Peter R. Martin, M.D.


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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Professor of Pharmacology
M.Sc., Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaM.D., Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaB.Sc., Honours Molecular Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Office Address
Suite 3068, Psychiatric Hospital at Vanderbilt
1601 23rd Avenue South, 3rd Floor
Nashville, TN 37232-8650
Research Description
Dr. Martin's research and scholarly interests include the molecular basis, diagnosis, and treatment of drug use disorders with an emphasis on substance-induced mental disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. This includes investigations of the molecular biology of thiamine; magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging to elucidate the pathogenesis of addiction and alcohol-induced brain damage; the clinical pharmacology of addictive substances; pharmacogenomic factors in treatment of opioid dependence and psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.
Clinical Description
Dr. Martin treats drug use and addictive disorders and associated psychiatric disorders in both inpatient and outpatient settings at Vanderbilt using an integrated pharmacopsychosocial approach to treatment. He has particular expertise in medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder in pregnant women and in psychopharmacological treatments of other drug use disorders.
Research Keywords
molecular basis, diagnosis, and treatment of drug use disorders with an emphasis on substance-induced mental disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders
Clinical Research Keywords
addiction psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, clinical pharmacology, treatment of addiction during pregnancy
Patrick SW, Buntin MB, Martin PR, Scott TA, Dupont W, Richards M, Cooper WO. Barriers to accessing treatment for pregnant women with opioid use disorder in Appalachian states. Subst Abus [print-electronic]. 2018 Oct 10/9/2018; 1-7. PMID: 29949454, DOI: 10.1080/08897077.2018.1488336, ISSN: 1547-0164.

Kaltenbach K, O'Grady KE, Heil SH, Salisbury AL, Coyle MG, Fischer G, Martin PR, Stine S, Jones HE. Prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine: Early childhood developmental outcomes. Drug Alcohol Depend [print-electronic]. 2018 Apr 4/1/2018; 185: 40-9. PMID: 29413437, PMCID: PMC5906792, PII: S0376-8716(18)30023-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.11.030, ISSN: 1879-0046.

Johnson S, Martin PR. Transitioning from methadone to buprenorphine maintenance in management of opioid use disorder during pregnancy. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug 8/22/2017; 1-7. PMID: 28829626, DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1363218, ISSN: 1097-9891.

Gorodetzky CW, Walsh SL, Martin PR, Saxon AJ, Gullo KL, Biswas K. A phase III, randomized, multi-center, double blind, placebo controlled study of safety and efficacy of lofexidine for relief of symptoms in individuals undergoing inpatient opioid withdrawal. Drug Alcohol Depend [print-electronic]. 2017 Jul 7/1/2017; 176: 79-88. PMID: 28527421, PII: S0376-8716(17)30187-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.020, ISSN: 1879-0046.

Lima Jde P, Farah A, King B, de Paulis T, Martin PR. Distribution of Major Chlorogenic Acids and Related Compounds in Brazilian Green and Toasted Ilex paraguariensis (Maté) Leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/23/2016; 64(11): 2361-70. PMID: 26924157, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00276, ISSN: 1520-5118.

Patrick SW, Dudley J, Martin PR, Harrell FE, Warren MD, Hartmann KE, Ely EW, Grijalva CG, Cooper WO. Prescription opioid epidemic and infant outcomes. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 135(5): 842-50. PMID: 25869370, PMCID: PMC4411781, PII: peds.2014-3299, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-3299, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Martin PR, Finlayson AJ. Opioid use disorder during pregnancy in Tennessee: expediency vs. science. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2015; 41(5): 367-70. PMID: 26186388, DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2015.1047502, ISSN: 1097-9891.

Iannelli RJ, Finlayson AJ, Brown KP, Neufeld R, Gray R, Dietrich MS, Martin PR. Suicidal behavior among physicians referred for fitness-for-duty evaluation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 36(6): 732-6. PMID: 25085717, PMCID: PMC4254198, PII: S0163-8343(14)00163-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.06.008, ISSN: 1873-7714.

Stephen Rich J, Martin PR. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcoholism. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014; 125: 573-88. PMID: 25307597, PII: B978-0-444-62619-6.00033-1, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00033-1, ISSN: 0072-9752.

Ferri M, Finlayson AJ, Wang L, Martin PR. Predictive factors for relapse in patients on buprenorphine maintenance. Am J Addict [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan; 23(1): 62-7. PMID: 24313243, PMCID: PMC3922612, DOI: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12074.x, ISSN: 1521-0391.

Benningfield MM, Blackford JU, Ellsworth ME, Samanez-Larkin GR, Martin PR, Cowan RL, Zald DH. Caudate responses to reward anticipation associated with delay discounting behavior in healthy youth. Dev Cogn Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan; 7: 43-52. PMID: 24309299, PMCID: PMC3932556, PII: S1878-9293(13)00068-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2013.10.009, ISSN: 1878-9307.

Charboneau EJ, Dietrich MS, Park S, Cao A, Watkins TJ, Blackford JU, Benningfield MM, Martin PR, Buchowski MS, Cowan RL. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: preliminary results. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov 11/30/2013; 214(2): 122-31. PMID: 24035535, PMCID: PMC3904759, PII: S0925-4927(13)00177-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.06.005, ISSN: 1872-7123.

Finlayson AJ, Dietrich MS, Neufeld R, Roback H, Martin PR. Restoring professionalism: the physician fitness-for-duty evaluation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 35(6): 659-63. PMID: 23910216, PMCID: PMC3923266, PII: S0163-8343(13)00191-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.06.009, ISSN: 1873-7714.

Epstein RA, Bobo WV, Martin PR, Morrow JA, Wang W, Chandrasekhar R, Cooper WO. Increasing pregnancy-related use of prescribed opioid analgesics. Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Aug; 23(8): 498-503. PMID: 23889859, PMCID: PMC3888316, PII: S1047-2797(13)00155-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.05.017, ISSN: 1873-2585.

Jackson TP, Lonergan DF, Todd RD, Martin PR. Intentional intrathecal opioid detoxification in 3 patients: characterization of the intrathecal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Pain Pract [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 13(4): 297-309. PMID: 22925591, DOI: 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2012.00584.x, ISSN: 1533-2500.

Benningfield MM, Dietrich MS, Jones HE, Kaltenbach K, Heil SH, Stine SM, Coyle MG, Arria AM, O'Grady KE, Fischer G, Martin PR. Opioid dependence during pregnancy: relationships of anxiety and depression symptoms to treatment outcomes. Addiction. 2012 Nov; 107 Suppl 1: 74-82. PMID: 23106929, PMCID: PMC4315620, DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04041.x, ISSN: 1360-0443.

Young JL, Martin PR. Treatment of opioid dependence in the setting of pregnancy. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 35(2): 441-60. PMID: 22640765, PII: S0193-953X(12)00025-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2012.03.008, ISSN: 1558-3147.

Rogers BP, Parks MH, Nickel MK, Katwal SB, Martin PR. Reduced fronto-cerebellar functional connectivity in chronic alcoholic patients. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb; 36(2): 294-301. PMID: 22085135, PMCID: PMC3268944, DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01614.x, ISSN: 1530-0277.

Buchowski MS, Meade NN, Charboneau E, Park S, Dietrich MS, Cowan RL, Martin PR. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults. PLoS ONE. 2011 Mar 3/8/2011; 6(3): e17465. PMID: 21408154, PMCID: PMC3050879, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017465, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Reich MS, Dietrich MS, Martin PR. Temporal sequence of incident cigarette, coffee, and alcohol use among AA participants. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 37(1): 27-36. PMID: 21128877, DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2010.540283, ISSN: 1097-9891.

Waddell KW, Zanjanipour P, Pradhan S, Xu L, Welch EB, Joers JM, Martin PR, Avison MJ, Gore JC. Anterior cingulate and cerebellar GABA and Glu correlations measured by ¹H J-difference spectroscopy. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 29(1): 19-24. PMID: 20884148, PMCID: PMC3005886, PII: S0730-725X(10)00206-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2010.07.005, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Benningfield MM, Arria AM, Kaltenbach K, Heil SH, Stine SM, Coyle MG, Fischer G, Jones HE, Martin PR. Co-occurring psychiatric symptoms are associated with increased psychological, social, and medical impairment in opioid dependent pregnant women. Am J Addict. 2010 Sep; 19(5): 416-21. PMID: 20716304, PMCID: PMC2924760, PII: AJAD64, DOI: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2010.00064.x, ISSN: 1521-0391.

Parks MH, Greenberg DS, Nickel MK, Dietrich MS, Rogers BP, Martin PR. Recruitment of additional brain regions to accomplish simple motor tasks in chronic alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Jun; 34(6): 1098-109. PMID: 20374203, PII: ACER1186, DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01186.x, ISSN: 1530-0277.

Martin PR, Arria AM, Fischer G, Kaltenbach K, Heil SH, Stine SM, Coyle MG, Selby P, Jones HE. Psychopharmacologic management of opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. Am J Addict. 2009 Mar; 18(2): 148-56. PMID: 19283567, PMCID: PMC2777700, PII: 909499089, DOI: 10.1080/10550490902772975, ISSN: 1521-0391.

Reich MS, Dietrich MS, Finlayson AJ, Fischer EF, Martin PR. Coffee and cigarette consumption and perceived effects in recovering alcoholics participating in Alcoholics Anonymous in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 32(10): 1799-806. PMID: 18657129, PMCID: PMC2585746, PII: ACER751, DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00751.x, ISSN: 1530-0277.

Jones HE, Martin PR, Heil SH, Kaltenbach K, Selby P, Coyle MG, Stine SM, O'Grady KE, Arria AM, Fischer G. Treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women: clinical and research issues. J Subst Abuse Treat [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 35(3): 245-59. PMID: 18248941, PMCID: PMC2633026, PII: S0740-5472(07)00328-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2007.10.007, ISSN: 1873-6483.

Raj V, Landess JS, Martin PR. Oxcarbazepine use in essential tremor. Ann Pharmacother [print-electronic]. 2006 Oct; 40(10): 1876-9. PMID: 16968828, PII: aph.1H131, DOI: 10.1345/aph.1H131, ISSN: 1542-6270.

Kranzler HR, Mueller T, Cornelius J, Pettinati HM, Moak D, Martin PR, Anthenelli R, Brower KJ, O'Malley S, Mason BJ, Hasin D, Keller M. Sertraline treatment of co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 26(1): 13-20. PMID: 16415699, PII: 00004714-200602000-00004, ISSN: 0271-0749.

Farah A, de Paulis T, Moreira DP, Trugo LC, Martin PR. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006 Jan 1/25/2006; 54(2): 374-81. PMID: 16417293, DOI: 10.1021/jf0518305, ISSN: 0021-8561.

Farah A, de Paulis T, Trugo LC, Martin PR. Effect of roasting on the formation of chlorogenic acid lactones in coffee. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Mar 3/9/2005; 53(5): 1505-13. PMID: 15740032, DOI: 10.1021/jf048701t, ISSN: 0021-8561.

Martin PR, Petry NM. Are non-substance-related addictions really addictions?. Am J Addict. 2005 Jan; 14(1): 1-7. PMID: 15804872, PII: LNU7AQ3VCDVB01YL, DOI: 10.1080/10550490590899808, ISSN: 1055-0496.

Garbutt JC, Kranzler HR, O'Malley SS, Gastfriend DR, Pettinati HM, Silverman BL, Loewy JW, Ehrich EW for the Vivitrex Study Group, including Martin PR at the Vanderbilt site. Efficacy and tolerability of long-acting injectable naltrexone for alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2005; 293: 1617-25.

de Paulis T, Commers P, Farah A, Zhao J, McDonald MP, Galici R, Martin PR. 4-Caffeoyl-1,5-quinide in roasted coffee inhibits [3H]naloxone binding and reverses anti-nociceptive effects of morphine in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) [print-electronic]. 2004 Nov; 176(2): 146-53. PMID: 15088081, DOI: 10.1007/s00213-004-1876-9, ISSN: 0033-3158.

Kranzler H, Wesson DR., Billot L for the Drug Abuse Sciences Naltrexone Depot Study Group, including Martin PR and Weinstein DD at the Vanderbilt site. Naltrexone depot for treatment of alcohol dependence: a multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2004; 28: 1051-9.

Parks MH, Morgan VL, Pickens DR, Price RR, Dietrich MS, Nickel MK, Martin PR. Brain fMRI activation associated with self-paced finger tapping in chronic alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2003 Apr; 27(4): 704-11. PMID: 12711934, DOI: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000062759.14944.CF, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Sullivan EV, Harding AJ, Pentney R, Dlugos C, Martin PR, Parks MH, Desmond JE, Chen SH, Pryor MR, De Rosa E, Pfefferbaum A. Disruption of frontocerebellar circuitry and function in alcoholism. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2003 Feb; 27(2): 301-9. PMID: 12605080, DOI: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000052584.05305.98, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Martin PR, Singleton CK, Hiller-Sturmhöfel S. The role of thiamine deficiency in alcoholic brain disease. Alcohol Res Health. 2003; 27(2): 134-42. PMID: 15303623, ISSN: 1535-7414.

Parks MH, Dawant BM, Riddle WR, Hartmann SL, Dietrich MS, Nickel MK, Price RR, Martin PR. Longitudinal brain metabolic characterization of chronic alcoholics with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2002 Sep; 26(9): 1368-80. PMID: 12351932, DOI: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000029598.07833.2D, ISSN: 0145-6008.

de Paulis T, Schmidt DE, Bruchey AK, Kirby MT, McDonald MP, Commers P, Lovinger DM, Martin PR. Dicinnamoylquinides in roasted coffee inhibit the human adenosine transporter. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002 May 5/10/2002; 442(3): 215-23. PMID: 12065074, PII: S0014299902015406, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Singleton CK, Martin PR. Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization. Curr. Mol. Med. 2001 May; 1(2): 197-207. PMID: 11899071, ISSN: 1566-5240.

Ragan, P.W., Martin, P.R. The psychobiology of sexual addiction. Sexual Addiction and Complusivity. 2000; ((7)): 161-75.

Hartmann SL, Parks MH, Martin PR, Dawant BM. Automatic 3-D segmentation of internal structures of the head in MR images using a combination of similarity and free-form transformations: Part II, validation on severely atrophied brains. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1999 Oct; 18(10): 917-26. PMID: 10628951, DOI: 10.1109/42.811273, ISSN: 0278-0062.

Onaivi ES, Chaudhuri G, Abaci AS, Parker M, Manier DH, Martin PR, Hubbard JR. Expression of cannabinoid receptors and their gene transcripts in human blood cells. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 1999 Aug; 23(6): 1063-77. PMID: 10621950, PII: S0278584699000524, ISSN: 0278-5846.

Ragan, P. W., Singleton, C. K., & Martin, P. R. Brain injury associated with chronic alcoholism. CNS Spectrums. 1999; 4: 66-87.

Hartmann, S. L., Parks, M. H., Schlack, H., Riddle, W., Price, R. R., Martin, P. R., & Dawant, B. M.. Automatic computation of brain and cerebellum volumes in normal subjects and chronic alcoholics. Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 1999; 1613: 430-5.

Hartmann SL, Dawant BM, Parks MH, Schlack H, Martin PR. Image-guided MR spectroscopy volume of interest localization for longitudinal studies. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 1998 Nov; 22(6): 453-61. PMID: 10098893, PII: S0895611198000500, ISSN: 0895-6111.

Pekovich SR, Martin PR, Singleton CK. Thiamine deficiency decreases steady-state transketolase and pyruvate dehydrogenase but not alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase mRNA levels in three human cell types. J. Nutr. 1998 Apr; 128(4): 683-7. PMID: 9521628, ISSN: 0022-3166.

Pekovich, S. R., Poggi, V., Martin, P. R., & Singleton, C. K.. Sensitivity to thiamine deficiency in cultured human cells is dependant on cell type and is enhanced in cells from thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia patients. J Nutr Biochem. 1998; 9: 215-22.

Wang JJ, Martin PR, Singleton CK. Aspartate 155 of human transketolase is essential for thiamine diphosphate-magnesium binding, and cofactor binding is required for dimer formation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1997 Sep 9/5/1997; 1341(2): 165-72. PMID: 9357955, PII: S0167-4838(97)00067-8, ISSN: 0006-3002.

Welch LW, Nimmerrichter A, Gilliland R, King DE, Martin PR. "Wineglass" confabulations among brain-damaged alcoholics on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised visual reproduction subtest. Cortex. 1997 Sep; 33(3): 543-51. PMID: 9339334, ISSN: 0010-9452.

Wang JJ, Martin PR, Singleton CK. A transketolase assembly defect in a Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patient. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1997 Jun; 21(4): 576-80. PMID: 9194907, PII: 00000374-199706000-00002, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Welch LW, Cunningham AT, Eckardt MJ, Martin PR. Fine motor speed deficits in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1997 Feb; 21(1): 134-9. PMID: 9046386, PII: 00000374-199702000-00020, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Waterhouse GJ, Roback HB, Moore RF, Martin PR. Perspectives of treatment efficacy with the substance dependent physician: a national survey. J Addict Dis. 1997; 16(1): 123-38. PMID: 9046448, DOI: 10.1300/J069v16n01_08, ISSN: 1055-0887.

Adinoff B, Kiser JM, Martin PR, Linnoila M. Response of dehydroepiandrosterone to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation in alcohol-dependent subjects. Biol. Psychiatry. 1996 Dec 12/15/1996; 40(12): 1305-7. PMID: 8959298, PII: S0006322396003812, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Singleton CK, Wang JJ, Shan L, Martin PR. Conserved residues are functionally distinct within transketolases of different species. Biochemistry. 1996 Dec 12/10/1996; 35(49): 15865-9. PMID: 8961951, PII: bi9616920, DOI: 10.1021/bi9616920, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Roback HB, Moore RF, Waterhouse GJ, Martin PR. Confidentiality dilemmas in group psychotherapy with substance-dependent physicians. Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Oct; 153(10): 1250-60. PMID: 8831431, DOI: 10.1176/ajp.153.10.1250, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Pekovich SR, Martin PR, Singleton CK. Thiamine pyrophosphate-requiring enzymes are altered during pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency in cultured human lymphoblasts. J. Nutr. 1996 Jul; 126(7): 1791-8. PMID: 8683340, ISSN: 0022-3166.

Welch LW, Nimmerrichter A, Kessler R, King D, Hoehn R, Margolin R, Martin PR. Severe global amnesia presenting as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome but resulting from atypical lesions. Psychol Med. 1996 Mar; 26(2): 421-5. PMID: 8685298, ISSN: 0033-2917.

Eckardt MJ, Rohrbaugh JW, Stapleton JM, Davis EZ, Martin PR, Weingartner HJ. Attention-related brain potential and cognition in alcoholism-associated organic brain disorders. Biol. Psychiatry. 1996 Jan 1/15/1996; 39(2): 143-6. PMID: 8717614, PII: 0006-3223(95)00368-1, DOI: 10.1016/0006-3223(95)00368-1, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Lee H, Tarter J, Holburn GE, Price RR, Weinstein DD, Martin PR. In vivo localized proton NMR spectroscopy of thiamine-deficient rat brain. Magn Reson Med. 1995 Sep; 34(3): 313-8. PMID: 7500868, ISSN: 0740-3194.

Martin PR, Gibbs SJ, Nimmerrichter AA, Riddle WR, Welch LW, Willcott MR. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in recently abstinent alcoholics. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1995 Aug; 19(4): 1078-82. PMID: 7485820, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Martin PR, McCool BA, Singleton CK. Molecular genetics of transketolase in the pathogenesis of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Metab Brain Dis. 1995 Mar; 10(1): 45-55. PMID: 7596328, ISSN: 0885-7490.

Martin PR, Adinoff B, Lane E, Stapleton JM, Bone GA, Weingartner H, Linnoila M, Eckardt MJ. Fluvoxamine treatment of alcoholic amnestic disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1995 Mar; 5(1): 27-33. PMID: 7542052, PII: 0924977X9400129Y, ISSN: 0924-977X.

Singleton CK, Pekovich SR, McCool BA, Martin PR. The thiamine-dependent hysteretic behavior of human transketolase: implications for thiamine deficiency. J. Nutr. 1995 Feb; 125(2): 189-94. PMID: 7861245, ISSN: 0022-3166.

Weinstein DD, Martin PR: Psychiatric implications of alcoholism and traumatic brain injury. American Journal on Addictions. 1995; 4: 285-96.

Gauvin DV, Briscoe RJ, Goulden KL, Wojnicki FH, Russin R, Martin PR, Holloway FA. Influence of thiamine on the behavioral sensitivity to ethanol. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1994 Dec; 18(6): 1398-405. PMID: 7695036, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Joyce EM, Rio DE, Ruttimann UE, Rohrbaugh JW, Martin PR, Rawlings RR, Eckardt MJ. Decreased cingulate and precuneate glucose utilization in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 1994 Dec; 54(3): 225-39. PMID: 7792327, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Martin PR, Pekovich SR, McCool BA, Whetsell WO, Singleton CK. Thiamine utilization in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced brain damage. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1994; 2: 273-9. PMID: 8974347, ISSN: 1358-6173.

Adinoff B, Martin PR, Eckardt MJ, Linnoila M. Role of DHEA and DHEA-S in Alzheimer's disease [letter]. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Sep; 150(9): 1432-3. PMID: 8352366, DOI: 10.1176/ajp.150.9.aj15091432, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Martin PR, McCool BA, Singleton CK. Genetic sensitivity to thiamine deficiency and development of alcoholic organic brain disease. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1993 Feb; 17(1): 31-7. PMID: 8452206, ISSN: 0145-6008.

McCool BA, Plonk SG, Martin PR, Singleton CK. Cloning of human transketolase cDNAs and comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the coding region in Wernicke-Korsakoff and non-Wernicke-Korsakoff individuals. J. Biol. Chem. 1993 Jan 1/15/1993; 268(2): 1397-404. PMID: 8419340, ISSN: 0021-9258.

George DT, Lindquist T, Rawlings RR, Eckardt MJ, Moss H, Mathis C, Martin PR, Linnoila M. Pharmacologic maintenance of abstinence in patients with alcoholism: no efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptophan or levodopa. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1992 Nov; 52(5): 553-60. PMID: 1424429, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Martin PR, Rio D, Adinoff B, Johnson JL, Bisserbe JC, Rawlings RR, Rohrbaugh JW, Stapleton JM, Eckardt MJ. Regional cerebral glucose utilization in chronic organic mental disorders associated with alcoholism. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992; 4(2): 159-67. PMID: 1627977, DOI: 10.1176/jnp.4.2.159, ISSN: 0895-0172.

Adinoff B, Nemeroff CB, Bissette G, Martin PR, Linnoila M. Inverse relationship between CSF TRH concentrations and the TSH response to TRH in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1991 Nov; 148(11): 1586-8. PMID: 1656797, DOI: 10.1176/ajp.148.11.1586, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Adinoff B, Risher-Flowers D, De Jong J, Ravitz B, Bone GH, Nutt DJ, Roehrich L, Martin PR, Linnoila M. Disturbances of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning during ethanol withdrawal in six men. Am J Psychiatry. 1991 Aug; 148(8): 1023-5. PMID: 1853950, DOI: 10.1176/ajp.148.8.1023, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Adinoff B, Martin PR, Eckardt MJ, Bone GH, Gold PW, Linnoila M. Pituitary-adrenal responses to oCRH and central neuropeptide levels in alcohol amnestic disorder. Biol. Psychiatry. 1991 Jun 6/1/1991; 29(11): 1153-5. PMID: 1651774, PII: 0006-3223(91)90257-M, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Adinoff B, Martin PR, Bone GH, Eckardt MJ, Roehrich L, George DT, Moss HB, Eskay R, Linnoila M, Gold PW. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin levels in alcoholics after recent and long-term abstinence. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1990 Apr; 47(4): 325-30. PMID: 2157379, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Eckardt MJ, Rohrbaugh JW, Rio DE, Martin PR. Positron emission tomography as a technique for studying the chronic effects of alcohol on the human brain. Ann. Med. 1990; 22(5): 341-5. PMID: 2291842, ISSN: 0785-3890.

Martin PR, Adinoff B, Eckardt MJ, Stapleton JM, Bone GA, Rubinow DR, Lane EA, Linnoila M. Effective pharmacotherapy of alcoholic amnestic disorder with fluvoxamine. Preliminary findings. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1989 Jul; 46(7): 617-21. PMID: 2472126, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Martin PR, Impeduglia G, Giri PR, Karanian J. Acceleration of ethanol metabolism by past thiamine deficiency. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1989 Jun; 13(3): 457-60. PMID: 2665563, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Martin PR, Eckardt MJ, Linnoila M. Treatment of chronic organic mental disorders associated with alcoholism. Recent Dev Alcohol. 1989; 7: 329-50. PMID: 2648495, ISSN: 0738-422X.

Bone GH, Majchrowicz E, Martin PR, Linnoila M, Nutt DJ. A comparison of calcium antagonists and diazepam in reducing ethanol withdrawal tremors. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 1989; 99(3): 386-8. PMID: 2594904, ISSN: 0033-3158.

Martin PR, Levin S, Impeduglia G, Choe Y, Karanian J, Mukherjee AB. Thiamine deficiency in utero alters response to ethanol in adulthood. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 1989; 97(2): 253-6. PMID: 2498935, ISSN: 0033-3158.

Eckardt MJ, Rawlings RR, Graubard BI, Faden V, Martin PR, Gottschalk LA. Neuropsychological performance and treatment outcome in male alcoholics. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1988 Feb; 12(1): 88-93. PMID: 3279865, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Risher-Flowers D, Adinoff B, Ravitz B, Bone GH, Martin PR, Nutt D, Linnoila M. Circadian rhythms of cortisol during alcohol withdrawal. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse. 1988; 7(3-4): 37-41. PMID: 3223434, DOI: 10.1300/J251v07n03_06, ISSN: 0270-3106.

Stapleton JM, Eckardt MJ, Martin PR, Adinoff B, Roehrich L, Bone G, Rubinow D, Linnoila M. Treatment of alcoholic organic brain syndrome with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine: A preliminary study. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse. 1988; 7: 47-51.

Nutt DJ, Adinoff B, Ravitz B, George DT, Flowers D, Eckardt MJ, Bone GHA, Martin PR, Linnoila M. Cerebro-spinal studies in alcoholics and violent offenders. Australian Alcohol and Drug Review. 1988; 7: 105-8.

Mukherjee AB, Svoronos S, Ghazanfari A, Martin PR, Fisher A, Roecklein B, Rodbard D, Staton R, Behar D, Berg CJ. Transketolase abnormality in cultured fibroblasts from familial chronic alcoholic men and their male offspring. J. Clin. Invest. 1987 Apr; 79(4): 1039-43. PMID: 3558815, PMCID: PMC424281, DOI: 10.1172/JCI112916, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Impeduglia G, Martin PR, Kwast M, Hohlstein LA, Roehrich L, Majchrowicz E. Influence of thiamine deficiency on the response to ethanol in two inbred rat strains. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987 Mar; 240(3): 754-63. PMID: 3559971, ISSN: 0022-3565.

Linnoila M, Eckardt MJ, Durcan M, Lister R, Martin PR. Interactions of serotonin with ethanol: clinical and animal studies. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1987; 23: 452-7.

Moss HB, Tamarkin L, Majchrowicz E, Martin PR, Linnoila M. Pineal function during ethanol intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. Life Sci. 1986 Dec 12/8/1986; 39(23): 2209-14. PMID: 3784775, ISSN: 0024-3205.

Johnson JL, Adinoff B, Bisserbe JC, Martin PR, Rio D, Rohrbaugh JW, Zubovic E, Eckardt MJ. Assessment of alcoholism-related organic brain syndromes with positron emission tomography. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1986 Jun; 10(3): 237-40. PMID: 3526943, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Adinoff B, Majchrowicz E, Martin PR, Linnoila M. The benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788 does not antagonize the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Biol. Psychiatry. 1986 Jun; 21(7): 643-9. PMID: 3011130, PII: 0006-3223(86)90125-3, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Martin PR, Loewenstein RJ, Kaye WH, Ebert MH, Weingartner H, Gillin JC. Sleep EEG in Korsakoff's psychosis and Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1986 Mar; 36(3): 411-4. PMID: 3951711, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Eckardt MJ, Martin PR. Clinical assessment of cognition in alcoholism. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1986 Mar; 10(2): 123-7. PMID: 3521368, ISSN: 0145-6008.

Martin PR, Adinoff B, Weingartner H, Mukherjee AB, Eckardt MJ. Alcoholic organic brain disease: nosology and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 1986; 10(2): 147-64. PMID: 2875490, ISSN: 0278-5846.

Eckardt MJ, Rawlings RR, Martin PR. Biological correlates and detection of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 1986; 10(2): 135-44. PMID: 2875489, ISSN: 0278-5846.

Martin PR, Majchrowicz E, Tamborska E, Marietta C, Mukherjee AB, Eckardt MJ. Response to ethanol reduced by past thiamine deficiency. Science. 1985 Mar 3/15/1985; 227(4692): 1365-8. PMID: 3975622, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Eckardt MJ, Rawlings RR, Ryback RS, Martin PR, Gottschalk LA. Effects of abstinence on the ability of clinical laboratory tests to identify male alcoholics. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 1984 Sep; 82(3): 305-10. PMID: 6465097, ISSN: 0002-9173.

Martin PR, Higa S, Burns RS, Tamarkin L, Ebert MH, Markey SP. Decreased 6-hydroxymelatonin excretion in Korsakoff's psychosis. Neurology. 1984 Jul; 34(7): 966-8. PMID: 6539875, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Martin PR, Ebert MH, Gordon EK, Linnoila M, Kopin IJ. Effects of clonidine on central and peripheral catecholamine metabolism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1984 Mar; 35(3): 322-7. PMID: 6199153, PII: 0009-9236(84)90195-4, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Martin PR, Weingartner H, Gordon EK, Burns RS, Linnoila M, Kopin IJ, Ebert MH. Central nervous system catecholamine metabolism in Korsakoff's psychosis. Ann. Neurol. 1984 Feb; 15(2): 184-7. PMID: 6200058, DOI: 10.1002/ana.410150212, ISSN: 0364-5134.

Martin PR, Ebert MH, Gordon EK, Weingartner H, Kopin IJ. Catecholamine metabolism during clonidine withdrawal. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 1984; 84(1): 58-63. PMID: 6436892, ISSN: 0033-3158.

Weingartner H, Grafman J, Boutelle W, Kaye W, Martin PR. Forms of memory failure. Science. 1983 Jul 7/22/1983; 221(4608): 380-2. PMID: 6867715, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Martin PR, Ebert MH, Gordon EK, Kopin IJ. Urinary catecholamine metabolites and effects of clonidine in patients with alcohol amnestic disorder. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1983 Jan; 33(1): 19-27. PMID: 6848295, PII: 0009-9236(83)90559-3, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Martin PR, Ebert MH, Gordon EK, Kopin IJ. Changes during clonidine treatment and clonidine withdrawal in urinary catecholamine metabolites in alcohol amnestic disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1983; 19: 699-702.

Martin PR, Lefebvre AM. Surgical treatment of sleep-apnea-associated psychosis. Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Apr 4/15/1981; 124(8): 978-80. PMID: 7260800, PMCID: PMC1705384, ISSN: 0008-4409.

Martin PR. The human genetics of alcoholism. Substance and Alcohol Actions/Misuse. 1981; 2: 389-406.

Martin PR, Bhushan CM, Kapur BM, Whiteside EA, Sellers EM. Intravenous phenobarbital therapy in barbiturate and other hypnosedative withdrawal reactions: a kinetic approach. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1979 Aug; 26(2): 256-64. PMID: 455894, ISSN: 0009-9236.

MacLeod SM, Sellers EM, Giles HG, Billings BJ, Martin PR, Greenblatt DJ, Marshman JA. Interaction of disulfiram with benzodiazepines. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1978 Nov; 24(5): 583-9. PMID: 29739, PII: 0009-9236(78)90351-X, ISSN: 0009-9236.