Holly M. Algood, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
Ph.D., Molecular Virology and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaB.S., Biology, Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio
Office Address
AA-2200 MCN
1161 21st Ave South
Nashville, TN 37232
Research Description
Projects in Dr. Algood's lab focus on pathogen - host interactions in chronic infections and during chronic inflammation. Her main model system is Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative pathogen which can chronically colonize the human stomach and lead to adverse disease outcomes such as peptic ulcers or gastric cancer. Her projects investigate how T cell cytokines influence gastric epithelial cells responding to infection but also even more broadly how T cell cytokines activate other cells to protect the epithelial cells and the mucosal barrier they maintain. Dr. Algood's research utilizes H. pylori as a model mucosal pathogen, but her long-term research interests lie in understanding the balance between the mucosal immune responses, pathogens, and normal flora. While immune responses may be necessary to control bacterial colonization at the mucosal surfaces, the immune response must also be well controlled to maintain epithelial cell integrity and to control infiltration of other potentially damaging immune cells. Th17-driven immune responses have been implicated in pro-inflammatory activity and induction of chronic inflammation; she would like to better understand how the Th17 response is balanced. Moreover, since the inflammatory/immune response is not sufficient to clear the infection, Dr. Algood's laboratory is beginning studies to investigate how the bacteria persist while combated with the stresses of the immune response.
Research Keywords
Helicobacter pylori, inflammation, T lymphocytes, cytokines, bacterial pathogenesis, Th17, bacterial response, oxidative stress, host-pathogen interactions, macrophages, cancer
Lin AS, Shuman JHB, Kotnala A, Shaw JA, Beckett AC, Harvey JL, Tuck M, Dixon BREA, Reyzer ML, Algood HMS, Schey KL, Piazuelo MB, Cover TL. Loss of Corpus-Specific Lipids in Helicobacter pylori-Induced Atrophic Gastritis. MSphere [print-electronic]. 2021 Nov 11/24/2021; e0082621. PMID: 34817238, PMCID: PMC8612251, DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00826-21, ISSN: 2379-5042.

Harvey ML, Lin AS, Sun L, Koyama T, Shuman JHB, Loh JT, Algood HMS, Scholz MB, McClain MS, Cover TL. Enhanced Fitness of a Helicobacter pylori babA Mutant in a Murine Model. Infect Immun [print-electronic]. 2021 Sep 9/16/2021; 89(10): e0072520. PMID: 34310886, PMCID: PMC8445181, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00725-20, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Lin AS, McClain MS, Beckett AC, Caston RR, Harvey ML, Dixon BREA, Campbell AM, Shuman JHB, Sawhney N, Delgado AG, Loh JT, Piazuelo MB, Algood HMS, Cover TL. Temporal Control of the Helicobacter pylori Cag Type IV Secretion System in a Mongolian Gerbil Model of Gastric Carcinogenesis. MBio. 2020 Jun 6/30/2020; 11(3): PMID: 32605987, PMCID: PMC7327173, PII: mBio.01296-20, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01296-20, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Algood HMS. T Cell Cytokines Impact Epithelial Cell Responses during Helicobacter pylori Infection. J Immunol. 2020 Mar 3/15/2020; 204(6): 1421-8. PMID: 32152211, PMCID: PMC7080313, PII: 204/6/1421, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1901307, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Dixon BREA, Hossain R, Patel RV, Algood HMS. Th17 Cells in Helicobacter pylori Infection: a Dichotomy of Help and Harm. Infect Immun [electronic-print]. 2019 Nov; 87(11): PMID: 31427446, PMCID: PMC6803329, PII: IAI.00363-19, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00363-19, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Yasmin S, Dixon BREA, Olivares-Villagómez D, Algood HMS. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) Downregulates Dendritic Cell Cytokine Responses to Helicobacter pylori and Modulates T Lymphocyte IL-17A Expression in Peyer's Patches during Infection. Infect Immun [electronic-print]. 2019 Nov; 87(11): PMID: 31383743, PMCID: PMC6803323, PII: IAI.00237-19, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00237-19, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Dale BL, Pandey AK, Chen Y, Smart CD, Laroumanie F, Ao M, Xiao L, Dikalova AE, Dikalov SI, Elijovich F, Foss JD, Barbaro NR, Van Beusecum JP, Deger SM, Alsouqi A, Itani HA, Norlander AE, Alexander MR, Zhao S, Ikizler TA, Algood HMS, Madhur MS. Critical role of Interleukin 21 and T follicular helper cells in hypertension and vascular dysfunction. JCI Insight. 2019 Apr 4/23/2019; 5: PMID: 31013256, PMCID: PMC6629096, PII: 129278, DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.129278, ISSN: 2379-3708.

Sutton JA, Rogers LM, Dixon BREA, Kirk L, Doster R, Algood HM, Gaddy JA, Flaherty R, Manning SD, Aronoff DM. Protein kinase D mediates inflammatory responses of human placental macrophages to Group B Streptococcus. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2019 Mar; 81(3): e13075. PMID: 30582878, PMCID: PMC6459189, DOI: 10.1111/aji.13075, ISSN: 1600-0897.

Piazuelo MB, Riechelmann RP, Wilson KT, Algood HMS. Resolution of Gastric Cancer-Promoting Inflammation: A Novel Strategy for Anti-cancer Therapy. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2019; 421: 319-59. PMID: 31123895, PMCID: PMC6602908, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_13, ISSN: 0070-217X.

Beckett AC, Loh JT, Chopra A, Leary S, Lin AS, McDonnell WJ, Dixon BREA, Noto JM, Israel DA, Peek RM, Mallal S, Algood HMS, Cover TL. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversification in the Mongolian gerbil model. PeerJ. 2018; 6: e4803. PMID: 29796347, PMCID: PMC5961626, PII: 4803, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4803, ISSN: 2167-8359.

Guckes KR, Breland EJ, Zhang EW, Hanks SC, Gill NK, Algood HM, Schmitz JE, Stratton CW, Hadjifrangiskou M. Signaling by two-component system noncognate partners promotes intrinsic tolerance to polymyxin B in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Sci Signal. 2017 Jan 1/10/2017; 10(461): PMID: 28074004, PII: 10/461/eaag1775, DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aag1775, ISSN: 1937-9145.

Shaffer CL, Zhang EW, Dudley AG, Dixon BR, Guckes KR, Breland EJ, Floyd KA, Casella DP, Algood HM, Clayton DB, Hadjifrangiskou M. Purine Biosynthesis Metabolically Constrains Intracellular Survival of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun [electronic-print]. 2017 Jan; 85(1): PMID: 27795353, PMCID: PMC5203662, PII: IAI.00471-16, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00471-16, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Varga MG, Piazuelo MB, Romero-Gallo J, Delgado AG, Suarez G, Whitaker ME, Krishna US, Patel RV, Skaar EP, Wilson KT, Algood HM, Peek RM. TLR9 activation suppresses inflammation in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov 11/1/2016; 311(5): G852-G858. PMID: 27758771, PMCID: PMC5130555, PII: ajpgi.00175.2016, DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00175.2016, ISSN: 1522-1547.

Beckett AC, Piazuelo MB, Noto JM, Peek RM, Washington MK, Algood HM, Cover TL. Dietary composition influences incidence of Helicobacter pylori-induced iron deficiency anemia and gastric ulceration. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/12/2016; PMID: 27620719, PII: IAI.00479-16, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00479-16, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Beceiro S, Radin JN, Chatuvedi R, Piazuelo MB, Horvarth DJ, Cortado H, Gu Y, Dixon B, Gu C, Lange I, Koomoa DL, Wilson KT, Algood HM, Partida-Sánchez S. TRPM2 ion channels regulate macrophage polarization and gastric inflammation during Helicobacter pylori infection. Mucosal Immunol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/20/2016; PMID: 27435104, PII: mi201660, DOI: 10.1038/mi.2016.60, ISSN: 1935-3456.

Dixon BR, Radin JN, Piazuelo MB, Contreras DC, Algood HM. IL-17a and IL-22 Induce Expression of Antimicrobials in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Cells and May Contribute to Epithelial Cell Defense against Helicobacter pylori. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11(2): e0148514. PMID: 26867135, PMCID: PMC4750979, PII: PONE-D-15-33690, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148514, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Loh JT, Gaddy JA, Algood HM, Gaudieri S, Mallal S, Cover TL. Helicobacter pylori adaptation in vivo in response to a high-salt diet. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec; 83(12): 4871-83. PMID: 26438795, PMCID: PMC4645402, PII: IAI.00918-15, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00918-15, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Cullen TW, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Trent MS, Algood HM. Helicobacter pylori Resists the Antimicrobial Activity of Calprotectin via Lipid A Modification and Associated Biofilm Formation. MBio. 2015; 6(6): e01349-15. PMID: 26646009, PMCID: PMC4669380, PII: mBio.01349-15, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01349-15, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Van Kaer L, Algood HM, Singh K, Parekh VV, Greer MJ, Piazuelo MB, Weitkamp JH, Matta P, Chaturvedi R, Wilson KT, Olivares-Villagómez D. CD8aa¿ innate-type lymphocytes in the intestinal epithelium mediate mucosal immunity. Immunity [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep 9/18/2014; 41(3): 451-64. PMID: 25220211, PMCID: PMC4169715, PII: S1074-7613(14)00304-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.08.010, ISSN: 1097-4180.

Carbo A, Olivares-Villagómez D, Hontecillas R, Bassaganya-Riera J, Chaturvedi R, Piazuelo MB, Delgado A, Washington MK, Wilson KT, Algood HM. Systems modeling of the role of interleukin-21 in the maintenance of effector CD4+ T cell responses during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. MBio. 2014; 5(4): e01243-14. PMID: 25053783, PMCID: PMC4120195, PII: mBio.01243-14, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01243-14, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Radin JN, González-Rivera C, Frick-Cheng AE, Sheng J, Gaddy JA, Rubin DH, Algood HM, McClain MS, Cover TL. Role of connexin 43 in Helicobacter pylori VacA-induced cell death. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan; 82(1): 423-32. PMID: 24191302, PMCID: PMC3911829, PII: IAI.00827-13, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00827-13, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Loh JT, Zhang F, Washington MK, Peek RM, Algood HM, Cover TL. High dietary salt intake exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 81(6): 2258-67. PMID: 23569116, PMCID: PMC3676043, PII: IAI.01271-12, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01271-12, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Radin JN, Gaddy JA, González-Rivera C, Loh JT, Algood HM, Cover TL. Flagellar localization of a Helicobacter pylori autotransporter protein. MBio. 2013; 4(2): e00613-12. PMID: 23572556, PMCID: PMC3622936, PII: mBio.00613-12, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00613-12, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Horvath DJ, Radin JN, Cho SH, Washington MK, Algood HM. The interleukin-17 receptor B subunit is essential for the Th2 response to Helicobacter pylori, but not for control of bacterial burden. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2013; 8(3): e60363. PMID: 23533678, PMCID: PMC3606319, PII: PONE-D-12-40152, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060363, ISSN: 1932-6203.

González-Rivera C, Algood HM, Radin JN, McClain MS, Cover TL. The intermediate region of Helicobacter pylori VacA is a determinant of toxin potency in a Jurkat T cell assay. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug; 80(8): 2578-88. PMID: 22585965, PMCID: PMC3434591, PII: IAI.00052-12, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00052-12, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Horvath DJ, Washington MK, Cope VA, Algood HM. IL-23 Contributes to Control of Chronic Helicobacter Pylori Infection and the Development of T Helper Responses in a Mouse Model. Front Immunol. 2012; 3: 56. PMID: 22566937, PMCID: PMC3342083, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00056, ISSN: 1664-3224.

Olivares-Villagómez D, Algood HM, Singh K, Parekh VV, Ryan KE, Piazuelo MB, Wilson KT, Van Kaer L. Intestinal epithelial cells modulate CD4 T cell responses via the thymus leukemia antigen. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct 10/15/2011; 187(8): 4051-60. PMID: 21900182, PMCID: PMC3186831, PII: jimmunol.1101052, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101052, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Goettel JA, Scott Algood HM, Olivares-Villagómez D, Washington MK, Chaturvedi R, Wilson KT, Van Kaer L, Polk DB. KSR1 protects from interleukin-10 deficiency-induced colitis in mice by suppressing T-lymphocyte interferon-¿ production. Gastroenterology [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 140(1): 265-74. PMID: 20875416, PMCID: PMC3008308, PII: S0016-5085(10)01421-6, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.09.041, ISSN: 1528-0012.

Asim M, Chaturvedi R, Hoge S, Lewis ND, Singh K, Barry DP, Algood HS, de Sablet T, Gobert AP, Wilson KT. Helicobacter pylori induces ERK-dependent formation of a phospho-c-Fos c-Jun activator protein-1 complex that causes apoptosis in macrophages. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Jun 6/25/2010; 285(26): 20343-57. PMID: 20410304, PMCID: PMC2888446, PII: M110.116988, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.116988, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Ivie SE, McClain MS, Algood HM, Lacy DB, Cover TL. Analysis of a beta-helical region in the p55 domain of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin. BMC Microbiol. 2010; 10: 60. PMID: 20178613, PMCID: PMC2836311, PII: 1471-2180-10-60, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-60, ISSN: 1471-2180.

Algood HM, Allen SS, Washington MK, Peek RM, Miller GG, Cover TL. Regulation of gastric B cell recruitment is dependent on IL-17 receptor A signaling in a model of chronic bacterial infection. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2009 Nov 11/1/2009; 183(9): 5837-46. PMID: 19812196, PMCID: PMC2834183, PII: jimmunol.0901206, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0901206, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Loh JT, Torres VJ, Algood HM, McClain MS, Cover TL. Helicobacter pylori HopQ outer membrane protein attenuates bacterial adherence to gastric epithelial cells. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2008 Dec; 289(1): 53-8. PMID: 19065710, PMCID: PMC2651568, ISSN: 0378-1097.

Ivie SE, McClain MS, Torres VJ, Algood HM, Lacy DB, Yang R, Blanke SR, Cover TL. Helicobacter pylori VacA subdomain required for intracellular toxin activity and assembly of functional oligomeric complexes. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 76(7): 2843-51. PMID: 18443094, PMCID: PMC2446698, PII: IAI.01664-07, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01664-07, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Algood HM, Gallo-Romero J, Wilson KT, Peek RM, Cover TL. Host response to Helicobacter pylori infection before initiation of the adaptive immune response. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2007 Dec; 51(3): 577-86. PMID: 17919297, PII: FIM338, DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2007.00338.x, ISSN: 0928-8244.

Chaturvedi R, Asim M, Lewis ND, Algood HM, Cover TL, Kim PY, Wilson KT. L-arginine availability regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent host defense against Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 75(9): 4305-15. PMID: 17562760, PMCID: PMC1951193, PII: IAI.00578-07, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00578-07, ISSN: 0019-9567.

Algood HM, Torres VJ, Unutmaz D, Cover TL. Resistance of primary murine CD4+ T cells to Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2007 Jan; 75(1): 334-41. PMID: 17074854, PMCID: PMC1828377, PII: IAI.01063-06, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01063-06, ISSN: 0019-9567.

Algood HM, Cover TL. Helicobacter pylori persistence: an overview of interactions between H. pylori and host immune defenses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2006 Oct; 19(4): 597-613. PMID: 17041136, PMCID: PMC1592695, PII: 19/4/597, DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00006-06, ISSN: 0893-8512.

Algood HM, Lin PL, Flynn JL. Tumor necrosis factor and chemokine interactions in the formation and maintenance of granulomas in tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005 Aug 8/1/2005; 41 Suppl 3: S189-93. PMID: 15983898, PII: CID35769, DOI: 10.1086/429994, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Algood HM, Flynn JL. CCR5-deficient mice control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection despite increased pulmonary lymphocytic infiltration. J. Immunol. 2004 Sep 9/1/2004; 173(5): 3287-96. PMID: 15322191, PII: 173/5/3287, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Algood HM, Lin PL, Yankura D, Jones A, Chan J, Flynn JL. TNF influences chemokine expression of macrophages in vitro and that of CD11b+ cells in vivo during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J. Immunol. 2004 Jun 6/1/2004; 172(11): 6846-57. PMID: 15153503, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Algood HM, Chan J, Flynn JL. Chemokines and tuberculosis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2003 Dec; 14(6): 467-77. PMID: 14563349, PII: S1359610103000546, ISSN: 1359-6101.

Scott HM, Flynn JL. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice: influence of dose on disease progression. Infect. Immun. 2002 Nov; 70(11): 5946-54. PMID: 12379669, PMCID: PMC130313, ISSN: 0019-9567.

Peters W, Scott HM, Chambers HF, Flynn JL, Charo IF, Ernst JD. Chemokine receptor 2 serves an early and essential role in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001 Jul 7/3/2001; 98(14): 7958-63. PMID: 11438742, PMCID: PMC35450, PII: 98/14/7958, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.131207398, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Mohan VP, Scanga CA, Yu K, Scott HM, Tanaka KE, Tsang E, Tsai MM, Flynn JL, Chan J. Effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on host immune response in chronic persistent tuberculosis: possible role for limiting pathology. Infect. Immun. 2001 Mar; 69(3): 1847-55. PMID: 11179363, PMCID: PMC98092, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.69.3.1847-1855.2001, ISSN: 0019-9567.