marini JJ, Bernard GR. In vitro versus in vivo comparison of endotracheal tube airflow resistance. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989 Jul; 140(1): 10-6. PMID: 2751156, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/140.1.10, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Wright PE, Bernard GR. The role of airflow resistance in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989 May; 139(5): 1169-74. PMID: 2653150, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/139.5.1169, ISSN: 0003-0805.

Taylor RF, Bernard GR. Airway complications from free-basing cocaine. Chest. 1989 Feb; 95(2): 476-7. PMID: 2914507, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Lucht WD, Bernard GR, Butka B, Brigham KL. Corticosteroids inhibit endotoxin-induced lung lymph neutrophil stimulating activity in sheep. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1988 Aug; 296(2): 98-102. PMID: 2840827, ISSN: 0002-9629.

Wright P, Ishihara Y, Bernard GR. Effects of nitroprusside on lung mechanics and hemodynamics after endotoxemia in awake sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988 May; 64(5): 2026-32. PMID: 3292506, ISSN: 8750-7587.

Bernard GR, Luce JM, Sprung CL, Rinaldo JE, Tate RM, Sibbald WJ, Kariman K, Higgins S, Bradley R, Metz CA. High-dose corticosteroids in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 1987 Dec 12/17/1987; 317(25): 1565-70. PMID: 3317054, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198712173172504, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Coggeshall JW, Lefferts PL, Butterfield MJ, Bernard GR, Carroll FE, Pou NA, Snapper JR. Perilla ketone: a model of increased pulmonary microvascular permeability pulmonary edema in sheep. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1987 Dec; 136(6): 1453-8. PMID: 3688648, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/136.6.1453, ISSN: 0003-0805.

May DG, Stratton CW, Denney WD, Watts FL, Bernard GR, Branch RA. Vancomycin entry into lung lymph in sheep. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1987 Nov; 31(11): 1689-91. PMID: 3435116, PMCID: PMC175021, ISSN: 0066-4804.

Lucht WD, English DK, Bernard GR, Serafin WE, Brigham KL. Prevention of release of granulocyte aggregants into sheep lung lymph following endotoxemia by N-acetylcysteine. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1987 Sep; 294(3): 161-7. PMID: 2821809, ISSN: 0002-9629.