C. Michael Stein, M.B.Ch.B



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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Medicine Dan May ChairProfessor of Pharmacology
M.B.Ch.B, Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Office Address
542 RRB
2222 Pierce Avenue
Nashville, TN 37232-6602
Research Keywords
pharmacogenetics, adrenergic, drug safety, inflammation, atherosclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, personalized medicine, precision medicine, lipids
Clinical Research Keywords
atherosclerosis and inflammation pharmacogenetics adrenergic receptors variability in drug response drug safety clinical pharmacology rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus
Iwuchukwu OF, Ramirez AH, Shi Y, Bowton EA, Kawai VK, Schildcrout JS, Roden DM, Denny JC, Stein CM. Genetic determinants of variability in warfarin response after the dose-titration phase. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2016 Nov; 26(11): 510-6. PMID: 27632229, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000244, ISSN: 1744-6880.

Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Hall K, Stein CM. High-Dose Citalopram and Escitalopram and the Risk of Out-of-Hospital Death. J Clin Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct 10/11/2016; PMID: 27736049, DOI: 10.4088/JCP.15m10324, ISSN: 1555-2101.

Smit RA, Postmus I, Trompet S, Barnes MR, Warren H, Arsenault BJ, Chasman DI, Cupples LA, Hitman GA, Krauss RM, Li X, Psaty BM, Stein CM, Rotter JI, Jukema JW. Rooted in risk: genetic predisposition for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level associates with diminished low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to statin treatment. Pharmacogenomics [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct; 17(15): 1621-8. PMID: 27648687, DOI: 10.2217/pgs-2016-0091, ISSN: 1744-8042.

Ferraz-Amaro I, Winchester R, Gregersen PK, Reynolds RJ, Wasko MC, Oeser A, Chung CP, Stein CM, Giles JT, Bathon JM. Coronary Artery Calcification and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lack of Relationship to Risk Alleles for Coronary Artery Disease in the General Population. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct 10/1/2016; PMID: 27696788, DOI: 10.1002/art.39862, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Smalley WE, Daugherty JR, Dupont WD, Stein CM. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors with Reduced Risk of Warfarin-related Serious Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Gastroenterology [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/14/2016; PMID: 27639805, PII: S0016-5085(16)35034-X, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.08.054, ISSN: 1528-0012.

Ormseth MJ, Yancey PG, Solus JF, Louis Bridges S, Curtis JR, Linton MF, Fazio S, Davies SS, Roberts LJ, Vickers KC, Kon V, Michael Stein C, . Effect of Drug Therapy on Net Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein-Enriched Serum in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 2016 Sep; 68(9): 2099-105. PMID: 26991245, PMCID: PMC5001900, DOI: 10.1002/art.39675, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Postmus I, Warren HR, Trompet S, Arsenault BJ, Avery CL, Bis JC, Chasman DI, de Keyser CE, Deshmukh HA, Evans DS, Feng Q, Li X, Smit RA, Smith AV, Sun F, Taylor KD, Arnold AM, Barnes MR, Barratt BJ, Betteridge J, Boekholdt SM, Boerwinkle E, Buckley BM, Chen YI, de Craen AJ, Cummings SR, Denny JC, Dubé MP, Durrington PN, Eiriksdottir G, Ford I, Guo X, Harris TB, Heckbert SR, Hofman A, Hovingh GK, Kastelein JJ, Launer LJ, Liu CT, Liu Y, Lumley T, McKeigue PM, Munroe PB, Neil A, Nickerson DA, Nyberg F, O'Brien E, O'Donnell CJ, Post W, Poulter N, Vasan RS, Rice K, Rich SS, Rivadeneira F, Sattar N, Sever P, Shaw-Hawkins S, Shields DC, Slagboom PE, Smith NL, Smith JD, Sotoodehnia N, Stanton A, Stott DJ, Stricker BH, Stürmer T, Uitterlinden AG, Wei WQ, Westendorp RG, Whitsel EA, Wiggins KL, Wilke RA, Ballantyne CM, Colhoun HM, Cupples LA, Franco OH, Gudnason V, Hitman G, Palmer CN, Psaty BM, Ridker PM, Stafford JM, Stein CM, Tardif JC, Caulfield MJ, Jukema JW, Rotter JI, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins. J. Med. Genet [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/1/2016; PMID: 27587472, PII: jmedgenet-2016-103966, DOI: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-103966, ISSN: 1468-6244.

Ormseth MJ, Solus JF, Oeser AM, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Stein CM. Telomere Length and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug; 43(8): 1469-74. PMID: 27252422, PMCID: PMC4970932, PII: jrheum.151115, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.151115, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Adefurin A, Darghosian L, Okafor C, Kawai V, Li C, Shah A, Wei WQ, Kurnik D, Stein CM. Alpha2A adrenergic receptor genetic variation contributes to hyperglycemia after myocardial infarction. Int. J. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/15/2016; 215: 482-6. PMID: 27131769, PMCID: PMC4879094, PII: S0167-5273(16)30798-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.04.079, ISSN: 1874-1754.

Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Hall K, Stein CM. Prescription of Long-Acting Opioids and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Noncancer Pain. JAMA. 2016 Jun 6/14/2016; 315(22): 2415-23. PMID: 27299617, PMCID: PMC5030814, PII: 2528212, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.7789, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Mosley JD, Witte JS, Larkin EK, Bastarache L, Shaffer CM, Karnes JH, Stein CM, Phillips E, Hebbring SJ, Brilliant MH, Mayer J, Ye Z, Roden DM, Denny JC. Identifying genetically driven clinical phenotypes using linear mixed models. Nat Commun. 2016 Apr 4/25/2016; 7: 11433. PMID: 27109359, PMCID: PMC4848547, PII: ncomms11433, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11433, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Adefurin A, Ghimire LV, Kohli U, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Li C, Levinson RT, Paranjape SY, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Genetic variation in the alpha1B-adrenergic receptor and vascular response. Pharmacogenomics J [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/19/2016; PMID: 27089938, PMCID: PMC5071105, PII: tpj201629, DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2016.29, ISSN: 1473-1150.

Barnado A, Oeser A, Zhang Y, Okafor CR, Titze J, Stein CM, Chung CP. Association of estimated sodium and potassium intake with blood pressure in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/6/2016; PMID: 27055519, PMCID: PMC5053823, PII: 0961203316642311, DOI: 10.1177/0961203316642311, ISSN: 0961-2033.

Feng Q, Wei WQ, Chung CP, Levinson RT, Bastarache L, Denny JC, Stein CM. The effect of genetic variation in PCSK9 on the LDL-cholesterol response to statin therapy. Pharmacogenomics J [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb 2/23/2016; PMID: 26902539, PMCID: PMC4995153, PII: tpj20163, DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2016.3, ISSN: 1473-1150.

Ormseth MJ, Stein CM. High-density lipoprotein function in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2016 Feb; 27(1): 67-75. PMID: 26709471, PMCID: PMC4703526, DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000256, ISSN: 1473-6535.

Choi L, Ferrell BA, Vasilevskis EE, Pandharipande PP, Heltsley R, Ely EW, Stein CM, Girard TD. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl in the Critically Ill. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1): 64-72. PMID: 26491862, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001347, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Stein CM. Academic clinical research: Death by a thousand clicks. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Dec 12/16/2015; 7(318): 318fs49. PMID: 26676604, PII: 7/318/318fs49, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aab3490, ISSN: 1946-6242.

Chung CP, Ormseth MJ, Connelly MA, Oeser A, Solus JF, Otvos JD, Raggi P, Stein CM. GlycA, a novel marker of inflammation, is elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec 12/3/2015; PMID: 26637290, PII: 0961203315617842, DOI: 10.1177/0961203315617842, ISSN: 1477-0962.

Marinos A, Celedonio JE, Ramirez CE, Gottlieb J, Gamboa A, Hui N, Yu C, Stein CM, Biaggioni I, Shibao CA. Time-Course Analysis of Flow Mediated Dilation for the Evaluation of Endothelial Function After a High-Fat Meal in African Americans. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Nov 11/5/2015; 4(11): PMID: 26541392, PMCID: PMC4845211, PII: JAHA.115.002388, DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002388, ISSN: 2047-9980.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Opioid analgesics and the risk of serious infections among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A self-controlled case series study. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/16/2015; PMID: 26473742, DOI: 10.1002/art.39462, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Ormseth MJ, Solus JF, Vickers KC, Oeser AM, Raggi P, Stein CM. Utility of Select Plasma MicroRNA for Disease and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct; 42(10): 1746-51. PMID: 26233505, PMCID: PMC4592411, PII: jrheum.150232, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.150232, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Kohli U, Diedrich A, Kannankeril PJ, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Hahn MK, English BA, Blakely RD, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Genetic variation in alpha2-adrenoreceptors and heart rate recovery after exercise. Physiol. Genomics [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 47(9): 400-6. PMID: 26058836, PMCID: PMC4556937, PII: physiolgenomics.00124.2014, DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00124.2014, ISSN: 1531-2267.

Solus JF, Chung CP, Oeser A, Li C, Rho YH, Bradley KM, Kawai VK, Smith JR, Stein CM. Genetics of serum concentration of IL-6 and TNFa in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: a candidate gene analysis. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 34(8): 1375-82. PMID: 25652333, PMCID: PMC4526456, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-015-2881-6, ISSN: 1434-9949.

Adefurin A, Ghimire LV, Kohli U, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Li C, Paranjape SY, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Genetic variation in the a1A-adrenergic receptor and phenylephrine-mediated venoconstriction. Pharmacogenomics J [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 15(4): 310-5. PMID: 25421140, PMCID: PMC4442768, PII: tpj201469, DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2014.69, ISSN: 1473-1150.

Birdwell KA, Decker B, Barbarino JM, Peterson JF, Stein CM, Sadee W, Wang D, Vinks AA, He Y, Swen JJ, Leeder JS, van Schaik R, Thummel KE, Klein TE, Caudle KE, MacPhee IA. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP3A5 Genotype and Tacrolimus Dosing. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul; 98(1): 19-24. PMID: 25801146, PMCID: PMC4481158, DOI: 10.1002/cpt.113.

Becetti K, Oeser A, Ormseth MJ, Solus JF, Raggi P, Stein CM, Chung CP. Urinary albumin excretion is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated with arterial stiffness. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr; 42(4): 593-8. PMID: 25641887, PMCID: PMC4383663, PII: jrheum.141295, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.141295, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Cooper WO, Hall K, Stein CM. Out-of-hospital mortality among patients receiving methadone for noncancer pain. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Mar; 175(3): 420-7. PMID: 25599329, PMCID: PMC4346542, PII: 2091400, DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6294, ISSN: 2168-6114.

Kolek MJ, Muehlschlegel JD, Bush WS, Parvez B, Murray KT, Stein CM, Shoemaker MB, Blair MA, Kor KC, Roden DM, Donahue BS, Fox AA, Shernan SK, Collard CD, Body SC, Darbar D. Genetic and clinical risk prediction model for postoperative atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Feb; 8(1): 25-31. PMID: 25567478, PMCID: PMC4334678, PII: CIRCEP.114.002300, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.002300, ISSN: 1941-3084.

Darghosian L, Free M, Li J, Gebretsadik T, Bian A, Shintani A, McBride BF, Solus J, Milne G, Crossley GH, Thompson D, Vidaillet H, Okafor H, Darbar D, Murray KT, Stein CM. Effect of omega-three polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammation, oxidative stress, and recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Am. J. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan 1/15/2015; 115(2): 196-201. PMID: 25465932, PMCID: PMC4276435, PII: S0002-9149(14)02010-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.10.022, ISSN: 1879-1913.

Ormseth MJ, Chung CP, Oeser AM, Connelly MA, Sokka T, Raggi P, Solus JF, Otvos JD, Stein CM. Utility of a novel inflammatory marker, GlycA, for assessment of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and coronary atherosclerosis. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2015; 17: 117. PMID: 25956924, PMCID: PMC4445500, PII: 10.1186/s13075-015-0646-x, DOI: 10.1186/s13075-015-0646-x, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Chung CP, Solus JF, Oeser A, Li C, Raggi P, Smith JR, Stein CM. A variant in the osteoprotegerin gene is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a candidate gene study. Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(2): 3885-94. PMID: 25679449, PMCID: PMC4346932, PII: ijms16023885, DOI: 10.3390/ijms16023885, ISSN: 1422-0067.

Chung CP, Callahan ST, Cooper WO, Murray KT, Hall K, Dudley JA, Stein CM, Ray WA. Development of an algorithm to identify serious opioid toxicity in children. BMC Res Notes. 2015; 8: 293. PMID: 26141980, PMCID: PMC4491206, PII: 10.1186/s13104-015-1185-x, DOI: 10.1186/s13104-015-1185-x, ISSN: 1756-0500.

Kawai VK, Cunningham A, Vear SI, Van Driest SL, Oginni A, Xu H, Jiang M, Li C, Denny JC, Shaffer C, Bowton E, Gage BF, Ray WA, Roden DM, Stein CM. Genotype and risk of major bleeding during warfarin treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2014 Dec; 15(16): 1973-83. PMID: 25521356, PMCID: PMC4304738, DOI: 10.2217/pgs.14.153, ISSN: 1744-8042.

Iwuchukwu OF, Feng Q, Wei WQ, Jiang L, Jiang M, Xu H, Denny JC, Wilke RA, Krauss RM, Roden DM, Stein CM. Genetic variation in the UGT1A locus is associated with simvastatin efficacy in a clinical practice setting. Pharmacogenomics. 2014 Nov; 15(14): 1739-47. PMID: 25493567, PMCID: PMC4292894, DOI: 10.2217/pgs.14.128, ISSN: 1744-8042.

Ormseth MJ, Stein CM. Is visceral fat the missing link in the relationship between inflammation and insulin resistance in RA? [editorial]. J. Rheumatol. 2014 Oct; 41(10): 1906-9. PMID: 25275092, PII: 41/10/1906, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.140780, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Ormseth MJ, Oeser AM, Cunningham A, Bian A, Shintani A, Solus J, Tanner SB, Stein CM. Reversing vascular dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: improved augmentation index but not endothelial function with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ agonist therapy. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 2014 Sep; 66(9): 2331-8. PMID: 24782291, PMCID: PMC4146711, DOI: 10.1002/art.38686, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Chung CP, Solus JF, Oeser A, Li C, Raggi P, Smith JR, Stein CM. Genetic variation and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 23(9): 876-80. PMID: 24699314, PMCID: PMC4185017, PII: 0961203314530019, DOI: 10.1177/0961203314530019, ISSN: 1477-0962.

Vear SI, Ayers GD, Van Driest SL, Sidonio RF, Stein CM, Ho RH. The impact of age and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants on stable warfarin dose in the paediatric population. Br. J. Haematol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 165(6): 832-5. PMID: 24601977, PMCID: PMC4043918, DOI: 10.1111/bjh.12817, ISSN: 1365-2141.

Bradham WS, Ormseth MJ, Oeser A, Solus JF, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Insulin resistance is associated with increased concentrations of NT-proBNP in rheumatoid arthritis: IL-6 as a potential mediator. Inflammation. 2014 Jun; 37(3): 801-8. PMID: 24402421, PMCID: PMC4035432, DOI: 10.1007/s10753-013-9799-4, ISSN: 1573-2576.

Cooper WO, Cheetham TC, Li DK, Stein CM, Callahan ST, Morgan TM, Shintani AK, Chen N, Griffin MR, Ray WA. Brief report: Risk of adverse fetal outcomes associated with immunosuppressive medications for chronic immune-mediated diseases in pregnancy. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 2014 Feb; 66(2): 444-50. PMID: 24504818, PMCID: PMC4077326, DOI: 10.1002/art.38262, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Kawai VK, Avalos I, Oeser A, Oates JA, Milne GL, Solus JF, Chung CP, Stein CM. Suboptimal inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1 by aspirin in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with metabolic syndrome. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2014 Feb; 66(2): 285-92. PMID: 24022862, PMCID: PMC3946810, DOI: 10.1002/acr.22169, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Wei WQ, Feng Q, Weeke P, Bush W, Waitara MS, Iwuchukwu OF, Roden DM, Wilke RA, Stein CM, Denny JC. Creation and Validation of an EMR-based Algorithm for Identifying Major Adverse Cardiac Events while on Statins. AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2014; 2014: 112-9. PMID: 25717410, PMCID: PMC4333709, ISSN: 2153-4063.

Jeff JM, Donahue BS, Brown-Gentry K, Roden DM, Crawford DC, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Genetic variation in the ß1-adrenergic receptor is associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Am. Heart J [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan; 167(1): 101-108.e1. PMID: 24332148, PMCID: PMC3868008, PII: S0002-8703(13)00669-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.09.016, ISSN: 1097-6744.

Manavathongchai S, Bian A, Rho YH, Oeser A, Solus JF, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Inflammation and hypertension in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 40(11): 1806-11. PMID: 23996293, PMCID: PMC3818311, PII: jrheum.130394, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.130394, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Bobo WV, Cooper WO, Stein CM, Olfson M, Graham D, Daugherty J, Fuchs DC, Ray WA. Antipsychotics and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and youth. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 70(10): 1067-75. PMID: 23965896, PII: 1731662, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2053, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Ghimire LV, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Variation in the a(2A) adrenoceptor gene and the effect of dexmedetomidine on plasma insulin and glucose. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2013 Sep; 23(9): 479-86. PMID: 23873118, PMCID: PMC3787837, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283642f93, ISSN: 1744-6880.

Vear SI, Stein CM, Ho RH. Warfarin pharmacogenomics in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 60(9): 1402-7. PMID: 23682017, PMCID: PMC3786327, DOI: 10.1002/pbc.24592, ISSN: 1545-5017.

Ormseth MJ, Lipson A, Alexopoulos N, Hartlage GR, Oeser AM, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Stein CM. Association of epicardial adipose tissue with cardiometabolic risk and metabolic syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Sep; 65(9): 1410-5. PMID: 23592527, PMCID: PMC3775927, DOI: 10.1002/acr.22027, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Kawai VK, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Curtis JR, Solomon DH, Delzell E, Chen L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Herrinton L, Liu L, Mitchell EF, Stein CM, Griffin MR. Initiation of tumor necrosis factor a antagonists and risk of fractures in patients with selected rheumatic and autoimmune diseases. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Jul; 65(7): 1085-94. PMID: 23281339, PMCID: PMC3631448, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21937, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Chung CP, Schmidt D, Stein CM, Morrow JD, Salomon RM. Increased oxidative stress in patients with depression and its relationship to treatment. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr 4/30/2013; 206(2-3): 213-6. PMID: 23245537, PMCID: PMC3615036, PII: S0165-1781(12)00665-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.10.018, ISSN: 1872-7123.

Ray WA, Murray KT, Kawai V, Graham DJ, Cooper WO, Hall K, Stein CM. Propoxyphene and the risk of out-of-hospital death. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 22(4): 403-12. PMID: 23408551, PMCID: PMC3694329, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3411, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Adefurin A, Ghimire LV, Kohli U, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Paranjape SY, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Blacks have a greater sensitivity to a1-adrenoceptor-mediated venoconstriction compared with whites. Hypertension [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 61(4): 915-20. PMID: 23399717, PMCID: PMC3627527, PII: HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00854, DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00854, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Johnson DH, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Mayo G, Acosta EP, Stein CM, Haas DW. Neuropsychometric correlates of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics following a single oral dose. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Apr; 75(4): 997-1006. PMID: 22957905, PMCID: PMC3612718, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04454.x, ISSN: 1365-2125.

Guzman RJ, Bian A, Shintani A, Stein CM. Association of foot ulcer with tibial artery calcification is independent of peripheral occlusive disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar; 99(3): 281-6. PMID: 23305901, PMCID: PMC3628094, PII: S0168-8227(12)00520-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2012.12.022, ISSN: 1872-8227.

Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raggi P, Solus JF, Oeser A, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Free fatty acids are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance but not inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 22(1): 26-33. PMID: 23060481, PMCID: PMC3684362, PII: 0961203312462756, DOI: 10.1177/0961203312462756, ISSN: 1477-0962.

Kawai VK, Stein CM, Perrien DS, Griffin MR. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor a agents on bone. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012 Sep; 24(5): 576-85. PMID: 22810364, PMCID: PMC3753172, DOI: 10.1097/BOR.0b013e328356d212, ISSN: 1531-6963.

Bobo WV, Cooper WO, Stein CM, Olfson M, Mounsey J, Daugherty J, Ray WA. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012 Aug 8/24/2012; 12: 128. PMID: 22920280, PMCID: PMC3500229, PII: 1471-2288-12-128, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-128, ISSN: 1471-2288.

Kohli U, Pandharipande P, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Friedman EA, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Ely EW, Tyndale RF, Choi L, Stein CM, Kurnik D. CYP2A6 genetic variation and dexmedetomidine disposition. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 68(6): 937-42. PMID: 22271297, PMCID: PMC3352974, DOI: 10.1007/s00228-011-1208-z, ISSN: 1432-1041.

Ray WA, Murray KT, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Stein CM. Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death. N. Engl. J. Med. 2012 May 5/17/2012; 366(20): 1881-90. PMID: 22591294, PMCID: PMC3374857, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1003833, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Ghimire LV, Kohli U, Li C, Sofowora GG, Muszkat M, Friedman EA, Solus JF, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Catecholamine pathway gene variation is associated with norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations at rest and after exercise. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2012 Apr; 22(4): 254-60. PMID: 22258110, PMCID: PMC3303991, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328350a274, ISSN: 1744-6880.

Lertnawapan R, Bian A, Rho YH, Raggi P, Oeser A, Solus JF, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Cystatin C is associated with inflammation but not atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 21(3): 279-87. PMID: 22072023, PMCID: PMC3275887, PII: 0961203311425527, DOI: 10.1177/0961203311425527, ISSN: 1477-0962.

Bradham WS, Bian A, Oeser A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Solus J, Estis J, Lu QA, Todd J, Raggi P, Stein CM. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin-I is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(6): e38930. PMID: 22761714, PMCID: PMC3386265, PII: PONE-D-12-08809, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038930, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Birdwell KA, Grady B, Choi L, Xu H, Bian A, Denny JC, Jiang M, Vranic G, Basford M, Cowan JD, Richardson DM, Robinson MP, Ikizler TA, Ritchie MD, Stein CM, Haas DW. The use of a DNA biobank linked to electronic medical records to characterize pharmacogenomic predictors of tacrolimus dose requirement in kidney transplant recipients. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2012 Jan; 22(1): 32-42. PMID: 22108237, PMCID: PMC3237759, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e32834e1641, ISSN: 1744-6880.

Kawai VK, Solus JF, Oeser A, Rho YH, Raggi P, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Novel cardiovascular risk prediction models in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec; 20(14): 1526-34. PMID: 21976402, PMCID: PMC3227752, PII: 0961203311420317, DOI: 10.1177/0961203311420317, ISSN: 1477-0962.

Ormseth MJ, Swift LL, Fazio S, Linton MF, Chung CP, Raggi P, Rho YH, Solus J, Oeser A, Bian A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Free fatty acids are associated with insulin resistance but not coronary artery atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec; 219(2): 869-74. PMID: 21974844, PMCID: PMC3226875, PII: S0021-9150(11)00861-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.09.005, ISSN: 1879-1484.

Cooper WO, Habel LA, Sox CM, Chan KA, Arbogast PG, Cheetham TC, Murray KT, Quinn VP, Stein CM, Callahan ST, Fireman BH, Fish FA, Kirshner HS, O'Duffy A, Connell FA, Ray WA. ADHD drugs and serious cardiovascular events in children and young adults. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov 11/17/2011; 365(20): 1896-904. PMID: 22043968, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1110212, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Lertnawapan R, Bian A, Rho YH, Kawai VK, Raggi P, Oeser A, Solus JF, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Cystatin C, renal function, and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 38(11): 2297-300. PMID: 21844147, PMCID: PMC3207028, PII: jrheum.110168, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.110168, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Kawai VK, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Curtis JR, Solomon DH, Delzell E, Chen L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Herrinton L, Liu L, Mitchel EF, Stein CM, Griffin MR. Changes in cotherapies after initiation of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Oct; 63(10): 1415-24. PMID: 22121511, PMCID: PMC3227007, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Choi L, Caffo BS, Kohli U, Pandharipande P, Kurnik D, Ely EW, Stein CM. A Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear mixture model in the presence of artifactual outliers in a population pharmacokinetic study. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 38(5): 613-36. PMID: 21847635, PMCID: PMC3182101, DOI: 10.1007/s10928-011-9211-7, ISSN: 1573-8744.

Roden DM, Wilke RA, Kroemer HK, Stein CM. Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011 Apr 4/19/2011; 123(15): 1661-70. PMID: 21502584, PMCID: PMC3093198, PII: 123/15/1661, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.914820, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Kohli U, Hahn MK, English BA, Sofowora GG, Muszkat M, Li C, Blakely RD, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Genetic variation in the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter is associated with blood pressure responses to exercise in healthy humans. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2011 Apr; 21(4): 171-8. PMID: 21412203, PMCID: PMC3065933, PII: 01213011-201104000-00002, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328344f63e, ISSN: 1744-6880.

Kurnik D, Muszkat M, Li C, Sofowora GG, Friedman EA, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Genetic variations in the a(2A)-adrenoreceptor are associated with blood pressure response to the agonist dexmedetomidine. Circ Cardiovasc Genet [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 4(2): 179-87. PMID: 21325151, PMCID: PMC3080459, PII: CIRCGENETICS.110.957662, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.110.957662, ISSN: 1942-3268.

Rho YH, Solus J, Raggi P, Oeser A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Macrophage activation and coronary atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Apr; 63(4): 535-41. PMID: 20890983, PMCID: PMC3020253, DOI: 10.1002/acr.20365, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Muszkat M, Kurnik D, Sofowora GG, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Independent regulation of a1 and a2 adrenergic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in vivo. J. Hypertens. 2011 Feb; 29(2): 251-6. PMID: 21045729, PMCID: PMC3012748, DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283407ffd, ISSN: 1473-5598.

Liu M, Jiang M, Kawai VK, Stein CM, Roden DM, Denny JC, Xu H. Modeling drug exposure data in electronic medical records: an application to warfarin. AMIA Annu Symp Proc [print-electronic]. 2011; 2011: 815-23. PMID: 22195139, PMCID: PMC3243123, ISSN: 1942-597X.

Rho YH, Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus JF, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Milne GL, Stein CM. Interaction between oxidative stress and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with severity of coronary artery calcification in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Oct; 62(10): 1473-80. PMID: 20506360, PMCID: PMC2933413, DOI: 10.1002/acr.20237, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Stein CM, Ray WA. The ethics of placebo in studies with fracture end points in osteoporosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010 Sep 9/30/2010; 363(14): 1367-70; discussion e21. PMID: 20879888, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsb1006120, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Raggi P, Sokka T, Pincus T, Solus JF, Linton MF, Fazio S, Stein CM. Lipoprotein subclasses determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug 8/1/2010; 37(8): 1633-8. PMID: 20516025, PMCID: PMC2914215, PII: jrheum.090639, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.090639, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Chung CP, Murray KT, Stein CM, Hall K, Ray WA. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Jun; 19(6): 563-72. PMID: 20029823, PMCID: PMC3181496, DOI: 10.1002/pds.1888, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Rho YH, Chung CP, Solus JF, Raggi P, Oeser A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Adipocytokines, insulin resistance, and coronary atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 May; 62(5): 1259-64. PMID: 20213808, PMCID: PMC2910412, DOI: 10.1002/art.27376, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Li J, Solus J, Chen Q, Rho YH, Milne G, Stein CM, Darbar D. Role of inflammation and oxidative stress in atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 7(4): 438-44. PMID: 20153266, PMCID: PMC2843774, PII: S1547-5271(09)01380-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.12.009, ISSN: 1556-3871.

Ray WA, Murray KT, Griffin MR, Chung CP, Smalley WE, Hall K, Daugherty JR, Kaltenbach LA, Stein CM. Outcomes with concurrent use of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors: a cohort study. Ann. Intern. Med. 2010 Mar 3/16/2010; 152(6): 337-45. PMID: 20231564, PMCID: PMC3176584, PII: 152/6/337, DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-152-6-201003160-00003, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Muszkat M, Kurnik D, Sofowora GG, Solus J, Xie HG, Harris PA, Williams SM, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Desensitization of vascular response in vivo: contribution of genetic variation in the [alpha]2B-adrenergic receptor subtype. J. Hypertens. 2010 Feb; 28(2): 278-84. PMID: 20051907, PMCID: PMC2895551, DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328333d212, ISSN: 1473-5598.

Kohli U, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Harris PA, Friedman EA, Dupont WD, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Effects of variation in the human alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenoceptor genes on cognitive tasks and pain perception. Eur J Pain [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb; 14(2): 154-9. PMID: 19423370, PMCID: PMC2815116, PII: S1090-3801(09)00080-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.04.003, ISSN: 1532-2149.

Rho YH, Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus J, Asanuma Y, Sokka T, Pincus T, Raggi P, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Inflammatory mediators and premature coronary atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Nov 11/15/2009; 61(11): 1580-5. PMID: 19877084, PMCID: PMC2828265, DOI: 10.1002/art.25009, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Kurnik D, Cunningham AJ, Sofowora GG, Kohli U, Li C, Friedman EA, Muszkat M, Menon UB, Wood AJ, Stein CM. GRK5 Gln41Leu polymorphism is not associated with sensitivity to beta(1)-adrenergic blockade in humans. Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Oct; 10(10): 1581-7. PMID: 19842931, PMCID: PMC2820245, DOI: 10.2217/pgs.09.92, ISSN: 1744-8042.

Raj SR, Stein CM, Saavedra PJ, Roden DM. Cardiovascular effects of noncardiovascular drugs. Circulation. 2009 Sep 9/22/2009; 120(12): 1123-32. PMID: 19770411, PMCID: PMC2773827, PII: 120/12/1123, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.728576, ISSN: 1524-4539.

Chung CP, Long AG, Solus JF, Rho YH, Oeser A, Raggi P, Stein CM. Adipocytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to inflammation, insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerosis. Lupus. 2009 Aug; 18(9): 799-806. PMID: 19578104, PMCID: PMC2707942, PII: 18/9/799, DOI: 10.1177/0961203309103582, ISSN: 0961-2033.

Friedman EA, Harris PA, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Kurnik D. The alpha2C-adrenoceptor deletion322-325 variant and cold-induced vasoconstriction. Clin. Auton. Res [print-electronic]. 2009 Aug; 19(4): 247-54. PMID: 19444546, PMCID: PMC2739683, DOI: 10.1007/s10286-009-0014-5, ISSN: 1619-1560.

Rho YH, Solus J, Sokka T, Oeser A, Chung CP, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Pincus T, Stein CM. Adipocytokines are associated with radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Jul; 60(7): 1906-14. PMID: 19565493, PMCID: PMC2894567, DOI: 10.1002/art.24626, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Rho YH, Oeser A, Chung CP, Milne GL, Stein CM. Drugs Used in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relationship between Current Use and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Arch Drug Inf. 2009 Jun; 2(2): 34-40. PMID: 19684849, PMCID: PMC2721969, DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-5174.2009.00019.x.

Ray WA, Varas-Lorenzo C, Chung CP, Castellsague J, Murray KT, Stein CM, Daugherty JR, Arbogast PG, García-Rodríguez LA. Cardiovascular risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in patients after hospitalization for serious coronary heart disease. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes [print-electronic]. 2009 May; 2(3): 155-63. PMID: 20031832, PII: CIRCOUTCOMES.108.805689, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.108.805689, ISSN: 1941-7705.

Li C, Schwarz UI, Ritchie MD, Roden DM, Stein CM, Kurnik D. Relative contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and early INR response to the prediction of warfarin sensitivity during initiation of therapy. Blood [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr 4/23/2009; 113(17): 3925-30. PMID: 19074728, PMCID: PMC2673121, PII: blood-2008-09-176859, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2008-09-176859, ISSN: 1528-0020.

Chung CP, Titova D, Oeser A, Randels M, Avalos I, Milne GL, Morrow JD, Stein CM. Oxidative stress in fibromyalgia and its relationship to symptoms. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr; 28(4): 435-8. PMID: 19089486, PMCID: PMC2654204, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-008-1072-0, ISSN: 1434-9949.

Haas DW, Gebretsadik T, Mayo G, Menon UN, Acosta EP, Shintani A, Floyd M, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR. Associations between CYP2B6 polymorphisms and pharmacokinetics after a single dose of nevirapine or efavirenz in African americans. J. Infect. Dis. 2009 Mar 3/15/2009; 199(6): 872-80. PMID: 19239339, PMCID: PMC2784690, DOI: 10.1086/597125, ISSN: 0022-1899.

Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Hall K, Stein CM. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N. Engl. J. Med. 2009 Jan 1/15/2009; 360(3): 225-35. PMID: 19144938, PMCID: PMC2713724, PII: 360/3/225, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0806994, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Kurnik D, Li C, Sofowora GG, Friedman EA, Muszkat M, Xie HG, Harris PA, Williams SM, Nair UB, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Beta-1-adrenoceptor genetic variants and ethnicity independently affect response to beta-blockade. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2008 Oct; 18(10): 895-902. PMID: 18794726, PMCID: PMC2757009, PII: 01213011-200810000-00010, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328309733f, ISSN: 1744-6872.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Raggi P, Solus JF, Avalos I, Linton MF, Fazio S, Stein CM. Lipoprotein subclasses and particle size determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 27(10): 1227-33. PMID: 18421545, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-008-0890-4, ISSN: 0770-3198.

Solus J, Chung CP, Oeser A, Avalos I, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Sokka T, Pincus T, Stein CM. Amino-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Sep; 58(9): 2662-9. PMID: 18759301, PMCID: PMC2587412, DOI: 10.1002/art.23796, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Kurnik D, Friedman EA, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Xie HG, Dupont WD, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Genetic variants in the alpha2C-adrenoceptor and G-protein contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular stress responses. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2008 Sep; 18(9): 743-50. PMID: 18698227, PMCID: PMC2689621, PII: 01213011-200809000-00001, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3282fee5a1, ISSN: 1744-6872.

Rho YH, Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus J, Raggi P, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Stein CM. Novel cardiovascular risk factors in premature coronary atherosclerosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep; 35(9): 1789-94. PMID: 18634156, PMCID: PMC2574747, PII: 08/13/0714, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Gideon PS, Dyer SM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Computerized definitions showed high positive predictive values for identifying hospitalizations for congestive heart failure and selected infections in Medicaid enrollees with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008 Sep; 17(9): 890-5. PMID: 18543352, DOI: 10.1002/pds.1625, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus JF, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Avalos I, Sokka T, Raggi P, Pincus T, Stein CM. Inflammation-associated insulin resistance: differential effects in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus define potential mechanisms. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Jul; 58(7): 2105-12. PMID: 18576352, PMCID: PMC2755593, DOI: 10.1002/art.23600, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Chung CP, Solus JF, Oeser A, Avalos I, Kurnik D, Raggi P, Stein CM. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship with inflammation, augmentation index, and coronary calcification. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 35(7): 1314-9. PMID: 18528966, PMCID: PMC2754266, PII: 08/13/064, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Changing patterns of medication use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a Medicaid population. Rheumatology (Oxford) [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 47(7): 1061-4. PMID: 18499716, PII: ken193, DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken193, ISSN: 1462-0332.

Stein CM. Archives of Drug Information-A New Approach to Publishing the Results of Drug Studies. Arch Drug Inf. 2008 Jul; 1(1): 1-3. PMID: 20157348, PMCID: PMC2814088, DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-5174.2007.00001.x.

Schwarz UI, Ritchie MD, Bradford Y, Li C, Dudek SM, Frye-Anderson A, Kim RB, Roden DM, Stein CM. Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008 Mar 3/6/2008; 358(10): 999-1008. PMID: 18322281, PMCID: PMC3894627, PII: 358/10/999, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0708078, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Kurnik D, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Friedman EA, Dupont WD, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Ethnic and genetic determinants of cardiovascular response to the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine. Hypertension [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 51(2): 406-11. PMID: 18071056, PII: HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.098939, DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.098939, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus JF, Avalos I, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Sokka T, Pincus T, Stein CM. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increased in rheumatoid arthritis and is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 196(2): 756-63. PMID: 17266963, PII: S0021-9150(07)00045-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.01.004, ISSN: 1879-1484.

Avalos I, Chung CP, Oeser A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Kurnik D, Raggi P, Sokka T, Pincus T, Stein CM. Increased augmentation index in rheumatoid arthritis and its relationship to coronary artery atherosclerosis. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2007 Dec; 34(12): 2388-94. PMID: 18050386, PII: 07/13/1114, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Arbogast PG, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Assessment of adherence to and persistence on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Med Care. 2007 Oct; 45(10 Supl 2): S66-76. PMID: 17909386, PII: 00005650-200710002-00013, DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318041384c, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Ray WA, Chung CP, Stein CM, Smalley WE, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Griffin MR. Risk of peptic ulcer hospitalizations in users of NSAIDs with gastroprotective cotherapy versus coxibs. Gastroenterology [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 133(3): 790-8. PMID: 17854591, PII: S0016-5085(07)01290-5, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.06.058, ISSN: 0016-5085.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus J, Avalos I, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Linton MF, Fazio S, Stein CM. Inflammatory mechanisms affecting the lipid profile in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 34(9): 1849-54. PMID: 17659756, PII: 07/13/0719, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Chung CP, Avalos I, Raggi P, Stein CM. Atherosclerosis and inflammation: insights from rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 26(8): 1228-33. PMID: 17273810, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-007-0548-7, ISSN: 0770-3198.

Ho RH, Choi L, Lee W, Mayo G, Schwarz UI, Tirona RG, Bailey DG, Stein CM, Kim RB. Effect of drug transporter genotypes on pravastatin disposition in European- and African-American participants. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2007 Aug; 17(8): 647-56. PMID: 17622941, PMCID: PMC4063287, PII: 01213011-200708000-00009, DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3280ef698f, ISSN: 1744-6872.

Kurnik D, Muszkat M, Friedman EA, Sofowora GG, Diedrich A, Xie HG, Harris PA, Choi L, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Effect of the alpha2C-adrenoreceptor deletion322-325 variant on sympathetic activity and cardiovascular measures in healthy subjects. J. Hypertens. 2007 Apr; 25(4): 763-71. PMID: 17351367, PII: 00004872-200704000-00006, DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328017f6e9, ISSN: 0263-6352.

Friedman EA, Harris PA, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Kurnik D. The effects of tadalafil on cold-induced vasoconstriction in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2007 Apr; 81(4): 503-9. PMID: 17301734, PII: 6100103, DOI: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100103, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Avalos I, Chung CP, Oeser A, Milne GL, Borntrager H, Morrow JD, Raggi P, Solus J, Stein CM. Aspirin therapy and thromboxane biosynthesis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2007; 16(12): 981-6. PMID: 18042592, PII: 16/12/981, DOI: 10.1177/0961203307083313, ISSN: 0961-2033.

Avalos I, Chung CP, Oeser A, Milne GL, Morrow JD, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Yu C, Stein CM. Oxidative stress in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to disease activity and symptoms. Lupus. 2007; 16(3): 195-200. PMID: 17432105, ISSN: 0961-2033.

Schwarz UI, Stein CM. Genetic determinants of dose and clinical outcomes in patients receiving oral anticoagulants. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006 Jul; 80(1): 7-12. PMID: 16815312, PII: S0009-9236(06)00163-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2006.04.008, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Chung CP, Avalos I, Stein CM. Oxidative stress, microvascular dysfunction, and scleroderma: an association with potential therapeutic implications, a commentary on "Postocclusive reactive hyperemia inversely correlates with urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels in systemic sclerosis". Free Radic. Biol. Med [print-electronic]. 2006 May 5/15/2006; 40(10): 1698-9. PMID: 16678008, PII: S0891-5849(06)00160-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.03.001, ISSN: 0891-5849.

Stanic AK, Stein CM, Morgan AC, Fazio S, Linton MF, Wakeland EK, Olsen NJ, Major AS. Immune dysregulation accelerates atherosclerosis and modulates plaque composition in systemic lupus erythematosus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2006 May 5/2/2006; 103(18): 7018-23. PMID: 16636270, PMCID: PMC1459011, PII: 0602311103, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0602311103, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Kurnik D, Muszkat M, Li C, Sofowora GG, Solus J, Xie HG, Harris PA, Jiang L, McMunn C, Ihrie P, Dawson EP, Williams SM, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Variations in the alpha2A-adrenergic receptor gene and their functional effects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar; 79(3): 173-85. PMID: 16513442, PII: S0009-9236(05)00474-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2005.10.006, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Asanuma Y, Chung CP, Oeser A, Shintani A, Stanley E, Raggi P, Stein CM. Increased concentration of proatherogenic inflammatory cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar; 33(3): 539-45. PMID: 16463434, PII: 06/13/024, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Ray WA, Stein CM. Reform of drug regulation--beyond an independent drug-safety board. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006 Jan 1/12/2006; 354(2): 194-201. PMID: 16407517, PII: 354/2/194, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsb053432, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Avalos I, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Sokka T, Pincus T, Stein CM. Utility of the Framingham risk score to predict the presence of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2006; 8(6): R186. PMID: 17169159, PMCID: PMC1794532, PII: ar2098, DOI: 10.1186/ar2098, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Avalos I, Raggi P, Stein CM. Cardiovascular risk scores and the presence of subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2006; 15(9): 562-9. PMID: 17080910, ISSN: 0961-2033.

Oeser A, Chung CP, Asanuma Y, Avalos I, Stein CM. Obesity is an independent contributor to functional capacity and inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Nov; 52(11): 3651-9. PMID: 16258902, DOI: 10.1002/art.21400, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Chung CP, Oeser A, Raggi P, Gebretsadik T, Shintani AK, Sokka T, Pincus T, Avalos I, Stein CM. Increased coronary-artery atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to disease duration and cardiovascular risk factors. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Oct; 52(10): 3045-53. PMID: 16200609, DOI: 10.1002/art.21288, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Sofowora GG, Singh I, He HB, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Effect of acute transdermal estrogen administration on basal, mental stress and cold pressor-induced sympathetic responses in postmenopausal women. Clin. Auton. Res. 2005 Jun; 15(3): 193-9. PMID: 15944868, DOI: 10.1007/s10286-005-0261-z, ISSN: 0959-9851.

Muszkat M, Kurnik D, Solus J, Sofowora GG, Xie HG, Jiang L, McMunn C, Ihrie P, Harris JR, Dawson EP, Williams SM, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Variation in the alpha2B-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2B) and its relationship to vascular response in vivo. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2005 Jun; 15(6): 407-14. PMID: 15900214, PII: 01213011-200506000-00006, ISSN: 1744-6872.

Asanuma Y, Xie HG, Stein CM. Pharmacogenetics and rheumatology: Molecular mechanisms contributing to variability in drug response. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 May; 52(5): 1349-59. PMID: 15880820, DOI: 10.1002/art.21027, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Xie HG, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Alpha2B adrenergic receptor 301-303 deletion polymorphism and vascular alpha2 adrenergic receptor response. Pharmacogenet. Genomics. 2005 Jan; 15(1): 23-8. PMID: 15864122, PII: 01213011-200501000-00004, ISSN: 1744-6872.

Turner E, Dishy V, Chung CP, Harris P, Pierces R, Asanuma Y, Oeser A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Raggi P, Stein CM. Endothelial function in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to disease activity, cardiovascular risk factors, corticosteroid therapy, and coronary calcification. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2005; 1(4): 357-60. PMID: 17315608, PMCID: PMC1993959, ISSN: 1176-6344.

Stein CM. Publishing work sponsored by the tobacco industry. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004 Dec; 76(6): 517-8. PMID: 15592322, PII: S0009923604002851, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.08.015, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Ray WA, Murray KT, Meredith S, Narasimhulu SS, Hall K, Stein CM. Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004 Sep 9/9/2004; 351(11): 1089-96. PMID: 15356306, PII: 351/11/1089, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040582, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Dishy V, Landau R, Sofowora GG, Xie HG, Smiley RM, Kim RB, Byrne DW, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Beta2-adrenoceptor Thr164Ile polymorphism is associated with markedly decreased vasodilator and increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 2004 Aug; 14(8): 517-22. PMID: 15284533, PII: 00008571-200408000-00004, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Sofowora GG, Dishy V, Landau R, Xie HG, Prasad HC, Byrne DW, Smiley RM, Kim RB, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Alpha 1A-adrenergic receptor polymorphism and vascular response. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004 Jun; 75(6): 539-45. PMID: 15179408, PII: S0009923604000682, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.02.006, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Griffin MR, Stein CM, Ray WA. Postmarketing surveillance for drug safety: surely we can do better. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004 Jun; 75(6): 491-4. PMID: 15179403, PII: S0009923604000438, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.01.017, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Griffin MR, Stein CM, Graham DJ, Daugherty JR, Arbogast PG, Ray WA. High frequency of use of rofecoxib at greater than recommended doses: cause for concern. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2004 Jun; 13(6): 339-43. PMID: 15170762, DOI: 10.1002/pds.879, ISSN: 1053-8569.

Olsen NJ, Stein CM. New drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004 May 5/20/2004; 350(21): 2167-79. PMID: 15152062, PII: 350/21/2167, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra032906, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Xie HG, Wood AJ, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR. Genetic variability in CYP3A5 and its possible consequences. Pharmacogenomics. 2004 Apr; 5(3): 243-72. PMID: 15102541, DOI: 10.1517/phgs., ISSN: 1462-2416.

Dishy V, Harris PA, Pierce R, Prasad HC, Sofowora G, Bonar HL, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Sildenafil does not improve nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent vascular responses in smokers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Feb; 57(2): 209-12. PMID: 14748820, PMCID: PMC1884430, PII: 1974, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Alpha2-adrenergic receptor-induced vascular constriction in blacks and whites. Hypertension [print-electronic]. 2004 Jan; 43(1): 31-5. PMID: 14656950, PII: 01.HYP.0000103694.30164.C7, DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000103694.30164.C7, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Asanuma Y, Oeser A, Shintani AK, Turner E, Olsen N, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raggi P, Stein CM. Premature coronary-artery atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003 Dec 12/18/2003; 349(25): 2407-15. PMID: 14681506, PII: 349/25/2407, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa035611, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Stein CM. Managing risk in healthy subjects participating in clinical research. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Dec; 74(6): 511-2. PMID: 14663452, PII: S0009923603002650, DOI: 10.1016/j.clpt.2003.08.007, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics annual report 2002. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Aug; 74(2): 99-101. PMID: 12891219, PII: S0009923603001498, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(03)00149-8, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Wandel C, Kim RB, Stein CM. "Inactive" excipients such as Cremophor can affect in vivo drug disposition. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 May; 73(5): 394-6. PMID: 12732839, PII: S0009923603000109, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Sofowora GG, Dishy V, Muszkat M, Xie HG, Kim RB, Harris PA, Prasad HC, Byrne DW, Nair UB, Wood AJ, Stein CM. A common beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphism (Arg389Gly) affects blood pressure response to beta-blockade. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Apr; 73(4): 366-71. PMID: 12709726, PII: S0009923602177344, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Dishy V, Gupta S, Landau R, Xie HG, Kim RB, Smiley RM, Byrne DW, Wood AJ, Stein CM. G-protein beta(3) subunit 825 C/T polymorphism is associated with weight gain during pregnancy. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Apr; 13(4): 241-2. PMID: 12668921, DOI: 10.1097/01.fpc.0000054074.64000.e1, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Stein CM. Clinical pharmacology & therapeutics--an update. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Jan; 73(1): 1-3. PMID: 12545137, PII: S0009923602176016, DOI: 10.1067/mcp.2003.31, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Dishy V, Sofowora GG, Imamura H, Nishimi Y, Xie HG, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Nitric oxide production decreases after salt loading but is not related to blood pressure changes or nitric oxide-mediated vascular responses. J. Hypertens. 2003 Jan; 21(1): 153-7. PMID: 12544447, DOI: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000045521.21915.61, ISSN: 0263-6352.

Xie HG, Prasad HC, Kim RB, Stein CM. CYP2C9 allelic variants: ethnic distribution and functional significance. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2002 Nov 11/18/2002; 54(10): 1257-70. PMID: 12406644, PII: S0169409X02000765, ISSN: 0169-409X.

Ray WA, Stein CM, Daugherty JR, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Griffin MR. COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of serious coronary heart disease. Lancet. 2002 Oct 10/5/2002; 360(9339): 1071-3. PMID: 12383990, PII: S0140-6736(02)11131-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11131-7, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Smalley W, Stein CM, Arbogast PG, Eisen G, Ray WA, Griffin M. Underutilization of gastroprotective measures in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Aug; 46(8): 2195-200. PMID: 12209525, DOI: 10.1002/art.10425, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Stein CM. Are herbal products dietary supplements or drugs? An important question for public safety. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2002 Jun; 71(6): 411-3. PMID: 12087343, PII: S0009923602000000, DOI: 10.1067/mcp.2002.125975, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Ray WA, Stein CM, Hall K, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of serious coronary heart disease: an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2002 Jan 1/12/2002; 359(9301): 118-23. PMID: 11809254, PII: S0140-6736(02)07370-1, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07370-1, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Sofowora G, Dishy V, Xie HG, Imamura H, Nishimi Y, Morales CR, Morrow JD, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wood AJ. In-vivo effects of Glu298Asp endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Dec; 11(9): 809-14. PMID: 11740345, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Dishy V, Sofowora GG, Xie HG, Kim RB, Byrne DW, Stein CM, Wood AJ. The effect of common polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor on agonist-mediated vascular desensitization. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001 Oct 10/4/2001; 345(14): 1030-5. PMID: 11586955, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa010819, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Dishy V, Sofowora G, Harris PA, Kandcer M, Zhan F, Wood AJ, Stein CM. The effect of sildenafil on nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in healthy men. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2001 Sep; 70(3): 270-9. PMID: 11557915, PII: S0009-9236(01)08656-8, DOI: 10.1067/mcp.2001.117995, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Sadeque AJ, Murray JJ, Wandel C, Kim RB, Wood AJ. Cyclosporine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in African American and white subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2001 May; 69(5): 317-23. PMID: 11371999, PII: S0009923601976581, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Griffin MR, Taylor JA, Pichert JW, Brandt KD, Ray WA. Educational program for nursing home physicians and staff to reduce use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Med Care. 2001 May; 39(5): 436-45. PMID: 11317092, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Ray WA, Stein CM, Byrd V, Shorr R, Pichert JW, Gideon P, Arnold K, Brandt KD, Pincus T, Griffin MR. Educational program for physicians to reduce use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among community-dwelling elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. Med Care. 2001 May; 39(5): 425-35. PMID: 11317091, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Xie HG, Dishy V, Sofowora G, Kim RB, Landau R, Smiley RM, Zhou HH, Wood AJ, Harris P, Stein CM. Arg389Gly beta 1-adrenoceptor polymorphism varies in frequency among different ethnic groups but does not alter response in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr; 11(3): 191-7. PMID: 11337934, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Stein CM, Lang CC, Xie HG, Wood AJ. Hypertension in black people: study of specific genotypes and phenotypes will provide a greater understanding of interindividual and interethnic variability in blood pressure regulation than studies based on race. Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Mar; 11(2): 95-110. PMID: 11266083, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Xie HG, Kim RB, Wood AJ, Stein CM. Molecular basis of ethnic differences in drug disposition and response. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2001; 41: 815-50. PMID: 11264478, PII: 41/1/815, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.41.1.815, ISSN: 0362-1642.

Gainer JV, Stein CM, Neal T, Vaughan DE, Brown NJ. Interactive Effect of Ethnicity and ACE Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism on Vascular Reactivity. Hypertension. 2001 Jan; 37(1): 46-51. PMID: 11208755, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Stein CM, Lang CC, Singh I, He HB, Wood AJ. Increased vascular adrenergic vasoconstriction and decreased vasodilation in blacks. Additive mechanisms leading to enhanced vascular reactivity. Hypertension. 2000 Dec; 36(6): 945-51. PMID: 11116105, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Wandel C, Witte JS, Hall JM, Stein CM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR. CYP3A activity in African American and European American men: population differences and functional effect of the CYP3A4*1B5'-promoter region polymorphism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2000 Jul; 68(1): 82-91. PMID: 10945319, PII: S0009-9236(00)68644-7, DOI: 10.1067/mcp.2000.108506, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Xie HG, Stein CM, Kim RB, Gainer JV, Sofowora G, Dishy V, Brown NJ, Goree RE, Haines JL, Wood AJ. Human beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: no association with essential hypertension in black or white Americans. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2000 Jun; 67(6): 670-5. PMID: 10872649, PII: S0009-9236(00)45798-X, DOI: 10.1067/mcp.2000.106293, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Pincus T. Combination treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with cyclosporine and methotrexate. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 1999 Nov; 17(6 Suppl 18): S47-52. PMID: 10589357, ISSN: 0392-856X.

Xie HG, Kim RB, Stein CM, Gainer JV, Brown NJ, Wood AJ. Alpha1A-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: association with ethnicity but not essential hypertension. Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Oct; 9(5): 651-6. PMID: 10591546, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Xie HG, Stein CM, Kim RB, Wilkinson GR, Flockhart DA, Wood AJ. Allelic, genotypic and phenotypic distributions of S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19) in healthy Caucasian populations of European descent throughout the world. Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Oct; 9(5): 539-49. PMID: 10591534, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Xie HG, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJ. Genetic polymorphism of (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation in populations of African descent. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Sep; 48(3): 402-8. PMID: 10510153, PMCID: PMC2014331, PII: bcp009, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Stein CM, Murray JJ, Wood AJ. Inhibition of stimulated interleukin-2 production in whole blood: a practical measure of cyclosporine effect. Clin. Chem. 1999 Sep; 45(9): 1477-84. PMID: 10471650, ISSN: 0009-9147.

Xie HG, Stein CM, Kim RB, Xiao ZS, He N, Zhou HH, Gainer JV, Brown NJ, Haines JL, Wood AJ. Frequency of functionally important beta-2 adrenoceptor polymorphisms varies markedly among African-American, Caucasian and Chinese individuals. Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Aug; 9(4): 511-6. PMID: 10780271, ISSN: 0960-314X.

Pincus T, Stein CM. ACR 20: clinical or statistical significance?. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Aug; 42(8): 1572-6. PMID: 10446853, DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199908)42:8<1572::AID-ANR2>3.0.CO;2-G, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Brown NJ, Gainer JV, Stein CM, Vaughan DE. Bradykinin stimulates tissue plasminogen activator release in human vasculature. Hypertension. 1999 Jun; 33(6): 1431-5. PMID: 10373228, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Fromm MF, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport: A unifying mechanism to explain the interaction between digoxin and quinidine [seecomments]. Circulation. 1999 Feb 2/2/1999; 99(4): 552-7. PMID: 9927403, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Stein CM, Pincus T. Placebo-controlled studies in rheumatoid arthritis: ethical issues. Lancet. 1999 Jan 1/30/1999; 353(9150): 400-3. PMID: 9950461, PII: S0140-6736(98)01373-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)01373-7, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Wood AJ, Stein CM, Woosley R. Making medicines safer--the need for an independent drug safety board. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998 Dec 12/17/1998; 339(25): 1851-4. PMID: 9854125, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199812173392512, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Stein CM, He HB, Wood AJ. Basal and stimulated sympathetic responses after epinephrine: no evidence of augmented responses. Hypertension. 1998 Dec; 32(6): 1016-21. PMID: 9856966, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Robbins IM, Cuiper LL, Stein CM, Wood AJ, He HB, Parker R, Christman BW. Angiotensin II mediates systemic rebound hypertension after cessation of prostacyclin infusion in sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998 Aug; 85(2): 731-7. PMID: 9688753, ISSN: 8750-7587.

Stein CM, Brown N, Vaughan DE, Lang CC, Wood AJ. Regulation of local tissue-type plasminogen activator release by endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent agonists in human vasculature. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1998 Jul; 32(1): 117-22. PMID: 9669258, PII: S0735-1097(98)00210-1, ISSN: 0735-1097.

He H, Stein CM, Christman B, Wood AJ. Determination of catecholamines in sheep plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection: comparison of deoxyepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine as internal standard. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 1997 Nov 11/7/1997; 701(1): 115-9. PMID: 9389345, ISSN: 1387-2273.

Stein CM, Nelson R, He HB, Wood M, Wood AJ. Norepinephrine release in the human forearm: effects of epinephrine. Hypertension. 1997 Nov; 30(5): 1078-84. PMID: 9369259, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Stein CM, Lang CC, Nelson R, Brown M, Wood AJ. Vasodilation in black Americans: attenuated nitric oxide-mediated responses. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1997 Oct; 62(4): 436-43. PMID: 9357395, PII: S0009-9236(97)90122-3, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(97)90122-3, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Pincus T, Yocum D, Tugwell P, Wells G, Gluck O, Kraag G, Torley H, Tesser J, McKendry R, Brooks RH. Combination treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis with cyclosporine and methotrexate for forty-eight weeks: an open-label extension study. The Methotrexate-Cyclosporine Combination Study Group. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Oct; 40(10): 1843-51. PMID: 9336420, DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199710)40:10<1843::AID-ART18>3.0.CO;2-N, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Stein CM, Brooks RH, Pincus T. Effect of combination therapy with cyclosporine and methotrexate on liver function test results in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Sep; 40(9): 1721-3. PMID: 9324030, DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199709)40:9<1721::AID-ART26>3.0.CO;2-A, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Lang CC, Stein CM, Nelson RA, He HB, Belas FJ, Blair IA, Wood M, Wood AJ. Sympathoinhibitory response to clonidine is blunted in patients with heart failure. Hypertension. 1997 Sep; 30(3 Pt 1): 392-7. PMID: 9314422, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Lang CC, Stein CM, He HB, Belas FJ, Blair IA, Wood M, Wood AJ. Blunted blood pressure response to central sympathoinhibition in normotensive blacks: increased importance of nonsympathetic factors in blood pressure maintenance in blacks. Hypertension. 1997 Aug; 30(2 Pt 1): 157-62. PMID: 9260974, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Stein CM, Brown N, Carlson MG, Campbell P, Wood AJ. Coadministration of glyburide and minoxidil, drugs with opposing effects on potassium channels. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1997 Jun; 61(6): 662-8. PMID: 9209249, PII: S0009-9236(97)90101-6, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(97)90101-6, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Deegan R, Wood AJ. Lack of correlation between arterial and venous beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. Hypertension. 1997 Jun; 29(6): 1273-7. PMID: 9180628, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Pincus T, Stein CM. Why randomized controlled clinical trials do not depict accurately long-term outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis: some explanations and suggestions for future studies. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 1997 May; 15 Suppl 17: S27-38. PMID: 9266130, ISSN: 0392-856X.

Stein CM, Wood AJ, Pincus T. Implementation of multiple outpatient formularies: undesirable effects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1997 Jan; 61(1): 1-7. PMID: 9024168, PII: S0009-9236(97)90175-2, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(97)90175-2, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Tanner SB, Awad JA, Roberts LJ, Morrow JD. Evidence of free radical-mediated injury (isoprostane overproduction) in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Jul; 39(7): 1146-50. PMID: 8670323, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Lang CC, Stein CM, He HB, Wood AJ. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and sympathetic activity in healthy subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1996 Jun; 59(6): 668-74. PMID: 8681492, PII: S0009-9236(96)90007-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(96)90007-7, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, Davis P. Arthritis associated with HIV infection in Zimbabwe. J. Rheumatol. 1996 Mar; 23(3): 506-11. PMID: 8832993, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Stein CM. Immunodeficient states and associated rheumatic manifestations. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1996 Jan; 8(1): 52-6. PMID: 8867540, ISSN: 1040-8711.

Stein CM, Kinirons MT, Pincus T, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJ. Comparison of the dapsone recovery ratio and the erythromycin breath test as in vivo probes of CYP3A activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving cyclosporine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1996 Jan; 59(1): 47-51. PMID: 8549033, PII: S0009-9236(96)90023-5, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-9236(96)90023-5, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM. Cyclosporine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Bull Rheum Dis. 1995 Nov; 44(7): 1-4. PMID: 8520655, ISSN: 0007-5248.

Stein CM, Nelson R, Brown M, He H, Wood M, Wood AJ. Dietary sodium intake modulates systemic but not forearm norepinephrine release. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1995 Oct; 58(4): 425-33. PMID: 7586935, PII: 0009-9236(95)90056-X, DOI: 10.1016/0009-9236(95)90056-X, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein CM, He H, Pincus T, Wood AJ. Cyclosporine impairs vasodilation without increased sympathetic activity in humans. Hypertension. 1995 Oct; 26(4): 705-10. PMID: 7558234, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Lang CC, Stein CM, Brown RM, Deegan R, Nelson R, He HB, Wood M, Wood AJ. Attenuation of isoproterenol-mediated vasodilatation in blacks. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995 Jul 7/20/1995; 333(3): 155-60. PMID: 7791817, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199507203330304, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Stein CM, Nelson R, Deegan R, He H, Wood M, Wood AJ. Forearm beta adrenergic receptor-mediated vasodilation is impaired, without alteration of forearm norepinephrine spillover, in borderline hypertension. J. Clin. Invest. 1995 Jul; 96(1): 579-85. PMID: 7615830, PMCID: PMC185232, DOI: 10.1172/JCI118070, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Stein CM, Nelson R, Deegan R, He H, Inagami T, Frazer M, Badr KF, Wood M, Wood AJ. Tachyphylaxis of human forearm vascular responses does not occur rapidly after exposure to isoproterenol. Hypertension. 1995 Jun; 25(6): 1294-300. PMID: 7768576, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Stein CM, Nelson R, Brown M, Wood M, Wood AJ. Dietary sodium intake modulates vasodilation mediated by nitroprusside but not by methacholine in the human forearm. Hypertension. 1995 Jun; 25(6): 1220-3. PMID: 7768565, ISSN: 0194-911X.

Chikanza IC, Stein M, Lutalo S, Gibson T. The clinical, serologic and radiologic features of rheumatoid arthritis in ethnic black Zimbabwean and British Caucasian patients. J. Rheumatol. 1994 Nov; 21(11): 2011-5. PMID: 7869302, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Stein CM, Longmire AW, Minton TA, Roberts LJ, Pincus T, Morrow JD. Cyclosporine-induced alterations in renal function are not associated with lipid peroxidation. Transplantation. 1994 Aug 8/15/1994; 58(3): 386-8. PMID: 8053066, ISSN: 0041-1337.

Stein M, Deegan R, Wood AJ. Long-term exposure to beta 2-receptor agonist specifically desensitizes beta-receptor-mediated venodilation. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1993 Aug; 54(2): 187-93. PMID: 8102603, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Stein M, Deegan R, He H, Wood AJ. Beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated release of norepinephrine in the human forearm. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1993 Jul; 54(1): 58-64. PMID: 8392457, ISSN: 0009-9236.

Cutbush S, Chikanza IC, Biro PA, Bekker C, Stein M, Lutalo S, Garcia-Pacheco JM, McCloskey DS, Lanchbury JS, Sachs JA. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide typing in Shona patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls from Zimbabwe. Tissue Antigens. 1993 Apr; 41(4): 169-72. PMID: 8362408, ISSN: 0001-2815.

Stein CM, Neill P, Kusemamuriwo T. Antihypertensive effects of low doses of hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive black Zimbabweans. Int. J. Cardiol. 1992 Nov; 37(2): 231-5. PMID: 1452381, ISSN: 0167-5273.

Xavier RJ, Stein CM, Kiire CF, Arrow J, Kitai I. Value of the history and stool occult blood test in selection of patients for upper endoscopy in Zimbabwe. East Afr Med J. 1992 May; 69(5): 268-71. PMID: 1644046, ISSN: 0012-835X.

Stein CM, Svoren B, Davis P, Blankenberg B. A prospective analysis of patients with rheumatic diseases attending referral hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. J. Rheumatol. 1991 Dec; 18(12): 1841-4. PMID: 1795322, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Davis P, Stein M. SLE in Zimbabwean patients: a review of clinical and serologic features and evaluation of criteria for classification. Cent Afr J Med. 1991 Sep; 37(9): 282-5. PMID: 1807806, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Davis P, Stein M. Human immunodeficiency virus-related connective tissue diseases: a Zimbabwean perspective. Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 1991 Feb; 17(1): 89-97. PMID: 2041891, ISSN: 0889-857X.

Stein M, Neill P, Arrow J. Variation in cuff blood pressure in untreated urban outpatients with mild hypertension in Harare, Zimbabwe--implications for the diagnosis of hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1991 Feb; 5(1): 11-3. PMID: 2041031, ISSN: 0950-9240.

Stein M, Davis P, Emmanuel J, West G. The spondyloarthropathies in Zimbabwe: a clinical and immunogenetic profile. J. Rheumatol. 1990 Oct; 17(10): 1337-9. PMID: 2254892, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Martell RW, Stein M, Davis P, West G, Emmanuel J, du Toit ED. The association between HLA and rheumatoid arthritis in Zimbabwean blacks. Tissue Antigens. 1990 Sep; 36(3): 125-6. PMID: 2278047, ISSN: 0001-2815.

Stein M, Davis P. Rheumatic disorders in Zimbabwe: a prospective analysis of patients attending a rheumatic diseases clinic. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1990 Jun; 49(6): 400-2. PMID: 2383064, PMCID: PMC1004109, ISSN: 0003-4967.

Stein CM, Neill P, Mwaluko GM, Kusema T. Combination of a thiazide, a vasodilator and reserpine compared with methyldopa plus hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of hypertension in Zimbabwe. S. Afr. Med. J. 1990 Mar 3/3/1990; 77(5): 243-5. PMID: 2107581, ISSN: 0256-9574.

Murenha E, Stein CM. Chemoprophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis--a survey of current practice in Zimbabwe. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1990 Feb; 25(2): 291-6. PMID: 2329105, ISSN: 0305-7453.

Davis P, Stein M. Evaluation of criteria for the classification of SLE in Zimbabwean patients [letter]. Br. J. Rheumatol. 1989 Dec; 28(6): 546-7. PMID: 2686803, ISSN: 0263-7103.

Stein CM, Xavier R. Extreme elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients admitted to a general medical ward in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Aug; 92(4): 259-62. PMID: 2760968, ISSN: 0022-5304.

Stein CM, Gora NP, Macheka BM. Self-medication in urban and rural Zimbabwean communities. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1989 Jun; 27(6): 741-7. PMID: 2757890, PMCID: PMC1379800, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Davis P, Stein M, Latif A, Emmanuel J. Acute arthritis in Zimbabwean patients: possible relationship to human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Rheumatol. 1989 Mar; 16(3): 346-8. PMID: 2786080, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Davis P, Stein M, Ley H, Johnston C. Serological profiles in the connective tissue diseases in Zimbabwean patients. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1989 Jan; 48(1): 73-6. PMID: 2784309, PMCID: PMC1003679, ISSN: 0003-4967.

Stein CM, Gora NP, Macheka BM. Self-medication with chloroquine for malaria prophylaxis in urban and rural Zimbabweans. Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Jul; 40(3): 264-8. PMID: 3188220, ISSN: 0041-3232.

Davis P, Stein M, Latif A, Emmanuel J. HIV and polyarthritis [letter]. Lancet. 1988 Apr 4/23/1988; 1(8591): 936. PMID: 2895852, PII: S0140-6736(88)91738-2, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Taylor HG, Stein CM, Jongeling G. Drug use before hospital admission in Zimbabwe. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1988; 34(1): 87-90. PMID: 3360054, ISSN: 0031-6970.

Stein M. [Rheumatic diseases in Zimbabwe]. Reumatizam. 1988; 35(1-6): 94-5. PMID: 3267871, ISSN: 0374-1338.

Stein CM, Hanly MG. Acute tropical polyarthritis in Zimbabwe: a prospective search for a gonococcal aetiology. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1987 Dec; 46(12): 912-4. PMID: 3426300, PMCID: PMC1003422, ISSN: 0003-4967.

Taylor HG, Stein CM. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Zimbabwe. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1986 Aug; 45(8): 645-8. PMID: 3740993, PMCID: PMC1001960, ISSN: 0003-4967.

Stein CM, Muir J. The causes of delayed diagnosis of cancer of the cervix in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1986 Feb; 32(2): 29-31. PMID: 3742581, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Stein CM, Gelfand M. The clinical features and laboratory findings in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Harare, Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1985 Sep; 31(9): 166-70. PMID: 3910259, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Dizwani AG, Stein CM, Todd WT, Parirenyatwa D, Chakonda J. Morbidity patterns and prescribing habits in Harare primary care clinics. Fam Pract. 1985 Jun; 2(2): 82-5. PMID: 4007318, ISSN: 0263-2136.

Stein CM, Gelfand M, MacDougall CN. Cancer of the colon and rectum in Zimbabweans. Cent Afr J Med. 1985 May; 31(5): 88-92. PMID: 4005948, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Stein CM, Gelfand M, Taylor HG. Achalasia in Zimbabwean blacks. S. Afr. Med. J. 1985 Feb 2/16/1985; 67(7): 261-2. PMID: 3983775, ISSN: 0256-9574.

Stein CM, Gelfand M. Gastro-intestinal phytobezoars in Zimbabwean Africans. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1985; 79(4): 508-9. PMID: 4082259, ISSN: 0035-9203.

Stein CM, Todd WT, Parirenyatwa D, Chakonda J, Dizwani AG. A survey of antibiotic use in Harare primary care clinics. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1984 Aug; 14(2): 149-56. PMID: 6501123, ISSN: 0305-7453.

Stein CM. The pattern of malignancy in Mashonaland. Part II. Cent Afr J Med. 1984 May; 30(5): 84-6. PMID: 6467364, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Stein CM. The pattern of malignancy in Mashonaland. Cent Afr J Med. 1984 Apr; 30(4): 64-8. PMID: 6467359, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Stein M, Gelfand M. The clinical presentation of gastric neoplasms in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1983 Nov; 29(11): 217-9. PMID: 6671205, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Stein M, Gelfand M. Pulmonary embolism in the Zimbabwe African. Cent Afr J Med. 1983 Apr; 29(4): 82-5. PMID: 6883495, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Stein CM, Levy LM. Ulcerative colitis in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1982 Nov; 28(11): 263-5. PMID: 7168852, ISSN: 0008-9176.

Gelfand M, Stein M. Jaundice in Africans with congestive cardiac failure. Cent Afr J Med. 1981 Jul; 27(7): 136-8. PMID: 7307068, ISSN: 0008-9176.