Michael Bubser, Ph.D.

Research Assistant Professor


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Faculty Appointments
Research Assistant Professor of Pharmacology
Ph.D., Behavioural and Neuropsychopharmacology, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, GermanyB.S., Behavioural and neuropsychopharmacology, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
Office Address
Department of Pharmacology
476 Preston Research Building
23rd Avenue South @ Pierce
Nashville, TN 37232-6600
Research Description
Michael Bubser obtained his doctoral training in the laboratory of Werner J. Schmidt, Ph.D. at the University of Stuttgart in Germany. His graduate studies focused on the behavioural pharmacology of the dopaminergic innervations of the prefrontal cortex of the rat. He also examined the role of competitive and non-competitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors in animal models of Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia as well as their impact on dopamine neurochemistry. During his stay at the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) he was intrigued by the possibilities that functional anatomical techniques could contribute to unraveling the interaction of complex brain circuitry. During his work with Ariel Y. Deutch in the Departments of Psychiatry at Yale University and Vanderbilt University he continued his functional anatomical studies by examining sites and mechanism(s) of action of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APD) and psychostimulants. In particular he investigated novel sites of APD actions in the diencephalon and demonstrated that there is a correlation between the activation of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalmus and the liability of certain APDs to cause significant weight gain.

When he joined the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD) in 2009 he started applying his knowledge in functional neuroanatomy and behavioural pharmacology to the study of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). He currently works on characterizing the therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. A second avenue of his research is the study of in vivo actions of muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands, in particular M1 and M4 PAMs.
Research Keywords
Antipsychotic Drugs
Wood MR, Noetzel MJ, Engers JL, Bollinger KA, Melancon BJ, Tarr JC, Han C, West M, Gregro AR, Lamsal A, Chang S, Ajmera S, Smith E, Chase P, Hodder PS, Bubser M, Jones CK, Hopkins CR, Emmitte KA, Niswender CM, Wood MW, Duggan ME, Conn PJ, Bridges TM, Lindsley CW. Discovery and optimization of a novel series of highly CNS penetrant M4 PAMs based on a 5,6-dimethyl-4-(piperidin-1-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/1/2016; 26(13): 3029-33. PMID: 27185330, PMCID: PMC4955361, PII: S0960-894X(16)30490-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.05.010, ISSN: 1464-3405.

Gould RW, Amato RJ, Bubser M, Joffe ME, Nedelcovych MT, Thompson AD, Nickols HH, Yuh JP, Zhan X, Felts AS, Rodriguez AL, Morrison RD, Byers FW, Rook JM, Daniels JS, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Emmitte KA, Lindsley CW, Jones CK. Partial mGlu5 Negative Allosteric Modulators Attenuate Cocaine-Mediated Behaviors and Lack Psychotomimetic-Like Effects. Neuropsychopharmacology [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar; 41(4): 1166-78. PMID: 26315507, PMCID: PMC4748441, PII: npp2015265, DOI: 10.1038/npp.2015.265, ISSN: 1740-634X.

Gould RW, Nedelcovych MT, Gong X, Tsai E, Bubser M, Bridges TM, Wood MR, Duggan ME, Brandon NJ, Dunlop J, Wood MW, Ivarsson M, Noetzel MJ, Daniels JS, Niswender CM, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ, Jones CK. State-dependent alterations in sleep/wake architecture elicited by the M4 PAM VU0467154 - Relation to antipsychotic-like drug effects. Neuropharmacology [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar; 102: 244-53. PMID: 26617071, PMCID: PMC4809053, PII: S0028-3908(15)30180-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.11.016, ISSN: 1873-7064.

White MG, Cody PA, Bubser M, Wang HD, Deutch AY, Mathur BN. Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization. J. Comp. Neurol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/23/2016; PMID: 26801010, PMCID: PMC4958609, DOI: 10.1002/cne.23970, ISSN: 1096-9861.

Nickols HH, Yuh JP, Gregory KJ, Morrison RD, Bates BS, Stauffer SR, Emmitte KA, Bubser M, Peng W, Nedelcovych MT, Thompson A, Lv X, Xiang Z, Daniels JS, Niswender CM, Lindsley CW, Jones CK, Conn PJ. VU0477573: Partial Negative Allosteric Modulator of the Subtype 5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor with In Vivo Efficacy. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan; 356(1): 123-36. PMID: 26503377, PMCID: PMC4702078, PII: jpet.115.226597, DOI: 10.1124/jpet.115.226597, ISSN: 1521-0103.

Iderberg H, Maslava N, Thompson AD, Bubser M, Niswender CM, Hopkins CR, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ, Jones CK, Cenci MA. Pharmacological stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4 in a rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: Comparison between a positive allosteric modulator and an orthosteric agonist. Neuropharmacology [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 95: 121-9. PMID: 25749357, PMCID: PMC4466038, PII: S0028-3908(15)00079-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.02.023, ISSN: 1873-7064.

Rook JM, Xiang Z, Lv X, Ghoshal A, Dickerson JW, Bridges TM, Johnson KA, Foster DJ, Gregory KJ, Vinson PN, Thompson AD, Byun N, Collier RL, Bubser M, Nedelcovych MT, Gould RW, Stauffer SR, Daniels JS, Niswender CM, Lavreysen H, Mackie C, Conde-Ceide S, Alcazar J, Bartolomé-Nebreda JM, Macdonald GJ, Talpos JC, Steckler T, Jones CK, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ. Biased mGlu5-Positive Allosteric Modulators Provide In Vivo Efficacy without Potentiating mGlu5 Modulation of NMDAR Currents. Neuron [print-electronic]. 2015 May 5/20/2015; 86(4): 1029-40. PMID: 25937172, PMCID: PMC4443790, PII: S0896-6273(15)00287-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.03.063, ISSN: 1097-4199.

Nedelcovych MT, Gould RW, Zhan X, Bubser M, Gong X, Grannan M, Thompson AT, Ivarsson M, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ, Jones CK. A rodent model of traumatic stress induces lasting sleep and quantitative electroencephalographic disturbances. ACS Chem Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2015 Mar 3/18/2015; 6(3): 485-93. PMID: 25581551, PMCID: PMC4403733, DOI: 10.1021/cn500342u, ISSN: 1948-7193.

Cho HP, Garcia-Barrantes PM, Brogan JT, Hopkins CR, Niswender CM, Rodriguez AL, Venable DF, Morrison RD, Bubser M, Daniels JS, Jones CK, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW. Chemical modulation of mutant mGlu1 receptors derived from deleterious GRM1 mutations found in schizophrenics. ACS Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct 10/17/2014; 9(10): 2334-46. PMID: 25137254, PMCID: PMC4201332, DOI: 10.1021/cb500560h, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Bubser M, Bridges TM, Dencker D, Gould RW, Grannan M, Noetzel MJ, Lamsal A, Niswender CM, Daniels JS, Poslusney MS, Melancon BJ, Tarr JC, Byers FW, Wess J, Duggan ME, Dunlop J, Wood MW, Brandon NJ, Wood MR, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ, Jones CK. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents. ACS Chem Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct 10/15/2014; 5(10): 920-42. PMID: 25137629, PMCID: PMC4324418, DOI: 10.1021/cn500128b, ISSN: 1948-7193.

Berry CB, Bubser M, Jones CK, Hayes JP, Wepy JA, Locuson CW, Daniels JS, Lindsley CW, Hopkins CR. Discovery and Characterization of ML398, a Potent and Selective Antagonist of the D4 Receptor with in Vivo Activity. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2014 Sep 9/11/2014; 5(9): 1060-4. PMID: 25221667, PMCID: PMC4160761, DOI: 10.1021/ml500267c, ISSN: 1948-5875.

Byun NE, Grannan M, Bubser M, Barry RL, Thompson A, Rosanelli J, Gowrishankar R, Kelm ND, Damon S, Bridges TM, Melancon BJ, Tarr JC, Brogan JT, Avison MJ, Deutch AY, Wess J, Wood MR, Lindsley CW, Gore JC, Conn PJ, Jones CK. Antipsychotic drug-like effects of the selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator VU0152100. Neuropsychopharmacology [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 39(7): 1578-93. PMID: 24442096, PMCID: PMC4023154, PII: npp20142, DOI: 10.1038/npp.2014.2, ISSN: 1740-634X.

Johnson KA, Jones CK, Tantawy MN, Bubser M, Marvanova M, Ansari MS, Baldwin RM, Conn PJ, Niswender CM. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 agonist (S)-3,4-DCPG reverses motor deficits in prolonged but not acute models of Parkinson's disease. Neuropharmacology [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar; 66: 187-95. PMID: 22546615, PMCID: PMC3432150, PII: S0028-3908(12)00144-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.03.029, ISSN: 1873-7064.

Digby GJ, Noetzel MJ, Bubser M, Utley TJ, Walker AG, Byun NE, Lebois EP, Xiang Z, Sheffler DJ, Cho HP, Davis AA, Nemirovsky NE, Mennenga SE, Camp BW, Bimonte-Nelson HA, Bode J, Italiano K, Morrison R, Daniels JS, Niswender CM, Olive MF, Lindsley CW, Jones CK, Conn PJ. Novel allosteric agonists of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induce brain region-specific responses that correspond with behavioral effects in animal models. J. Neurosci. 2012 Jun 6/20/2012; 32(25): 8532-44. PMID: 22723693, PMCID: PMC3398407, PII: 32/25/8532, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0337-12.2012, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Kusnoor SV, Bubser M, Deutch AY. The effects of nigrostriatal dopamine depletion on the thalamic parafascicular nucleus. Brain Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar 3/29/2012; 1446: 46-55. PMID: 22353754, PMCID: PMC3772731, PII: S0006-8993(12)00101-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.01.040, ISSN: 1872-6240.

Jones CK, Bubser M, Thompson AD, Dickerson JW, Turle-Lorenzo N, Amalric M, Blobaum AL, Bridges TM, Morrison RD, Jadhav S, Engers DW, Italiano K, Bode J, Daniels JS, Lindsley CW, Hopkins CR, Conn PJ, Niswender CM. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-positive allosteric modulator VU0364770 produces efficacy alone and in combination with L-DOPA or an adenosine 2A antagonist in preclinical rodent models of Parkinson's disease. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb; 340(2): 404-21. PMID: 22088953, PMCID: PMC3263969, PII: jpet.111.187443, DOI: 10.1124/jpet.111.187443, ISSN: 1521-0103.

Bubser M, Byun N, Wood MR, Jones CK. Muscarinic receptor pharmacology and circuitry for the modulation of cognition. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012; (208): 121-66. PMID: 22222698, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23274-9_7, ISSN: 0171-2004.

Jones CK, Byun N, Bubser M. Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and allosteric modulators for the treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology [print-electronic]. 2012 Jan; 37(1): 16-42. PMID: 21956443, PMCID: PMC3238081, PII: npp2011199, DOI: 10.1038/npp.2011.199, ISSN: 1740-634X.

Herman EJ, Bubser M, Conn PJ, Jones CK. Metabotropic glutamate receptors for new treatments in schizophrenia. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012; (213): 297-365. PMID: 23027420, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-25758-2_11, ISSN: 0171-2004.

Gustin RM, Bichell TJ, Bubser M, Daily J, Filonova I, Mrelashvili D, Deutch AY, Colbran RJ, Weeber EJ, Haas KF. Tissue-specific variation of Ube3a protein expression in rodents and in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome. Neurobiol. Dis [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 39(3): 283-91. PMID: 20423730, PMCID: PMC2922926, PII: S0969-9961(10)00128-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.04.012, ISSN: 1095-953X.

Jones CK, Brady AE, Davis AA, Xiang Z, Bubser M, Tantawy MN, Kane AS, Bridges TM, Kennedy JP, Bradley SR, Peterson TE, Ansari MS, Baldwin RM, Kessler RM, Deutch AY, Lah JJ, Levey AI, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ. Novel selective allosteric activator of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor regulates amyloid processing and produces antipsychotic-like activity in rats. J. Neurosci. 2008 Oct 10/8/2008; 28(41): 10422-33. PMID: 18842902, PMCID: PMC2577155, PII: 28/41/10422, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1850-08.2008, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Deutch AY, Bubser M. The orexins/hypocretins and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov; 33(6): 1277-83. PMID: 17728265, PMCID: PMC2779882, PII: sbm096, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbm096, ISSN: 0586-7614.

Bubser M, Fadel JR, Jackson LL, Meador-Woodruff JH, Jing D, Deutch AY. Dopaminergic regulation of orexin neurons. Eur. J. Neurosci. 2005 Jun; 21(11): 2993-3001. PMID: 15978010, PII: EJN4121, DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04121.x, ISSN: 0953-816X.

Petrie KA, Schmidt D, Bubser M, Fadel J, Carraway RE, Deutch AY. Neurotensin activates GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. J. Neurosci. 2005 Feb 2/16/2005; 25(7): 1629-36. PMID: 15716398, PII: 25/7/1629, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3579-04.2005, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Petrie KA, Bubser M, Casey CD, Davis MD, Roth BL, Deutch AY. The neurotensin agonist PD149163 increases Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex of the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Oct; 29(10): 1878-88. PMID: 15150532, PII: 1300494, DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300494, ISSN: 0893-133X.

Fadel J, Bubser M, Deutch AY. Differential activation of orexin neurons by antipsychotic drugs associated with weight gain. J. Neurosci. 2002 Aug 8/1/2002; 22(15): 6742-6. PMID: 12151553, PII: 22/15/6742, DOI: 20026632, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Bubser M, Deutch AY. Differential effects of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum. Eur. J. Neurosci. 2002 Feb; 15(4): 713-20. PMID: 11886451, ISSN: 0953-816X.

Bubser M, Backstrom JR, Sanders-Bush E, Roth BL, Deutch AY. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors in afferents of the rat striatum. Synapse. 2001 Mar 3/15/2001; 39(4): 297-304. PMID: 11169779, PII: 10.1002/1098-2396(20010315)39:4<297::AID-SYN1012>3.0.CO;2-Q, DOI: 10.1002/1098-2396(20010315)39:4<297::AID-SYN1012>3.0.CO;2-Q, ISSN: 0887-4476.

Roth-Härer A, Lilienthal H, Bubser M, Kronthaler U, R Mundy W, R Ward T, Schmidt W, Winterhoff H, Winneke G. Neurotransmitter concentrations and binding at dopamine receptors in rats after maternal exposure to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl: the role of reduced thyroid hormone concentrations. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2001 Jan 1/1/2001; 9(3): 103-15. PMID: 11167155, PII: S1382668900000697, ISSN: 1872-7077.

Scruggs JL, Patel S, Bubser M, Deutch AY. DOI-Induced activation of the cortex: dependence on 5-HT2A heteroceptors on thalamocortical glutamatergic neurons. J. Neurosci. 2000 Dec 12/1/2000; 20(23): 8846-52. PMID: 11102493, PII: 20/23/8846, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Bubser M, Scruggs JL, Young CD, Deutch AY. The distribution and origin of the calretinin-containing innervation of the nucleus accumbens of the rat. Eur. J. Neurosci. 2000 May; 12(5): 1591-8. PMID: 10792437, PII: ejn052, ISSN: 0953-816X.

Young CD, Bubser M, Meltzer HY, Deutch AY. Clozapine pretreatment modifies haloperidol-elicited forebrain Fos induction: a regionally-specific double dissociation. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 1999 Jun; 144(3): 255-63. PMID: 10435392, ISSN: 0033-3158.

Bubser M, Deutch AY. Stress induces Fos expression in neurons of the thalamic paraventricular nucleus that innervate limbic forebrain sites. Synapse. 1999 Apr; 32(1): 13-22. PMID: 10188633, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199904)32:1<13::AID-SYN2>3.0.CO;2-R, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199904)32:1<13::AID-SYN2>3.0.CO;2-R, ISSN: 0887-4476.

Abi-Saab WM, Bubser M, Roth RH, Deutch AY. 5-HT2 receptor regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999 Jan; 20(1): 92-6. PMID: 9885788, PII: S0893-133X(98)00046-3, DOI: 10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00046-3, ISSN: 0893-133X.

Deutch AY, Bubser M, Young CD. Psychostimulant-induced Fos protein expression in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus. J. Neurosci. 1998 Dec 12/15/1998; 18(24): 10680-7. PMID: 9852603, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Bubser M, de Brabander JM, Timmerman W, Feenstra MG, Erdtsieck-Ernste EB, Rinkens A, van Uum JF, Westerink BH. Disinhibition of the mediodorsal thalamus induces fos-like immunoreactivity in both pyramidal and GABA-containing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, but does not affect prefrontal extracellular GABA levels. Synapse. 1998 Oct; 30(2): 156-65. PMID: 9723785, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199810)30:2<156::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-B, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199810)30:2<156::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-B, ISSN: 0887-4476.

Bubser M, Deutch AY. Thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons collateralize to innervate the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1998 Mar 3/23/1998; 787(2): 304-10. PMID: 9518661, PII: S0006-8993(97)01373-5, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Bubser M, Zadow B, Kronthaler UO, Felsheim U, Rückert NG, Schmidt WJ. Behavioural pharmacology of the non-competitive NMDA antagonists dextrorphan and ADCI: relations between locomotor stimulation, anticataleptic potential and forebrain dopamine metabolism. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 1997 Jun; 355(6): 767-73. PMID: 9205962, ISSN: 0028-1298.

Bubser M, Feenstra MG, Erdtsieck-Ernste EB, Botterblom MH, Van Uum HF, Pool CW. Modulatory role of catecholamines in the transsynaptic expression of c-fos in the rat medial prefrontal cortex induced by disinhibition of the mediodorsal thalamus: a study employing microdialysis and immunohistochemistry. Brain Res. 1997 Feb 2/28/1997; 749(2): 214-25. PMID: 9138721, PII: S0006-8993(96)01170-5, DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(96)01170-5, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Rückert N, Bubser M, Schmidt WJ. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesion of locus coeruleus and the antiparkinsonian potential of NMDA-receptor antagonists in rats. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1997; 104(4-5): 363-77. PMID: 9295171, ISSN: 0300-9564.

Kretschmer BD, Bubser M, Schmidt WJ. Behavioral and neurochemical actions of the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor antagonist, 7-chlorokynurenate, in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1995 Jun 6/23/1995; 280(1): 37-45. PMID: 7498252, PII: 001429999500183L, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Bubser M, Tzschentke T, Hauber W. Behavioural and neurochemical interactions of the AMPA antagonist GYKI 52466 and the non-competitive NMDA antagonist dizocilpine in rats. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. 1995; 101(1-3): 115-26. PMID: 8695042.

[place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1995.

Koch M, Bubser M. Deficient sensorimotor gating after 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the rat medial prefrontal cortex is reversed by haloperidol. Eur. J. Neurosci. 1994 Dec 12/1/1994; 6(12): 1837-45. PMID: 7704295, ISSN: 0953-816X.

Bubser M, Schmidt WJ. Injection of apomorphine into the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat increases haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Biol. Psychiatry. 1994 Jul 7/1/1994; 36(1): 64-7. PMID: 8080907, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Bubser M. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex of rats do not affect dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia at short and long postsurgical intervals. Neurochem. Res. 1994 Apr; 19(4): 421-5. PMID: 8065499, ISSN: 0364-3190.

Hauber W, Bubser M, Schmidt WJ. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesion of the rat prefrontal cortex impairs motor initiation but not motor execution. Exp Brain Res. 1994; 99(3): 524-8. PMID: 7957731, ISSN: 0014-4819.

Bubser M, Koch M. Prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response of rats is reduced by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 1994 Jan; 113(3-4): 487-92. PMID: 7862864, ISSN: 0033-3158.

Bubser M, Bartmann M. Effect of carbon in-line filters on catecholamine analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrochemical detection. J. Chromatogr. 1993 Jun 6/2/1993; 615(2): 339-42. PMID: 8335713.

Bubser M, Keseberg U, Notz PK, Schmidt WJ. Differential behavioural and neurochemical effects of competitive and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1992 Dec 12/8/1992; 229(1): 75-82. PMID: 1361915, PII: 0014-2999(92)90288-F, ISSN: 0014-2999.

Schmidt WJ, Bubser M, Hauber W. Behavioural pharmacology of glutamate in the basal ganglia. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. 1992; 38: 65-89. PMID: 1491249, ISSN: 0303-6995.

Bubser M, Schmidt WJ. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesion of the rat prefrontal cortex increases locomotor activity, impairs acquisition of delayed alternation tasks, but does not affect uninterrupted tasks in the radial maze. Behav. Brain Res. 1990 Mar 3/5/1990; 37(2): 157-68. PMID: 2108704, ISSN: 0166-4328.

Schmidt WJ, Bubser M, Hauber W. Excitatory amino acids and Parkinson's disease [letter]. Trends Neurosci. 1990 Feb; 13(2): 46-7. PMID: 1690929, PII: 0166-2236(90)90066-J, ISSN: 0166-2236.

Schmidt W J, Bubser M, Hauber W. Excitatory amino acid antagonists and Parkinsons disease - Reply. Trends Neurosci. 1990; 13: 327.

Schmidt WJ, Bubser M. Anticataleptic effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1989 Mar; 32(3): 621-3. PMID: 2544900, PII: 0091-3057(89)90007-5, ISSN: 0091-3057.