Frank E. Harrell, Ph.D.


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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Biostatistics
Ph.D., Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North CarolinaB.S., Math, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama
Office Address
S-2323 MCN
1161 21st Avenue South
Nashville, TN 2158
Clinical Research Keywords
Cardiovascular disease Medical applications of statistics Clinical trials Clinical safety assessment and analysis in pharmaceutical trials Risk adjustment Health services and outcomes research Pharmaceutical research Medical diagnosis and prognosis
Griffin MP, O'Shea TM, Bissonette EA, Harrell FE, Lake DE, Moorman JR. Abnormal heart rate characteristics are associated with neonatal mortality. Pediatr. Res [print-electronic]. 2004 May; 55(5): 782-8. PMID: 14739356, PII: 01.PDR.0000119366.21770.9E, DOI: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000119366.21770.9E, ISSN: 0031-3998.

Ely EW, Shintani A, Truman B, Speroff T, Gordon SM, Harrell FE, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Dittus RS. Delirium as a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. JAMA. 2004 Apr 4/14/2004; 291(14): 1753-62. PMID: 15082703, PII: 291/14/1753, DOI: 10.1001/jama.291.14.1753, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Steyerberg EW, Frankema SP, Harrell FE. Statistical analyses of trauma outcome: when is more too much? [letter]. J Trauma. 2003 Jun; 54(6): 1256-7; author reply 1257. PMID: 12813359, DOI: 10.1097/01.TA.0000071949.37713.63, ISSN: 0022-5282.

Moons KG, Harrell FE. Sensitivity and specificity should be de-emphasized in diagnostic accuracy studies. Acad Radiol. 2003 Jun; 10(6): 670-2. PMID: 12809422, ISSN: 1076-6332.

Griffin MP, O'Shea TM, Bissonette EA, Harrell FE, Lake DE, Moorman JR. Abnormal heart rate characteristics preceding neonatal sepsis and sepsis-like illness. Pediatr. Res [print-electronic]. 2003 Jun; 53(6): 920-6. PMID: 12646726, PII: 01.PDR.0000064904.05313.D2, DOI: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000064904.05313.D2, ISSN: 0031-3998.

Taylor AG, Galper DI, Taylor P, Rice LW, Andersen W, Irvin W, Wang XQ, Harrell FE. Effects of adjunctive Swedish massage and vibration therapy on short-term postoperative outcomes: a randomized, controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Feb; 9(1): 77-89. PMID: 12676037, DOI: 10.1089/107555303321222964, ISSN: 1075-5535.

Moons KG, Harrell FE, Steyerberg EW. Should scoring rules be based on odds ratios or regression coefficients? [letter]. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002 Oct; 55(10): 1054-5. PMID: 12464384, PII: S0895435602004535, ISSN: 0895-4356.

Wu AW, Young Y, Dawson NV, Brant L, Galanos AN, Broste S, Landefeld SC, Harrell FE, Lynn J. Estimates of future physical functioning by seriously ill hospitalized patients, their families, and their physicians. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Feb; 50(2): 230-7. PMID: 12028203, PII: jgs50053, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Calnon DA, McGrath PD, Doss AL, Harrell FE, Watson DD, Beller GA. Prognostic value of dobutamine stress technetium-99m-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging: stratification of a high-risk population. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2001 Nov 11/1/2001; 38(5): 1511-7. PMID: 11691532, PII: S0735-1097(01)01565-0, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Parkerson GR, Harrell FE, Hammond WE, Wang XQ. Characteristics of adult primary care patients as predictors of future health services charges. Med Care. 2001 Nov; 39(11): 1170-81. PMID: 11606871, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Steyerberg EW, Harrell FE, Borsboom GJ, Eijkemans MJ, Vergouwe Y, Habbema JD. Internal validation of predictive models: efficiency of some procedures for logistic regression analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001 Aug; 54(8): 774-81. PMID: 11470385, PII: S0895-4356(01)00341-9, ISSN: 0895-4356.

McMahon RP, Harrell FE. Joint testing of mortality and a non-fatal outcome in clinical trials. Stat Med. 2001 Apr 4/30/2001; 20(8): 1165-72. PMID: 11304733, DOI: 10.1002/sim.814, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Harrell FE, Shih YC. Using full probability models to compute probabilities of actual interest to decision makers. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2001; 17(1): 17-26. PMID: 11329842, ISSN: 0266-4623.

Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans MJ, Harrell FE, Habbema JD. Prognostic modeling with logistic regression analysis: in search of a sensible strategy in small data sets. Med Decis Making. 2001 Jan; 21(1): 45-56. PMID: 11206946, ISSN: 0272-989X.

Stare J, Harrell FE, Heinzl H. BJ: an S-Plus program to fit linear regression models to censored data using the Buckley-James method. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2001 Jan; 64(1): 45-52. PMID: 11084232, PII: S0169-2607(00)00083-3, ISSN: 0169-2607.

McMahon RP, Harrell FE. Power calculation for clinical trials when the outcome is a composite ranking of survival and a nonfatal outcome. Control Clin Trials. 2000 Aug; 21(4): 305-12. PMID: 10913806, PII: S0197-2456(00)00052-0, ISSN: 0197-2456.

Claessens MT, Lynn J, Zhong Z, Desbiens NA, Phillips RS, Wu AW, Harrell FE, Connors AF. Dying with lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: insights from SUPPORT. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 May; 48(5 Suppl): S146-53. PMID: 10809468, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Teno JM, Fisher E, Hamel MB, Wu AW, Murphy DJ, Wenger NS, Lynn J, Harrell FE. Decision-making and outcomes of prolonged ICU stays in seriously ill patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 May; 48(5 Suppl): S70-4. PMID: 10809459, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Teno JM, Harrell FE, Knaus W, Phillips RS, Wu AW, Connors A, Wenger NS, Wagner D, Galanos A, Desbiens NA, Lynn J. Prediction of survival for older hospitalized patients: the HELP survival model. Hospitalized Elderly Longitudinal Project. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 May; 48(5 Suppl): S16-24. PMID: 10809452, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans MJ, Harrell FE, Habbema JD. Prognostic modelling with logistic regression analysis: a comparison of selection and estimation methods in small data sets. Stat Med. 2000 Apr 4/30/2000; 19(8): 1059-79. PMID: 10790680, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(20000430)19:8<1059::AID-SIM412>3.0.CO;2-0, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Weiss JP, Gruver C, Kaul S, Harrell FE, Sklenar J, Dent JM. Ordering an echocardiogram for evaluation of left ventricular function: level of expertise necessary for efficient use. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2000 Feb; 13(2): 124-30. PMID: 10668015, PII: S0894731700780588, ISSN: 0894-7317.

Senn S, Harrell FE. On subgroups and groping for significance [letter]. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998 Dec; 51(12): 1367-8. PMID: 10086831, ISSN: 0895-4356.

Shaw LJ, Peterson ED, Shaw LK, Kesler KL, DeLong ER, Harrell FE, Muhlbaier LH, Mark DB. Use of a prognostic treadmill score in identifying diagnostic coronary disease subgroups. Circulation. 1998 Oct 10/20/1998; 98(16): 1622-30. PMID: 9778327, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Steyerberg EW, Harrell FE, Goodman PH. Neural networks, logistic regression, and calibration [letter]. Med Decis Making. 1998 Jul; 18(3): 349-50. PMID: 9680001, ISSN: 0272-989X.

Weeks JC, Cook EF, O'Day SJ, Peterson LM, Wenger N, Reding D, Harrell FE, Kussin P, Dawson NV, Connors AF, Lynn J, Phillips RS. Relationship between cancer patients' predictions of prognosis and their treatment preferences. JAMA. 1998 Jun 6/3/1998; 279(21): 1709-14. PMID: 9624023, PII: joc71098, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Harrell FE. The inappropriate use of hypothesis testing to infer safety of calcium channel blockers [editorial]. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998 May; 12(2): 151-3; discussion 155. PMID: 9652873, ISSN: 0920-3206.

Harrell FE, Margolis PA, Gove S, Mason KE, Mulholland EK, Lehmann D, Muhe L, Gatchalian S, Eichenwald HF. Development of a clinical prediction model for an ordinal outcome: the World Health Organization Multicentre Study of Clinical Signs and Etiological agents of Pneumonia, Sepsis and Meningitis in Young Infants. WHO/ARI Young Infant Multicentre Study Group. Stat Med. 1998 Apr 4/30/1998; 17(8): 909-44. PMID: 9595619, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19980430)17:8<909::AID-SIM753>3.0.CO;2-O, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Galanos AN, Pieper CF, Kussin PS, Winchell MT, Fulkerson WJ, Harrell FE, Teno JM, Layde P, Connors AF, Phillips RS, Wenger NS. Relationship of body mass index to subsequent mortality among seriously ill hospitalized patients. SUPPORT Investigators. The Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcome and Risks of Treatments. Crit. Care Med. 1997 Dec; 25(12): 1962-8. PMID: 9403743, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Chapman IM, Hartman ML, Pezzoli SS, Harrell FE, Hintz RL, Alberti KG, Thorner MO. Effect of aging on the sensitivity of growth hormone secretion to insulin-like growth factor-I negative feedback. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1997 Sep; 82(9): 2996-3004. PMID: 9284733, DOI: 10.1210/jcem.82.9.4223, ISSN: 0021-972X.

Califf RM, Adams KF, McKenna WJ, Gheorghiade M, Uretsky BF, McNulty SE, Darius H, Schulman K, Zannad F, Handberg-Thurmond E, Harrell FE, Wheeler W, Soler-Soler J, Swedberg K. A randomized controlled trial of epoprostenol therapy for severe congestive heart failure: The Flolan International Randomized Survival Trial (FIRST). Am. Heart J. 1997 Jul; 134(1): 44-54. PMID: 9266782, PII: S0002-8703(97)70105-4, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Califf RM, Woodlief LH, Harrell FE, Lee KL, White HD, Guerci A, Barbash GI, Simes RJ, Weaver WD, Simoons ML, Topol EJ. Selection of thrombolytic therapy for individual patients: development of a clinical model. GUSTO-I Investigators. Am. Heart J. 1997 Jun; 133(6): 630-9. PMID: 9200390, PII: S0002870397001890, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Burke HB, Goodman PH, Rosen DB, Henson DE, Weinstein JN, Harrell FE, Marks JR, Winchester DP, Bostwick DG. Artificial neural networks improve the accuracy of cancer survival prediction. Cancer. 1997 Feb 2/15/1997; 79(4): 857-62. PMID: 9024725, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19970215)79:4<857::AID-CNCR24>3.0.CO;2-Y, ISSN: 0008-543X.

Scully KW, Pates RD, Desper GS, Connors AF, Harrell FE, Pieper KS, Hannan RL, Reynolds RE. Development of an enterprise-wide clinical data repository: merging multiple legacy databases. Proc AMIA Annu Fall Symp. 1997; 32-6. PMID: 9357583, PMCID: PMC2233238, ISSN: 1091-8280.

Ohman EM, Armstrong PW, Christenson RH, Granger CB, Katus HA, Hamm CW, O'Hanesian MA, Wagner GS, Kleiman NS, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Topol EJ. Cardiac troponin T levels for risk stratification in acute myocardial ischemia. GUSTO IIA Investigators. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996 Oct 10/31/1996; 335(18): 1333-41. PMID: 8857016, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199610313351801, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Connors AF, Dawson NV, Thomas C, Harrell FE, Desbiens N, Fulkerson WJ, Kussin P, Bellamy P, Goldman L, Knaus WA. Outcomes following acute exacerbation of severe chronic obstructive lung disease. The SUPPORT investigators (Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments). Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1996 Oct; 154(4 Pt 1): 959-67. PMID: 8887592, DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.154.4.8887592, ISSN: 1073-449X.

Connors AF, Speroff T, Dawson NV, Thomas C, Harrell FE, Wagner D, Desbiens N, Goldman L, Wu AW, Califf RM, Fulkerson WJ, Vidaillet H, Broste S, Bellamy P, Lynn J, Knaus WA. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. SUPPORT Investigators. JAMA. 1996 Sep 9/18/1996; 276(11): 889-97. PMID: 8782638, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Hakim RB, Teno JM, Harrell FE, Knaus WA, Wenger N, Phillips RS, Layde P, Califf R, Connors AF, Lynn J. Factors associated with do-not-resuscitate orders: patients' preferences, prognoses, and physicians' judgments. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment. Ann. Intern. Med. 1996 Aug 8/15/1996; 125(4): 284-93. PMID: 8678391, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB. Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat Med. 1996 Feb 2/28/1996; 15(4): 361-87. PMID: 8668867, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19960229)15:4<361::AID-SIM168>3.0.CO;2-4, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19960229)15:4<361::AID-SIM168>3.0.CO;2-4, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Lynn J, Harrell FE, Cohn F, Hamel M, Dawson N, Wu AW. Defining the "terminally ill": insights from SUPPORT. Duquesne Law Rev. 1996; 35(1): 311-36. PMID: 12385311, ISSN: 0093-3058.

Knaus WA, Harrell FE, LaBrecque JF, Wagner DP, Pribble JP, Draper EA, Fisher CJ, Soll L. Use of predicted risk of mortality to evaluate the efficacy of anticytokine therapy in sepsis. The rhIL-1ra Phase III Sepsis Syndrome Study Group. Crit. Care Med. 1996 Jan; 24(1): 46-56. PMID: 8565538, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Herndon JE, Harrell FE. The restricted cubic spline as baseline hazard in the proportional hazards model with step function time-dependent covariables. Stat Med. 1995 Oct 10/15/1995; 14(19): 2119-29. PMID: 8552891, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Smith SR, Minda SA, Samsa GP, Harrell FE, Gunnells JC, Coffman TM, Butterly DW. Late withdrawal of cyclosporine in stable renal transplant recipients. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1995 Sep; 26(3): 487-94. PMID: 7645557, PII: S0272638695001934, ISSN: 0272-6386.

Lynn J, Teno JM, Harrell FE. Accurate prognostications of death. Opportunities and challenges for clinicians. West. J. Med. 1995 Sep; 163(3): 250-7. PMID: 7571588, PMCID: PMC1303049, ISSN: 0093-0415.

Hamel MB, Goldman L, Teno J, Lynn J, Davis RB, Harrell FE, Connors AF, Califf R, Kussin P, Bellamy P. Identification of comatose patients at high risk for death or severe disability. SUPPORT Investigators. Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. JAMA. 1995 Jun 6/21/1995; 273(23): 1842-8. PMID: 7776500, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Arkes HR, Dawson NV, Speroff T, Harrell FE, Alzola C, Phillips R, Desbiens N, Oye RK, Knaus W, Connors AF. The covariance decomposition of the probability score and its use in evaluating prognostic estimates. SUPPORT Investigators. Med Decis Making. 1995 Apr; 15(2): 120-31. PMID: 7783572, ISSN: 0272-989X.

Wu AW, Damiano AM, Lynn J, Alzola C, Teno J, Landefeld CS, Desbiens N, Tsevat J, Mayer-Oakes A, Harrell FE, Knaus WA. Predicting future functional status for seriously ill hospitalized adults. The SUPPORT prognostic model. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995 Mar 3/1/1995; 122(5): 342-50. PMID: 7847645, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Knaus WA, Harrell FE, Lynn J, Goldman L, Phillips RS, Connors AF, Dawson NV, Fulkerson WJ, Califf RM, Desbiens N, Layde P, Oye RK, Bellamy PE, Hakim RB, Wagner DP. The SUPPORT prognostic model. Objective estimates of survival for seriously ill hospitalized adults. Study to understand prognoses and preferences for outcomes and risks of treatments. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995 Feb 2/1/1995; 122(3): 191-203. PMID: 7810938, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Knaus WA, Harrell FE, Wagner DP. Defining sepsis [letter]. JAMA. 1994 Dec 12/28/1994; 272(24): 1901. PMID: 7990240, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Wagner DP, Knaus WA, Harrell FE, Zimmerman JE, Watts C. Daily prognostic estimates for critically ill adults in intensive care units: results from a prospective, multicenter, inception cohort analysis. Crit. Care Med. 1994 Sep; 22(9): 1359-72. PMID: 8062557, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Mark DB, Nelson CL, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Jones RH, Fortin DF, Stack RS, Glower DD, Smith LR. Continuing evolution of therapy for coronary artery disease. Initial results from the era of coronary angioplasty. Circulation. 1994 May; 89(5): 2015-25. PMID: 8181125, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Margolis PA, Ferkol TW, Marsocci S, Super DM, Keyes LL, McNutt R, Harrell FE. Accuracy of the clinical examination in detecting hypoxemia in infants with respiratory illness. J. Pediatr. 1994 Apr; 124(4): 552-60. PMID: 8151469, PII: S0022-3476(05)83133-6, ISSN: 0022-3476.

Krucoff MW, Green CL, Harrell FE, Simoons ML, Wilderman NM, Trollinger KM, Sawchak ST, Pope JE, Shah A, Granger CB. From signal/noise to information content/noise. Reconsidering the statistical analysis of continuous ST-segment data streams with gaps: potential optimization of application-specific information content using left, right, and interval censoring. J Electrocardiol. 1994; 27 Suppl: 233-7. PMID: 7884367, ISSN: 0022-0736.

Knaus WA, Harrell FE, Fisher CJ, Wagner DP, Opal SM, Sadoff JC, Draper EA, Walawander CA, Conboy K, Grasela TH. The clinical evaluation of new drugs for sepsis. A prospective study design based on survival analysis. JAMA. 1993 Sep 9/8/1993; 270(10): 1233-41. PMID: 8355388, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Dudley RA, Harrell FE, Smith LR, Mark DB, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Glower D, Lipscomb J, Hlatky M. Comparison of analytic models for estimating the effect of clinical factors on the cost of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993 Mar; 46(3): 261-71. PMID: 8455051, ISSN: 0895-4356.

Pryor DB, Shaw L, McCants CB, Lee KL, Mark DB, Harrell FE, Muhlbaier LH, Califf RM. Value of the history and physical in identifying patients at increased risk for coronary artery disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 1993 Jan 1/15/1993; 118(2): 81-90. PMID: 8416322, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Muhlbaier LH, Pryor DB, Rankin JS, Smith LR, Mark DB, Jones RH, Glower DD, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Califf RM. Observational comparison of event-free survival with medical and surgical therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. 20 years of follow-up. Circulation. 1992 Nov; 86(5 Suppl): II198-204. PMID: 1424000, ISSN: 0009-7322.

McClelland JH, Daubert JP, Kavanagh KM, Harrell FE, Ideker RE. High and low strength nonsynchronized shocks given during canine ventricular tachycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1992 Jul; 15(7): 986-92. PMID: 1378609, ISSN: 0147-8389.

Smith LR, Harrell FE, Rankin JS, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Muhlbaier LH, Lee KL, Mark DB, Jones RH, Oldham HN. Determinants of early versus late cardiac death in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation. 1991 Nov; 84(5 Suppl): III245-53. PMID: 1934415, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Mark DB, Shaw L, Harrell FE, Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Bengtson JR, McCants CB, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Prognostic value of a treadmill exercise score in outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991 Sep 9/19/1991; 325(12): 849-53. PMID: 1875969, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199109193251204, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Pryor DB, Shaw L, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Muhlbaier LH, Califf RM. Estimating the likelihood of severe coronary artery disease. Am. J. Med. 1991 May; 90(5): 553-62. PMID: 2029012, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Brazer SR, Pancotto FS, Long TT, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Tyor MP, Pryor DB. Using ordinal logistic regression to estimate the likelihood of colorectal neoplasia. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991; 44(11): 1263-70. PMID: 1941020, PII: 0895-4356(91)90159-7, ISSN: 0895-4356.

Lee KL, Pryor DB, Pieper KS, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Coleman RE, Cobb FR, Jones RH. Prognostic value of radionuclide angiography in medically treated patients with coronary artery disease. A comparison with clinical and catheterization variables. Circulation. 1990 Nov; 82(5): 1705-17. PMID: 2225372, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Honan MB, Harrell FE, Reimer KA, Califf RM, Mark DB, Pryor DB, Hlatky MA. Cardiac rupture, mortality and the timing of thrombolytic therapy: a meta-analysis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1990 Aug; 16(2): 359-67. PMID: 2142705, PII: 0735-1097(90)90586-E, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Siegel WC, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Barefoot JC, Harrell FE, Pryor DB, Williams RB. Effect of Type A behavior on exercise test outcome in coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1990 Jul 7/15/1990; 66(2): 179-82. PMID: 2196775, PII: 0002-9149(90)90584-N, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Brazer SR, Tyor MP, Pancotto FS, Nickl NJ, Wildermann NM, Harrell FE, Pryor DB. Studies of gastric ulcer disease by community-based gastroenterologists. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1990 Jul; 85(7): 824-8. PMID: 2371983, ISSN: 0002-9270.

Pratt CM, Brater DC, Harrell FE, Kowey PR, Leier CV, Lowenthal DT, Messerli F, Packer M, Pritchett EL, Ruskin JN. Clinical and regulatory implications of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. Am. J. Cardiol. 1990 Jan 1/1/1990; 65(1): 103-5. PMID: 1688479, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Harrell FE, Marcus SE, Layde PM, Broste SK, Cook EF, Wagner DP, Muhlbaier LH, Peck SL. Statistical methods in SUPPORT. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990; 43 Suppl: 89S-98S. PMID: 2254801, ISSN: 0895-4356.

Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB, Muhlbaier LH, Pryor DB. Clinical judgment and therapeutic decision making. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1990 Jan; 15(1): 1-14. PMID: 2136872, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Siegel WC, Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Harrell FE, Pryor DB, Barefoot JC, Williams RB. Clinical correlates and prognostic significance of type A behavior and silent myocardial ischemia on the treadmill. Am. J. Cardiol. 1989 Dec 12/1/1989; 64(19): 1280-3. PMID: 2589193, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Spanos A, Harrell FE, Durack DT. Differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. An analysis of the predictive value of initial observations. JAMA. 1989 Nov 11/17/1989; 262(19): 2700-7. PMID: 2810603, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Morris JJ, Sisson SD, McCants CB, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Pryor DB. Painless exercise ST deviation on the treadmill: long-term prognosis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1989 Oct; 14(4): 885-92. PMID: 2794272, PII: 0735-1097(89)90459-2, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Barefoot JC, Peterson BL, Harrell FE, Hlatky MA, Pryor DB, Haney TL, Blumenthal JA, Siegler IC, Williams RB. Type A behavior and survival: a follow-up study of 1,467 patients with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1989 Sep 9/1/1989; 64(8): 427-32. PMID: 2773785, PII: 0002-9149(89)90416-5, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Brazer SR, Tyor MP, Pancotto FS, Brice RS, Garbutt JT, Wildermann NM, Harrell FE, Pryor DB, Liss CL, Root JK. Randomized, double-blind comparison of famotidine with ranitidine in treatment of acute, benign gastric ulcer disease. Community-based study coupled with a patient registry. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1989 Jul; 34(7): 1047-52. PMID: 2568247, ISSN: 0163-2116.

Kong DF, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Boswick JM, Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Clinical experience and predicting survival in coronary disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 1989 May; 149(5): 1177-81. PMID: 2719510, ISSN: 0003-9926.

Califf RM, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Rankin JS, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Jones RH, Muhlbaier LH, Oldham HN, Pryor DB. The evolution of medical and surgical therapy for coronary artery disease. A 15-year perspective. JAMA. 1989 Apr 4/14/1989; 261(14): 2077-86. PMID: 2784512, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Harrell FE, Lee KL, Pollock BG. Regression models in clinical studies: determining relationships between predictors and response. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1988 Oct 10/5/1988; 80(15): 1198-202. PMID: 3047407, ISSN: 0027-8874.

Califf RM, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Rankin JS, Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Muhlbaier LH, Wechsler AS, Jones RH, Oldham HN. Changing efficacy of coronary revascularization. Implications for patient selection. Circulation. 1988 Sep; 78(3 Pt 2): I185-91. PMID: 3261657, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Bounous EP, Mark DB, Pollock BG, Hlatky MA, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Rankin JS, Wechsler AS, Pryor DB, Califf RM. Surgical survival benefits for coronary disease patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 1988 Sep; 78(3 Pt 2): I151-7. PMID: 3261652, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Hickey MS, Smith LR, Muhlbaier LH, Harrell FE, Reves JG, Hinohara T, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Rankin JS. Current prognosis of ischemic mitral regurgitation. Implications for future management. Circulation. 1988 Sep; 78(3 Pt 2): I51-9. PMID: 2970346, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Williams RB, Barefoot JC, Haney TL, Harrell FE, Blumenthal JA, Pryor DB, Peterson B. Type A behavior and angiographically documented coronary atherosclerosis in a sample of 2,289 patients. Psychosom Med. 1988 Mar; 50(2): 139-52. PMID: 3375404, ISSN: 0033-3174.

Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB, Pryor DB. Comparison of predictions based on observational data with the results of randomized controlled clinical trials of coronary artery bypass surgery. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1988 Feb; 11(2): 237-45. PMID: 3276752, PII: 0735-1097(88)90086-1, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Bounous EP, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Hinohara T, Mark DB, Ideker RE, Selvester RH, Wagner GS. Prognostic value of the simplified Selvester QRS score in patients with coronary artery disease. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1988 Jan; 11(1): 35-41. PMID: 3335703, PII: 0735-1097(88)90163-5, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Califf RM, Mark DB, Harrell FE, Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Rosati RA, Pryor DB. Importance of clinical measures of ischemia in the prognosis of patients with documented coronary artery disease. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1988 Jan; 11(1): 20-6. PMID: 3335698, PII: 0735-1097(88)90160-X, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Rankin JS, Lee KL, Muhlbaier LH, Oldham HN, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Reves JG, Califf RM. The changing survival benefits of coronary revascularization over time. Circulation. 1987 Nov; 76(5 Pt 2): V13-21. PMID: 3499256, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Slater DK, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Harrell FE, Pryor DB, Califf RM. Outcome in suspected acute myocardial infarction with normal or minimally abnormal admission electrocardiographic findings. Am. J. Cardiol. 1987 Oct 10/1/1987; 60(10): 766-70. PMID: 3661390, PII: 0002-9149(87)91020-4, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Vidaillet HJ, Pressley JC, Henke E, Harrell FE, German LD. Familial occurrence of accessory atrioventricular pathways (preexcitation syndrome). N. Engl. J. Med. 1987 Jul 7/9/1987; 317(2): 65-9. PMID: 3587328, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198707093170201, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Lederman SN, Wenger TL, Harrell FE, Strauss HC. Effects of different paced heart rates on canine coronary occlusion and reperfusion arrhythmias. Am. Heart J. 1987 Jun; 113(6): 1365-9. PMID: 3591605, ISSN: 0002-8703.

Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Exercise treadmill score for predicting prognosis in coronary artery disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 1987 Jun; 106(6): 793-800. PMID: 3579066, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Rethinking sensitivity and specificity. Am. J. Cardiol. 1987 May 5/1/1987; 59(12): 1195-8. PMID: 3554956, PII: 0002-9149(87)90875-7, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Kay GN, Pryor DB, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Pressley JC, Gilbert MR, German LD. Comparison of survival of amiodarone-treated patients with coronary artery disease and malignant ventricular arrhythmias with that of a control group with coronary artery disease. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1987 Apr; 9(4): 877-81. PMID: 3558986, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Chu A, Califf RM, Pryor DB, McKinnis RA, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Curtis SE, Oldham HN, Wagner GS. Prognostic effect of bundle branch block related to coronary artery bypass grafting. Am. J. Cardiol. 1987 Apr 4/1/1987; 59(8): 798-803. PMID: 3493679, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Localizing coronary artery obstructions with the exercise treadmill test. Ann. Intern. Med. 1987 Jan; 106(1): 53-5. PMID: 3789578, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Harris RE, Harrell FE, Patil KD, Al-Rashid R. The seasonal risk of pediatric/juvenile acute lymphocytic leukemia in the United States. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40(10): 915-23. PMID: 3475280, ISSN: 0021-9681.

Papanicolaou MN, Califf RM, Hlatky MA, McKinnis RA, Harrell FE, Mark DB, McCants B, Rosati RA, Lee KL, Pryor DB. Prognostic implications of angiographically normal and insignificantly narrowed coronary arteries. Am. J. Cardiol. 1986 Dec 12/1/1986; 58(13): 1181-7. PMID: 3788805, PII: 0002-9149(86)90378-4, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Hindman N, Grande P, Harrell FE, Anderson C, Harrison D, Ideker RE, Selvester RH, Wagner GS. Relation between electrocardiographic and enzymatic methods of estimating acute myocardial infarct size. Am. J. Cardiol. 1986 Jul 7/1/1986; 58(1): 31-5. PMID: 3728328, PII: 0002-9149(86)90236-5, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Lee KL, Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Behar VS, Floyd WL, Morris JJ, Waugh RA, Whalen RE, Rosati RA. Predicting outcome in coronary disease. Statistical models versus expert clinicians. Am. J. Med. 1986 Apr; 80(4): 553-60. PMID: 3963036, PII: 0002-9343(86)90807-7, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Williams RB, Haney TL, McKinnis RA, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Pryor DB, Califf R, Kong YH, Rosati RA, Blumenthal JA. Psychosocial and physical predictors of anginal pain relief with medical management. Psychosom Med. 1986 Mar; 48(3-4): 200-10. PMID: 2871582, ISSN: 0033-3174.

Califf RM, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Rosati RA, Pryor DB. Randomized trials of coronary artery bypass surgery: impact on clinical practice at Duke University Medical Center. Circulation. 1985 Dec; 72(6 Pt 2): V136-44. PMID: 2933183, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Harrell FE, Lee KL, Matchar DB, Reichert TA. Regression models for prognostic prediction: advantages, problems, and suggested solutions. Cancer Treat Rep. 1985 Oct; 69(10): 1071-77. PMID: 4042087, ISSN: 0361-5960.

Pryor DB, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Mark DB, Rosati RA. Clinical data bases. Accomplishments and unrealized potential. Med Care. 1985 May; 23(5): 623-47. PMID: 3892181, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Harrell FE, Lee KL, McKinnis RA, Hlatky MA, Mark D, Califf RM, Pryor DB. Analysis of risk factors for sudden death after acute myocardial infarction [letter]. Am. J. Cardiol. 1985 Feb 2/15/1985; 55(5): 621-2. PMID: 3969926, PII: 0002-9149(85)90287-5, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Mark DB, Rosati RA. Tying clinical research to patient care by use of an observational database. Stat Med. 1984 Oct; 3(4): 375-87. PMID: 6396793, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Hlatky MA, Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Califf RM, Mark DB, Rosati RA. Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of exercise electrocardiography. Multivariable analysis. Am. J. Med. 1984 Jul; 77(1): 64-71. PMID: 6741986, PII: 0002-9343(84)90437-6, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Califf RM, Conley MJ, Behar VS, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Pryor DB, McKinnis RA, Rosati RA. "Left main equivalent" coronary artery disease: its clinical presentation and prognostic significance with nonsurgical therapy. Am. J. Cardiol. 1984 Jun 6/1/1984; 53(11): 1489-95. PMID: 6731291, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Mark DB, Califf RM, Morris KG, Harrell FE, Pryor DB, Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Rosati RA. Clinical characteristics and long-term survival of patients with variant angina. Circulation. 1984 May; 69(5): 880-8. PMID: 6705163, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Harrell FE, Lee KL, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Rosati RA. Regression modelling strategies for improved prognostic prediction. Stat Med. 1984 Apr; 3(2): 143-52. PMID: 6463451, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Wenger TL, Harrell FE, Brown KK, Lederman S, Strauss HC. Ventricular fibrillation following canine coronary artery reperfusion: different outcomes with pentobarbital and alpha-chloralose. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1984 Feb; 62(2): 224-8. PMID: 6713289, ISSN: 0008-4212.

Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Rosati RA, Coleman RE, Cobb FR, Califf RM, Jones RH. Prognostic indicators from radionuclide angiography in medically treated patients with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1984 Jan 1/1/1984; 53(1): 18-22. PMID: 6691259, PII: 0002-9149(84)90677-5, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Pryor DB, Lee KL, Harris PJ, Harrell FE, Rosati RA. The effect of crossovers on estimates of survival in medically treated patients with coronary artery disease. J Chronic Dis. 1984; 37(7): 521-9. PMID: 6611344, ISSN: 0021-9681.

Califf RM, McKinnis RA, McNeer JF, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Pryor DB, Waugh RA, Harris PJ, Rosati RA, Wagner GS. Prognostic value of ventricular arrhythmias associated with treadmill exercise testing in patients studied with cardiac catheterization for suspected ischemic heart disease. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1983 Dec; 2(6): 1060-7. PMID: 6630778, ISSN: 0735-1097.

Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Califf RM, Rosati RA. Estimating the likelihood of significant coronary artery disease. Am. J. Med. 1983 Nov; 75(5): 771-80. PMID: 6638047, ISSN: 0002-9343.

Roberts KB, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Pryor DB, Rosati RA. The prognosis for patients with new-onset angina who have undergone cardiac catheterization. Circulation. 1983 Nov; 68(5): 970-8. PMID: 6616798, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Gibbons RJ, Lee KL, Pryor D, Harrell FE, Coleman RE, Cobb FR, Rosati RA, Jones RH. The use of radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease--a logistic regression analysis. Circulation. 1983 Oct; 68(4): 740-6. PMID: 6616772, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Califf RM, Rosati RA. An improving prognosis over time in medically treated patients with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1983 Sep 9/1/1983; 52(5): 444-8. PMID: 6613865, PII: 0002-9149(83)90004-8, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Kinney HC, Burger PC, Harrell FE, Hudson RP. 'Reactive gliosis' in the medulla oblongata of victims of the sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics. 1983 Aug; 72(2): 181-7. PMID: 6866602, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Kong Y, Harrell FE, Rosati RA. Natural history of patients with single-vessel disease suitable for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am. J. Cardiol. 1983 Aug; 52(3): 225-9. PMID: 6223520, PII: 0002-9149(83)90112-1, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Lee KL, Harrell FE, Tolley HD, Rosati RA. A comparison of test statistics for assessing the effects of concomitant variables in survival analysis. Biometrics. 1983 Jun; 39(2): 341-50. PMID: 6626661, ISSN: 0006-341X.

McKinnis R, Harrell FE, Lee K. Discriminant function analysis using thallium-201 scintiscans and exercise stress variables to predict coronary heart disease [letter]. Am. J. Cardiol. 1983 May 5/15/1983; 51(9): 1565. PMID: 6846195, PII: 0002-9149(83)90682-3, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Califf RM, Tomabechi Y, Lee KL, Phillips H, Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Harris PJ, Peter RH, Behar VS, Kong Y, Rosati RA. Outcome in one-vessel coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1983 Feb; 67(2): 283-90. PMID: 6848217, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Califf RM, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Kimm SY, Grufferman S, Rosati RA. Assessment of the use of the age- and sex-specific United States population as a control group for analysis of survival in coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1982 Dec; 50(6): 1279-82. PMID: 7148703, PII: 0002-9149(82)90463-5, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Hammill SC, Shand DG, Harrell FE, Zimmerman JM, Reiter MJ, Verghese C, Pritchett EL. Pirmenol kinetics and effective oral dose. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1982 Dec; 32(6): 686-91. PMID: 7140134, PII: 0009-9236(82)90189-8, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Austin M, Wenger TL, Harrell FE, Luzzi FA, Strauss HC. Effect of myocardium at risk on outcome after coronary artery occlusion and release. Am. J. Physiol. 1982 Aug; 243(2): H340-5. PMID: 7114242, ISSN: 0002-9513.

Califf RM, McKinnis RA, Burks J, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Behar VS, Pryor DB, Wagner GS, Rosati RA. Prognostic implications of ventricular arrhythmias during 24 hour ambulatory monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1982 Jul; 50(1): 23-31. PMID: 6124117, PII: 0002-9149(82)90004-2, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Rosati RA, Lee KL, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Harrell FE. Problems and advantages of an observational data base approach to evaluating the effect of therapy on outcome. Circulation. 1982 Jun; 65(7 Pt 2): 27-32. PMID: 7044604, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Whalen RE, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Rosati RA. Survival of coronary artery disease patients with stable pain and normal left ventricular function treated medically or surgically at Duke University. Circulation. 1982 Jun; 65(7 Pt 2): 49-52. PMID: 6979431, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Harrell FE, Califf RM, Pryor DB, Lee KL, Rosati RA. Evaluating the yield of medical tests. JAMA. 1982 May 5/14/1982; 247(18): 2543-6. PMID: 7069920, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Wagner GS, Freye CJ, Palmeri ST, Roark SF, Stack NC, Ideker RE, Harrell FE, Selvester RH. Evaluation of a QRS scoring system for estimating myocardial infarct size. I. Specificity and observer agreement. Circulation. 1982 Feb; 65(2): 342-7. PMID: 7053893, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Palmeri ST, Harrison DG, Cobb FR, Morris KG, Harrell FE, Ideker RE, Selvester RH, Wagner GS. A QRS scoring system for assessing left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 1982 Jan 1/7/1982; 306(1): 4-9. PMID: 7053469, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198201073060102, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Dohrmann ML, Harrell FE, Strauss HC. The effects of disobutamide on electrophysiologic properties of canine cardiac Purkinje fibers and papillary muscle. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1981 Jun; 217(3): 549-54. PMID: 7229991, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Harrell FE, Lee KL, Grizzle JE. Additional comments on "some statistical methods useful in circulation research" [letter]. Circ. Res. 1981 Apr; 48(4): 592-4. PMID: 7460228, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Harris PJ, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Rosati RA. Nonfatal myocardial infarction in medically treated patients with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1980 Dec 12/1/1980; 46(6): 937-42. PMID: 7446426, PII: 0002-9149(80)90348-3, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Harris PJ, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Behar VS, Rosati RA. Outcome in medically treated coronary artery disease. Ischemic events: nonfatal infarction and death. Circulation. 1980 Oct; 62(4): 718-26. PMID: 6105930, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Harris PJ, Behar VS, Conley MJ, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Peter RH, Kong Y, Rosati RA. The prognostic significance of 50% coronary stenosis in medically treated patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1980 Aug; 62(2): 240-8. PMID: 7397965, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Wenger TL, Browning DJ, Masterton CE, Abou-Donia MB, Harrell FE, Bache RJ, Strauss HC. Procainamide delivery to ischemic canine myocardium following rapid intravenous administration. Circ. Res. 1980 Jun; 46(6): 789-95. PMID: 7379245, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Starmer CF, Lee KL, Harrell FE, Rosati RA. On the complexity of investigating chronic illness. Biometrics. 1980 Jun; 36(2): 333-5. PMID: 6996753, ISSN: 0006-341X.

Fraker TD, Wise NK, Harrell FE, Behar VS. Comparison of biplane and single plane left ventricular volumes in atrial septal defect. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1980; 6(1): 39-48. PMID: 7363317, ISSN: 0098-6569.

Harris PJ, Harrell FE, Lee KL, Behar VS, Rosati RA. Survival in medically treated coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1979 Dec; 60(6): 1259-69. PMID: 498451, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Smith M, Ratshin RA, Harrell FE, Russell RO, Rackley CE. Early sequential changes in left ventricular dimensions and filling pressure in patients after myocardial infarction. Am. J. Cardiol. 1974 Mar; 33(3): 363-9. PMID: 4812557, ISSN: 0002-9149.