Eugene Wesley Ely, M.D.

Faculty Appointments
Professor of Medicine Grant W. Liddle Chair
M.P.H., Epidemiology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LouisianaM.D., Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LouisianaB.S., Biology, Summa Cum Laude, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
Office Address
1215 21st Ave. South
Med Center East 6109
Nashville, TN 37232-8300
Research Description
Dr. E. Wesley Ely is a professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine with subspecialty training in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. Dr. Ely’s research has focused on improving the care and outcomes of critically ill patients with ICU-acquired brain disease (manifested acutely as delirium and chronically as acquired dementia). He is the co-director of the Center for Critical Illness, Brain dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS Center), which has amassed thousands of patients into cohort studies and randomized trials answering vital questions about ICU acquired brain disease and other components of ICU survivorship. His team developed the primary tool (CAM-ICU, translated into 30+ languages) which is used to measure delirium in ICU-based trials and clinically at the bedside in ICUs worldwide. Dr. Ely has been continuously federally funded (NIA and/or VA) for over 15 years. He has over 400 peer-reviewed publications and over 50 published book chapters and editorials. His wife is a pathologist and together they have 3 daughters who are the light of their lives.
Clinical Description
Dr. Ely is a subspecialist in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine who conducts patient-oriented, health services research as a Professor of Medicine in the Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. He is also a practicing intensivist with a focus on Geriatric ICU Care, as the Associate Director for Research for the VA Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center.
Research Keywords
Dr. E. Wesley Ely, MD, MPH is a professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine with subspecialty training in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and a particular passion for care of older critically ill patients.
Clinical Research Keywords
Sepsis, ARDS, Outcomes in the ICU, Aging, Mechanical Ventilation, Weaning, End-of-Life
Vasilevskis EE, Chandrasekhar R, Holtze CH, Graves J, Speroff T, Girard TD, Patel MB, Hughes CG, Cao A, Pandharipande PP, Ely EW. The Cost of ICU Delirium and Coma in the Intensive Care Unit Patient. Med Care [print-electronic]. 2018 Aug 8/31/2018; PMID: 30179988, DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000975, ISSN: 1537-1948.

Patel MB, Bednarik J, Lee P, Shehabi Y, Salluh JI, Slooter AJ, Klein KE, Skrobik Y, Morandi A, Spronk PE, Naidech AM, Pun BT, Bozza FA, Marra A, John S, Pandharipande PP, Ely EW. Delirium Monitoring in Neurocritically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Aug 8/23/2018; PMID: 30142098, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003349, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Shinall MC, Martin SF, Nelson J, Miller RS, Semler MW, Zimmerman EE, Noblit CC, Ely EW, Karlekar M. Five-Year Experience of an Inpatient Palliative Care Unit at an Academic Referral Center. Am J Hosp Palliat Care [print-electronic]. 2018 Aug; 35(8): 1057-62. PMID: 29325441, PMCID: PMC6026569, DOI: 10.1177/1049909117751878, ISSN: 1938-2715.

Stollings JL, Bloom SL, Wang L, Ely EW, Jackson JC, Sevin CM. Critical Care Pharmacists and Medication Management in an ICU Recovery Center. Ann Pharmacother [print-electronic]. 2018 Aug; 52(8): 713-23. PMID: 29457491, PMCID: PMC6039256, DOI: 10.1177/1060028018759343, ISSN: 1542-6270.

Cirbus J, MacLullich AMJ, Noel C, Ely EW, Chandrasekhar R, Han JH. Delirium etiology subtypes and their effect on six-month function and cognition in older emergency department patients. Int Psychogeriatr [print-electronic]. 2018 Jul 7/19/2018; 1-10. PMID: 30021661, PII: S1041610218000777, DOI: 10.1017/S1041610218000777, ISSN: 1741-203X.

Wilson JE, Heckers S, Ely EW, . The authors reply. Crit. Care Med. 2018 Jul; 46(7): e722-e723. PMID: 29912122, PII: 00003246-201807000-00057, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003161, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Wilson JE, Collar EM, Kiehl AL, Lee H, Merzenich M, Ely EW, Jackson J. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation in Intensive Care Unit Survivors: Returning to Everyday Tasks Using Rehabilitation Networks-Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Pilot Investigation. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Jul; 15(7): 887-91. PMID: 29911883, DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201709-744RL, ISSN: 2325-6621.

Ely EW. Ethics and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ann. Intern. Med. 2018 Jun 6/5/2018; 168(11): 834. PMID: 29868807, PII: 2683550, DOI: 10.7326/L18-0078, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Stollings JL, Thompson JL, Ferrell BA, Scheinin M, Wilkinson GR, Hughes CG, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Patel MB. Sedative Plasma Concentrations and Delirium Risk in Critical Illness. Ann Pharmacother [print-electronic]. 2018 Jun; 52(6): 513-21. PMID: 29363356, PMCID: PMC5930024, DOI: 10.1177/1060028017753480, ISSN: 1542-6270.

Barnes-Daly MA, Pun BT, Harmon LA, Byrum DG, Kumar VK, Devlin JW, Stollings JL, Puntillo KA, Engel HJ, Posa PJ, Barr J, Schweickert WD, Esbrook CL, Hargett KD, Carson SS, Aldrich JM, Ely EW, Balas MC. Improving Health Care for Critically Ill Patients Using an Evidence-Based Collaborative Approach to ABCDEF Bundle Dissemination and Implementation. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs [print-electronic]. 2018 Jun; 15(3): 206-16. PMID: 29729659, DOI: 10.1111/wvn.12290, ISSN: 1741-6787.

Marra A, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Patel MB, Hughes CG, Jackson JC, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Ely EW, Brummel NE. Cooccurrence of Post-Intensive Care Syndrome Problems Among 406 Survivors of Critical Illness. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2018 May 5/21/2018; PMID: 29787415, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003218, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Han JH, Hayhurst CJ, Chandrasekhar R, Hughes CG, Vasilevskis EE, Wilson JE, Schnelle JF, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Delirium's Arousal Subtypes and Their Relationship with 6-Month Functional Status and Cognition. Psychosomatics [print-electronic]. 2018 May 5/17/2018; PMID: 29929733, PII: S0033-3182(18)30221-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.psym.2018.05.003, ISSN: 1545-7206.

Chan KS, Mourtzakis M, Aronson Friedman L, Dinglas VD, Hough CL, Ely EW, Morris PE, Hopkins RO, Needham DM, . Evaluating Muscle Mass in Survivors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A 1-Year Multicenter Longitudinal Study. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2018 May 5/4/2018; PMID: 29727365, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003183, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Abdel-Kader K, Girard TD, Brummel NE, Saunders CT, Blume JD, Clark AJ, Vincz AJ, Ely EW, Jackson JC, Bell SP, Archer KR, Ikizler TA, Pandharipande PP, Siew ED. Acute Kidney Injury and Subsequent Frailty Status in Survivors of Critical Illness: A Secondary Analysis. Crit. Care Med. 2018 May; 46(5): e380-e388. PMID: 29373362, PMCID: PMC5899022, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003003, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Kritchevsky SB, Forman DE, Callahan K, Ely EW, High KP, McFarland F, Pérez-Stable EJ, Schmader K, Studenski S, Williams J, Zieman S, Guralnik JM. Pathways, Contributors, and Correlates of Functional Limitation across Specialties: Workshop Summary. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci [print-electronic]. 2018 Apr 4/25/2018; PMID: 29697758, PII: 4985137, DOI: 10.1093/gerona/gly093, ISSN: 1758-535X.

Selim A, Kandeel N, Elokl M, Khater MS, Saleh AN, Bustami R, Ely EW. The validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU): A prospective cohort study. Int J Nurs Stud [print-electronic]. 2018 Apr; 80: 83-9. PMID: 29358101, PII: S0020-7489(17)30287-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.12.011, ISSN: 1873-491X.

Chan KS, Mourtzakis M, Aronson Friedman L, Dinglas VD, Hough CL, Ely EW, Morris PE, Hopkins RO, Needham DM, . Upper arm anthropometrics versus DXA scan in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr [print-electronic]. 2018 Apr; 72(4): 613-7. PMID: 29483623, PMCID: PMC5884734, PII: 10.1038/s41430-018-0106-1, DOI: 10.1038/s41430-018-0106-1, ISSN: 1476-5640.

Marra A, Jackson JC, Ely EW, Graves AJ, Schnelle JF, Dittus RS, Wilson A, Han JH. Focusing on Inattention: The Diagnostic Accuracy of Brief Measures of Inattention for Detecting Delirium. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar 3/26/2018; PMID: 29578552, DOI: 10.12788/jhm.2943, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Marra A, Pandharipande PP, Shotwell MS, Chandrasekhar R, Girard TD, Shintani AK, Peelen LM, Moons KGM, Dittus RS, Ely EW, Vasilevskis EE. Acute Brain Dysfunction: Development and Validation of a Daily Prediction Model. Chest [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar 3/24/2018; PMID: 29580772, PII: S0012-3692(18)30426-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.03.013, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Chanques G, Ely EW, Garnier O, Perrigault F, Eloi A, Carr J, Rowan CM, Prades A, de Jong A, Moritz-Gasser S, Molinari N, Jaber S. The 2014 updated version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit compared to the 5th version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and other current methods used by intensivists. Ann Intensive Care. 2018 Mar 3/1/2018; 8(1): 33. PMID: 29492696, PMCID: PMC5833335, PII: 10.1186/s13613-018-0377-7, DOI: 10.1186/s13613-018-0377-7, ISSN: 2110-5820.

Girard TD, Thompson JL, Pandharipande PP, Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Patel MB, Hughes CG, Chandrasekhar R, Pun BT, Boehm LM, Elstad MR, Goodman RB, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Clinical phenotypes of delirium during critical illness and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Mar; 6(3): 213-22. PMID: 29508705, PII: S2213-2600(18)30062-6, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30062-6, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Hughes CG, Patel MB, Brummel NE, Thompson JL, McNeil JB, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Chandrasekhar R, Ware LB, Ely EW, Girard TD. Relationships between markers of neurologic and endothelial injury during critical illness and long-term cognitive impairment and disability. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Mar; 44(3): 345-55. PMID: 29523900, PMCID: PMC5870884, PII: 10.1007/s00134-018-5120-1, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-018-5120-1, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Jackson JC, Mozaffarian D, Graves AJ, Brown NJ, Marchioli R, Kiehl AL, Ely EW. Fish Oil Supplementation Does Not Affect Cognitive Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery Patients in the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) Trial. J. Nutr. 2018 Mar 3/1/2018; 148(3): 472-9. PMID: 29546292, PII: 4930794, DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxx002, ISSN: 1541-6100.

Gélinas C, Bérubé M, Chevrier A, Pun BT, Ely EW, Skrobik Y, Barr J. Delirium Assessment Tools for Use in Critically Ill Adults: A Psychometric Analysis and Systematic Review. Crit Care Nurse. 2018 Feb; 38(1): 38-49. PMID: 29437077, PII: 38/1/38, DOI: 10.4037/ccn2018633, ISSN: 1940-8250.

Cohen-Almagor R, Ely EW. Euthanasia and palliative sedation in Belgium. BMJ Support Palliat Care [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/4/2018; PMID: 29305500, PII: bmjspcare-2017-001398, DOI: 10.1136/bmjspcare-2017-001398, ISSN: 2045-4368.

Shinall MC, Ely EW, Karlekar M, Robbins SG, Chandrasekhar R, Martin SF. Psychometric Properties of the FACIT-Pal 14 Administered in an Outpatient Palliative Care Clinic. Am J Hosp Palliat Care [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/1/2018; 1049909118763793. PMID: 29529883, PMCID: PMC6026571, DOI: 10.1177/1049909118763793, ISSN: 1938-2715.

Sprung CL, Somerville MA, Radbruch L, Collet NS, Duttge G, Piva JP, Antonelli M, Sulmasy DP, Lemmens W, Ely EW. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: Emerging Issues From a Global Perspective. J Palliat Care [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/1/2018; 825859718777325. PMID: 29852810, DOI: 10.1177/0825859718777325, ISSN: 0825-8597.

Todd A, Blackley S, Burton JK, Stott DJ, Ely EW, Tieges Z, MacLullich AMJ, Shenkin SD. Reduced level of arousal and increased mortality in adult acute medical admissions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2017 Dec 12/8/2017; 17(1): 283. PMID: 29216846, PMCID: PMC5721682, PII: 10.1186/s12877-017-0661-7, DOI: 10.1186/s12877-017-0661-7, ISSN: 1471-2318.

Azoulay E, Vincent JL, Angus DC, Arabi YM, Brochard L, Brett SJ, Citerio G, Cook DJ, Curtis JR, Dos Santos CC, Ely EW, Hall J, Halpern SD, Hart N, Hopkins RO, Iwashyna TJ, Jaber S, Latronico N, Mehta S, Needham DM, Nelson J, Puntillo K, Quintel M, Rowan K, Rubenfeld G, Van den Berghe G, Van der Hoeven J, Wunsch H, Herridge M. Recovery after critical illness: putting the puzzle together-a consensus of 29. Crit Care. 2017 Dec 12/5/2017; 21(1): 296. PMID: 29208005, PMCID: PMC5718148, PII: 10.1186/s13054-017-1887-7, DOI: 10.1186/s13054-017-1887-7, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Morandi A, Piva S, Ely EW, Myatra SN, Salluh JIF, Amare D, Azoulay E, Bellelli G, Csomos A, Fan E, Fagoni N, Girard TD, Heras La Calle G, Inoue S, Lim CM, Kaps R, Kotfis K, Koh Y, Misango D, Pandharipande PP, Permpikul C, Cheng Tan C, Wang DX, Sharshar T, Shehabi Y, Skrobik Y, Singh JM, Slooter A, Smith M, Tsuruta R, Latronico N. Worldwide Survey of the "Assessing Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening and Breathing Trials, Choice of Drugs, Delirium Monitoring/Management, Early Exercise/Mobility, and Family Empowerment" (ABCDEF) Bundle. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Nov; 45(11): e1111-e1122. PMID: 28787293, PMCID: PMC5640479, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002640, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Wilson JE, Carlson R, Duggan MC, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Wang L, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Francis A, Nicolson SE, Dittus RS, Heckers S, Ely EW, . Delirium and Catatonia in Critically Ill Patients: The Delirium and Catatonia Prospective Cohort Investigation. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Nov; 45(11): 1837-44. PMID: 28841632, PMCID: PMC5678952, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002642, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Kenes MT, Stollings JL, Wang L, Girard TD, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Persistence of Delirium after Cessation of Sedatives and Analgesics and Impact on Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients. Pharmacotherapy [print-electronic]. 2017 Nov; 37(11): 1357-65. PMID: 28845902, PMCID: PMC5681431, DOI: 10.1002/phar.2021, ISSN: 1875-9114.

Brummel NE, Boehm LM, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Hughes CG, Patel MB, Han JH, Vasilevskis EE, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Subsyndromal Delirium and Institutionalization Among Patients With Critical Illness. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2017 Nov; 26(6): 447-55. PMID: 29092867, PMCID: PMC5831547, PII: 26/6/447, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2017263, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Chan KS, Aronson Friedman L, Dinglas VD, Hough CL, Shanholtz C, Ely EW, Morris PE, Mendez-Tellez PA, Jackson JC, Hopkins RO, Needham DM. Are physical measures related to patient-centred outcomes in ARDS survivors?. Thorax [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct; 72(10): 884-92. PMID: 28108621, PII: thoraxjnl-2016-209400, DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209400, ISSN: 1468-3296.

Walston J, Robinson TN, Zieman S, McFarland F, Carpenter CR, Althoff KN, Andrew MK, Blaum CS, Brown PJ, Buta B, Ely EW, Ferrucci L, High KP, Kritchevsky SB, Rockwood K, Schmader KE, Sierra F, Sink KM, Varadhan R, Hurria A. Integrating Frailty Research into the Medical Specialties-Report from a U13 Conference. J Am Geriatr Soc [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct; 65(10): 2134-9. PMID: 28422280, PMCID: PMC5641231, DOI: 10.1111/jgs.14902, ISSN: 1532-5415.

Hatch LD, Grubb PH, Markham MH, Scott TA, Walsh WF, Slaughter JC, Stark AR, Ely EW. Effect of Anatomical and Developmental Factors on the Risk of Unplanned Extubation in Critically Ill Newborns. Am J Perinatol [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct; 34(12): 1234-40. PMID: 28494497, PMCID: PMC5705226, DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1603341, ISSN: 1098-8785.

Fick DM, Auerbach AD, Avidan MS, Busby-Whitehead J, Ely EW, Jones RN, Marcantonio ER, Needham DM, Pandharipande P, Robinson TN, Schmitt EM, Travison TG, Inouye SK, . Network for Investigation of Delirium across the U.S.: Advancing the Field of Delirium with a New Interdisciplinary Research Network [editorial]. J Am Geriatr Soc [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct; 65(10): 2158-60. PMID: 28631268, PMCID: PMC5641224, DOI: 10.1111/jgs.14942, ISSN: 1532-5415.

Chanques G, Garnier O, Carr J, Conseil M, de Jong A, Rowan CM, Ely EW, Jaber S. The CAM-ICU has now a French "official" version. The translation process of the 2014 updated Complete Training Manual of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit in French ( Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct; 36(5): 297-300. PMID: 28365244, PII: S2352-5568(16)30204-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.accpm.2017.02.003, ISSN: 2352-5568.

Pandharipande PP, Ely EW. Humanizing the Treatment of Hyperactive Delirium in the Last Days of Life [editorial]. JAMA. 2017 Sep 9/19/2017; 318(11): 1014-5. PMID: 28975287, PII: 2654364, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.11466, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Kotfis K, Zegan-Baranska M, Zukowski M, Kusza K, Kaczmarczyk M, Ely EW. Multicenter assessment of sedation and delirium practices in the intensive care units in Poland - is this common practice in Eastern Europe?. BMC Anesthesiol. 2017 Sep 9/2/2017; 17(1): 120. PMID: 28865447, PMCID: PMC5581441, PII: 10.1186/s12871-017-0415-2, DOI: 10.1186/s12871-017-0415-2, ISSN: 1471-2253.

Smith HAB, Gangopadhyay M, Goben CM, Jacobowski NL, Chestnut MH, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Williams SR, Griffith K, Ely EW, Fuchs DC, Pandharipande PP. Delirium and Benzodiazepines Associated With Prolonged ICU Stay in Critically Ill Infants and Young Children. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Sep; 45(9): 1427-35. PMID: 28594681, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002515, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pandharipande PP, Ely EW, Arora RC, Balas MC, Boustani MA, La Calle GH, Cunningham C, Devlin JW, Elefante J, Han JH, MacLullich AM, Maldonado JR, Morandi A, Needham DM, Page VJ, Rose L, Salluh JIF, Sharshar T, Shehabi Y, Skrobik Y, Slooter AJC, Smith HAB. The intensive care delirium research agenda: a multinational, interprofessional perspective. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Sep; 43(9): 1329-39. PMID: 28612089, PMCID: PMC5709210, PII: 10.1007/s00134-017-4860-7, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-017-4860-7, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Page VJ, Casarin A, Ely EW, Zhao XB, McDowell C, Murphy L, McAuley DF. Evaluation of early administration of simvastatin in the prevention and treatment of delirium in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MoDUS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Sep; 5(9): 727-37. PMID: 28734823, PII: S2213-2600(17)30234-5, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30234-5, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Edmonds PJ, Arroyo JP, Morales A, Brown RM, Ely EW. Intrahepatic Pancreatic Pseudocyst: a Rare Complication of Pancreatitis. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2017 Sep; 26(3): 222. PMID: 28922430, PII: 2, ISSN: 1842-1121.

Latronico N, Herridge M, Hopkins RO, Angus D, Hart N, Hermans G, Iwashyna T, Arabi Y, Citerio G, Ely EW, Hall J, Mehta S, Puntillo K, Van den Hoeven J, Wunsch H, Cook D, Dos Santos C, Rubenfeld G, Vincent JL, Van den Berghe G, Azoulay E, Needham DM. The ICM research agenda on intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Sep; 43(9): 1270-81. PMID: 28289812, PII: 10.1007/s00134-017-4757-5, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-017-4757-5, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Ely EW, Sprung CL, Somerville M. Conscientious Objection in Health Care [letter]. N. Engl. J. Med. 2017 Jul 7/6/2017; 377(1): 96-7. PMID: 28691791, PII: 10.1056/NEJMc1706233#SA2, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1706233, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Brummel NE, Bell SP, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Gill TM, Ely EW. Frailty and Subsequent Disability and Mortality among Patients with Critical Illness. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Jul 7/1/2017; 196(1): 64-72. PMID: 27922747, PMCID: PMC5519959, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201605-0939OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Norman BC, Cooke CR, Ely EW, Graves JA. Sepsis-Associated 30-Day Risk-Standardized Readmissions: Analysis of a Nationwide Medicare Sample. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Jul; 45(7): 1130-7. PMID: 28471814, PMCID: PMC5479687, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002476, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Kannankeril PJ, Moore JP, Cerrone M, Priori SG, Kertesz NJ, Ro PS, Batra AS, Kaufman ES, Fairbrother DL, Saarel EV, Etheridge SP, Kanter RJ, Carboni MP, Dzurik MV, Fountain D, Chen H, Ely EW, Roden DM, Knollmann BC. Efficacy of Flecainide in the Treatment of Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2017 Jul 7/1/2017; 2(7): 759-66. PMID: 28492868, PMCID: PMC5548393, PII: 2626499, DOI: 10.1001/jamacardio.2017.1320, ISSN: 2380-6591.

Giuseffi JL, Borges NE, Boehm LM, Wang L, McPherson JA, Fredi JL, Ahmad RM, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2017 Jul; 26(4): e58-e64. PMID: 28668927, PII: 26/4/e58, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2017474, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Boehm LM, Dietrich MS, Vasilevskis EE, Wells N, Pandharipande P, Ely EW, Mion LC. Perceptions of Workload Burden and Adherence to ABCDE Bundle Among Intensive Care Providers. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2017 Jul; 26(4): e38-e47. PMID: 28668925, PMCID: PMC5714508, PII: 26/4/e38, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2017544, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Mesa P, Previgliano IJ, Altez S, Favretto S, Orellano M, Lecor C, Soca A, Ely EW. Delirium in a Latin American intensive care unit. A prospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated patients. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2017 Jul; 29(3): 337-45. PMID: 29044304, PMCID: PMC5632977, PII: S0103-507X2017000300337, DOI: 10.5935/0103-507X.20170058, ISSN: 1982-4335.

Siew ED, Fissell WH, Tripp CM, Blume JD, Wilson MD, Clark AJ, Vincz AJ, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD. Acute Kidney Injury as a Risk Factor for Delirium and Coma during Critical Illness. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Jun 6/15/2017; 195(12): 1597-607. PMID: 27854517, PMCID: PMC5476907, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201603-0476OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Han JH, Vasilevskis EE, Chandrasekhar R, Liu X, Schnelle JF, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Delirium in the Emergency Department and Its Extension into Hospitalization (DELINEATE) Study: Effect on 6-month Function and Cognition. J Am Geriatr Soc [print-electronic]. 2017 Jun; 65(6): 1333-8. PMID: 28263444, PMCID: PMC5478452, DOI: 10.1111/jgs.14824, ISSN: 1532-5415.

Goligher EC, Ely EW. The authors reply. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Jun; 45(6): e628-e629. PMID: 28509756, PII: 00003246-201706000-00053, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002443, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Barnes-Daly MA, Ely EW. The authors reply. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Jun; 45(6): e617-e618. PMID: 28509742, PII: 00003246-201706000-00039, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002416, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Boehm LM, Vasilevskis EE, Dietrich MS, Wells N, Ely EW, Pandharipande P, Mion LC. Organizational Domains and Variation in Attitudes of Intensive Care Providers Toward the ABCDE Bundle. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2017 May; 26(3): e18-e28. PMID: 28461551, PMCID: PMC5693381, PII: 26/3/e18, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2017297, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Ely EW. Baptism in the ICU. Linacre Q [print-electronic]. 2017 May; 84(2): 111-4. PMID: 28698704, PMCID: PMC5499220, PII: ylnq-84-111, DOI: 10.1080/00243639.2017.1278134, ISSN: 0024-3639.

Marra A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, Patel MB. The ABCDEF Bundle in Critical Care. Crit Care Clin. 2017 Apr; 33(2): 225-43. PMID: 28284292, PMCID: PMC5351776, PII: S0749-0704(16)30117-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccc.2016.12.005, ISSN: 1557-8232.

Davis DH, Muniz-Terrera G, Keage HA, Stephan BC, Fleming J, Ince PG, Matthews FE, Cunningham C, Ely EW, MacLullich AM, Brayne C, . Association of Delirium With Cognitive Decline in Late Life: A Neuropathologic Study of 3 Population-Based Cohort Studies. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 3/1/2017; 74(3): 244-51. PMID: 28114436, PMCID: PMC6037291, PII: 2598162, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.3423, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Han JH, Brummel NE, Chandrasekhar R, Wilson JE, Liu X, Vasilevskis EE, Girard TD, Carlo ME, Dittus RS, Schnelle JF, Ely EW. Exploring Delirium's Heterogeneity: Association Between Arousal Subtypes at Initial Presentation and 6-Month Mortality in Older Emergency Department Patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2017 Mar; 25(3): 233-42. PMID: 27623552, PMCID: PMC5321606, PII: S1064-7481(16)30138-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jagp.2016.05.016, ISSN: 1545-7214.

Johnson K, Stollings JL, Ely EW. Breaking Bad Delirium: Methamphetamine and Boric Acid Toxicity with Hallucinations and Pseudosepsis. South. Med. J. 2017 Feb; 110(2): 138-41. PMID: 28158885, PMCID: PMC5830110, PII: SMJ50331, DOI: 10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000599, ISSN: 1541-8243.

Ely EW. The ABCDEF Bundle: Science and Philosophy of How ICU Liberation Serves Patients and Families. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Feb; 45(2): 321-30. PMID: 28098628, PMCID: PMC5830123, PII: 00003246-201702000-00021, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002175, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Goligher EC, Ely EW, Sulmasy DP, Bakker J, Raphael J, Volandes AE, Patel BM, Payne K, Hosie A, Churchill L, White DB, Downar J. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the ICU: A Dialogue on Core Ethical Issues. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Feb; 45(2): 149-55. PMID: 28098622, PMCID: PMC5245170, PII: 00003246-201702000-00001, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001818, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Barnes-Daly MA, Phillips G, Ely EW. Improving Hospital Survival and Reducing Brain Dysfunction at Seven California Community Hospitals: Implementing PAD Guidelines Via the ABCDEF Bundle in 6,064 Patients. Crit. Care Med. 2017 Feb; 45(2): 171-8. PMID: 27861180, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002149, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Duggan MC, Wang L, Wilson JE, Dittus RS, Ely EW, Jackson JC. The relationship between executive dysfunction, depression, and mental health-related quality of life in survivors of critical illness: Results from the BRAIN-ICU investigation. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb; 37: 72-9. PMID: 27652496, PMCID: PMC5240988, PII: S0883-9441(16)30431-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.08.023, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Rasulo FA, Bellelli G, Ely EW, Morandi A, Pandharipande P, Latronico N. Are you Ernest Shackleton, the polar explorer? Refining the criteria for delirium and brain dysfunction in sepsis [editorial]. J Intensive Care. 2017; 5: 23. PMID: 28286656, PMCID: PMC5341444, PII: 218, DOI: 10.1186/s40560-017-0218-z, ISSN: 2052-0492.

John M, Ely EW, Halfkann D, Schoen J, Sedemund-Adib B, Klotz S, Radtke F, Stehr S, Hueppe M. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in cardiosurgical patients with postoperative delirium. J Intensive Care. 2017; 5: 29. PMID: 28560042, PMCID: PMC5446746, PII: 224, DOI: 10.1186/s40560-017-0224-1, ISSN: 2052-0492.

Tomichek JE, Stollings JL, Pandharipande PP, Chandrasekhar R, Ely EW, Girard TD. Antipsychotic prescribing patterns during and after critical illness: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2016 Nov 11/24/2016; 20(1): 378. PMID: 27881149, PMCID: PMC5122157, PII: 10.1186/s13054-016-1557-1, DOI: 10.1186/s13054-016-1557-1, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Dinglas VD, Colantuoni E, Ely EW, Hough CL, Morris PE, Mendez-Tellez PA, Wozniak AW, Hopkins RO, Needham DM. Authors' response to commentaries on rosuvastatin for delirium and cognitive impairment in sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Thorac Dis. 2016 Nov; 8(11): E1534-E1536. PMID: 28066653, PMCID: PMC5179448, PII: jtd-08-11-E1534, DOI: 10.21037/jtd.2016.11.53, ISSN: 2072-1439.

Sulmasy DP, Ely EW, Sprung CL. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide [letter]. JAMA. 2016 Oct 10/18/2016; 316(15): 1600. PMID: 27755628, PII: 2569775, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.14077, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Bond SM, Dietrich MS, Gilbert J, Ely EW, Jackson JC, Murphy BA. Neurocognitive function in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing primary or adjuvant chemoradiation treatment. Support Care Cancer [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct; 24(10): 4433-42. PMID: 27225527, PII: 10.1007/s00520-016-3284-1, DOI: 10.1007/s00520-016-3284-1, ISSN: 1433-7339.

Hatch LD, Grubb PH, Lea AS, Walsh WF, Markham MH, Maynord PO, Whitney GM, Stark AR, Ely EW. Interventions to Improve Patient Safety During Intubation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct; 138(4): PMID: 27694281, PMCID: PMC5051203, PII: peds.2016-0069, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0069, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Hutton B, Burry LD, Kanji S, Mehta S, Guenette M, Martin CM, Fergusson DA, Adhikari NK, Egerod I, Williamson D, Straus S, Moher D, Ely EW, Rose L. Comparison of sedation strategies for critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses. Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 9/20/2016; 5(1): 157. PMID: 27646881, PMCID: PMC5029074, PII: 10.1186/s13643-016-0338-x, DOI: 10.1186/s13643-016-0338-x, ISSN: 2046-4053.

Hughes CG, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Ware LB, Ely EW, Girard TD. Endothelial Activation and Blood-Brain Barrier Injury as Risk Factors for Delirium in Critically Ill Patients. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Sep; 44(9): e809-17. PMID: 27088157, PMCID: PMC4987204, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001739, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Smith HA, Han JH, Ely EW. Meeting the Challenges of Delirium Assessment Across the Aging Spectrum. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Sep; 44(9): 1775-7. PMID: 27525996, PMCID: PMC4988335, PII: 00003246-201609000-00018, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001966, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ely EW. Swimming pool in the ICU [editorial]. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep; 42(9): 1502-3. PMID: 27515156, PII: 10.1007/s00134-016-4434-0, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-016-4434-0, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Kleinpell R, Vasilevskis EE, Fogg L, Ely EW. Exploring the association of hospice care on patient experience and outcomes of care. BMJ Support Palliat Care [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug 8/16/2016; PMID: 27531840, PII: bmjspcare-2015-001001, DOI: 10.1136/bmjspcare-2015-001001, ISSN: 2045-4368.

Goligher EC, Del Sorbo L, Cheung AM, Alibhai SM, Liao L, Easson A, Halpern J, Ely EW, Sulmasy DP, Hwang SW. Why conscientious objection merits respect [letter]. CMAJ. 2016 Aug 8/9/2016; 188(11): 822-3. PMID: 27503992, PMCID: PMC4978582, PII: 188/11/822-a, DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1150113, ISSN: 1488-2329.

Sulmasy DP, Travaline JM, Mitchell LA, Ely EW. Non-faith-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Linacre Q. 2016 Aug; 83(3): 246-57. PMID: 27833206, PMCID: PMC5102187, PII: ylnq-83-246, DOI: 10.1080/00243639.2016.1201375, ISSN: 0024-3639.

Hughes CG, Patel MB, Jackson JC, Girard TD, Geevarghese SK, Norman BC, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Brummel NE, May AK, Elstad MR, Wasserstein ML, Goodman RB, Moons KG, Dittus RS, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, . Surgery and Anesthesia Exposure Is Not a Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment After Major Noncardiac Surgery and Critical Illness. Ann. Surg [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/18/2016; PMID: 27433893, DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001885, ISSN: 1528-1140.

Colantuoni E, Dinglas VD, Ely EW, Hopkins RO, Needham DM. Statistical methods for evaluating delirium in the ICU. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul; 4(7): 534-6. PMID: 27264776, PII: S2213-2600(16)30138-2, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(16)30138-2, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Pollock JS, Hollenbeck RD, Wang L, Holmes B, Young MN, Peters M, Ely EW, McPherson JA, Vasilevskis EE. Delirium in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest Treated With Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2016 Jul; 25(4): e81-9. PMID: 27369041, PII: 25/4/e81, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2016581, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Rice KL, Bennett MJ, Berger L, Jennings B, Eckhardt L, Fabré-LaCoste N, Houghton D, Vidal G, Gropen T, Diggs E, Barry E, St John J, Mathew S, Egger A, Ryan S, Egger R, Galarneau D, Gaines K, Ely EW. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the Feasibility of a Multicomponent Delirium Prevention Intervention Versus Usual Care in Acute Stroke. J Cardiovasc Nurs [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun 6/15/2016; PMID: 27306854, DOI: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000356, ISSN: 1550-5049.

Han JH, Wilson A, Graves AJ, Shintani A, Schnelle JF, Ely EW. A quick and easy delirium assessment for nonphysician research personnel. Am J Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 34(6): 1031-6. PMID: 27021131, PMCID: PMC4899095, PII: S0735-6757(16)00176-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.02.069, ISSN: 1532-8171.

Zimmerman JJ, Watson RS, Ely EW. Daily sedation interruption in children warrants further study [letter]. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 42(6): 1101-2. PMID: 27033884, PII: 10.1007/s00134-016-4290-y, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-016-4290-y, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Vasilevskis EE, Ely EW, Girard TD. The authors reply. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Jun; 44(6): e451-2. PMID: 27182878, PII: 00003246-201606000-00066, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001748, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Norman BC, Jackson JC, Graves JA, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Brummel NE, Wang L, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Ely EW. Employment Outcomes After Critical Illness: An Analysis of the Bringing to Light the Risk Factors and Incidence of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in ICU Survivors Cohort. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/11/2016; PMID: 27171492, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001849, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Dinglas VD, Hopkins RO, Wozniak AW, Hough CL, Morris PE, Jackson JC, Mendez-Tellez PA, Bienvenu OJ, Ely EW, Colantuoni E, Needham DM. One-year outcomes of rosuvastatin versus placebo in sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: prospective follow-up of SAILS randomised trial. Thorax [print-electronic]. 2016 May; 71(5): 401-10. PMID: 26936876, PII: thoraxjnl-2015-208017, DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-208017, ISSN: 1468-3296.

Chan KS, Aronson Friedman L, Dinglas VD, Hough CL, Morris PE, Mendez-Tellez PA, Jackson JC, Ely EW, Hopkins RO, Needham DM. Evaluating Physical Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Survivors: Validity, Responsiveness, and Minimal Important Difference of 4-Meter Gait Speed Test. Crit. Care Med. 2016 May; 44(5): 859-68. PMID: 26963329, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001760, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ely EW. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying. Linacre Q. 2016 May; 83(2): 150-6. PMID: 27833193, PMCID: PMC5102211, PII: ylnq-83-150, DOI: 10.1080/00243639.2016.1163938, ISSN: 0024-3639.

Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. The Evolving Approach to Brain Dysfunction in Critically Ill Patients [editorial]. JAMA. 2016 Apr 4/12/2016; 315(14): 1455-6. PMID: 26976552, PII: 2503417, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.2708, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Smith HA, Gangopadhyay M, Goben CM, Jacobowski NL, Chestnut MH, Savage S, Rutherford MT, Denton D, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Acton M, Newman J, Noori HP, Terrell MK, Williams SR, Griffith K, Cooper TJ, Ely EW, Fuchs DC, Pandharipande PP. The Preschool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU: Valid and Reliable Delirium Monitoring for Critically Ill Infants and Children. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Mar; 44(3): 592-600. PMID: 26565631, PMCID: PMC4764386, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001428, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Balas MC, Devlin JW, Verceles AC, Morris P, Ely EW. Adapting the ABCDEF Bundle to Meet the Needs of Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in the Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Setting: Historical Perspectives and Practical Implications. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb; 37(1): 119-35. PMID: 26820279, DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570361, ISSN: 1098-9048.

Needham DM, Colantuoni E, Dinglas VD, Hough CL, Wozniak AW, Jackson JC, Morris PE, Mendez-Tellez PA, Ely EW, Hopkins RO. Rosuvastatin versus placebo for delirium in intensive care and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: an ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/28/2016; PMID: 26832963, PII: S2213-2600(16)00005-9, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(16)00005-9, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Girard TD, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Critical Illness Brain Injury. Annu. Rev. Med. 2016 Jan 1/14/2016; 67: 497-513. PMID: 26768245, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-med-050913-015722, ISSN: 1545-326X.

Patel MB, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Girard TD, Hughes CG, Thompson JL, Kiehl AL, Elstad MR, Wasserstein ML, Goodman RB, Beckham JC, Chandrasekhar R, Dittus RS, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Incidence and Risk Factors for ICU-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Veterans and Civilians. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/6/2016; PMID: 26735627, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201506-1158OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Hatch LD, Grubb PH, Lea AS, Walsh WF, Markham MH, Whitney GM, Slaughter JC, Stark AR, Ely EW. Endotracheal Intubation in Neonates: A Prospective Study of Adverse Safety Events in 162 Infants. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan; 168: 62-66.e6. PMID: 26541424, PMCID: PMC4698044, PII: S0022-3476(15)01151-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.077, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Choi L, Ferrell BA, Vasilevskis EE, Pandharipande PP, Heltsley R, Ely EW, Stein CM, Girard TD. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl in the Critically Ill. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1): 64-72. PMID: 26491862, PMCID: PMC4755937, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001347, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Vasilevskis EE, Pandharipande PP, Graves AJ, Shintani A, Tsuruta R, Ely EW, Girard TD. Validity of a Modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Crit. Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1): 138-46. PMID: 26457749, PMCID: PMC4748963, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001375, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Hughes CG, Brummel NE, Girard TD, Graves AJ, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Change in endothelial vascular reactivity and acute brain dysfunction during critical illness [letter]. Br J Anaesth. 2015 Nov; 115(5): 794-5. PMID: 26475809, PMCID: PMC4608489, PII: aev332, DOI: 10.1093/bja/aev332, ISSN: 1471-6771.

Card E, Pandharipande P, Tomes C, Lee C, Wood J, Nelson D, Graves A, Shintani A, Ely EW, Hughes C. Emergence from general anaesthesia and evolution of delirium signs in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Br J Anaesth [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 115(3): 411-7. PMID: 25540068, PMCID: PMC4533730, PII: aeu442, DOI: 10.1093/bja/aeu442, ISSN: 1471-6771.

Serafim RB, Bozza FA, Soares M, do Brasil PE, Tura BR, Ely EW, Salluh JI. Pharmacologic prevention and treatment of delirium in intensive care patients: A systematic review. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 30(4): 799-807. PMID: 25957498, PII: S0883-9441(15)00150-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.04.005, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Stollings JL, Foss JJ, Ely EW, Ambrose AM, Rice TW, Girard TD, Wheeler AP. Pharmacist leadership in ICU quality improvement: coordinating spontaneous awakening and breathing trials. Ann Pharmacother [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 49(8): 883-91. PMID: 25907528, PII: 1060028015582050, DOI: 10.1177/1060028015582050, ISSN: 1542-6270.

Han JH, Vasilevskis EE, Schnelle JF, Shintani A, Dittus RS, Wilson A, Ely EW. The Diagnostic Performance of the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale for Detecting Delirium in Older Emergency Department Patients. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul; 22(7): 878-82. PMID: 26113020, PMCID: PMC4516221, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12706, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Yevchak AM, Han JH, Doherty K, Archambault EG, Kelly B, Chandrasekhar R, Ely EW, Rudolph JL. Impaired Arousal in Older Adults Is Associated With Prolonged Hospital Stay and Discharge to Skilled Nursing Facility. J Am Med Dir Assoc [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/1/2015; 16(7): 586-9. PMID: 25744874, PMCID: PMC4668713, PII: S1525-8610(15)00100-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2015.01.093, ISSN: 1538-9375.

Koga Y, Tsuruta R, Murata H, Matsuo K, Ito T, Ely EW, Shintani A, Wakamatsu H, Sanui M, Yamase H. Reliability and validity assessment of the Japanese version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Intensive Crit Care Nurs [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 31(3): 165-70. PMID: 25468294, PII: S0964-3397(14)00089-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2014.10.002, ISSN: 1532-4036.

Jackson JC, Morandi A, Girard TD, Merkle K, Graves AJ, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Gunther ML, Cannistraci CJ, Rogers BP, Gore JC, Warrington HJ, Ely EW, Hopkins RO, . Functional brain imaging in survivors of critical illness: A prospective feasibility study and exploration of the association between delirium and brain activation patterns. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 30(3): 653.e1-7. PMID: 25769901, PMCID: PMC4489139, PII: S0883-9441(15)00050-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.01.017, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Brummel NE, Balas MC, Morandi A, Ferrante LE, Gill TM, Ely EW. Understanding and reducing disability in older adults following critical illness. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Jun; 43(6): 1265-75. PMID: 25756418, PMCID: PMC4640688, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000924, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Ely EW. Embracing the spiritual history. Linacre Q. 2015 May; 82(2): 112-5. PMID: 25999608, PMCID: PMC4434795, PII: lnq-82-112, DOI: 10.1179/0024363915Z.000000000118, ISSN: 0024-3639.

Patrick SW, Dudley J, Martin PR, Harrell FE, Warren MD, Hartmann KE, Ely EW, Grijalva CG, Cooper WO. Prescription opioid epidemic and infant outcomes. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 135(5): 842-50. PMID: 25869370, PMCID: PMC4411781, PII: peds.2014-3299, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-3299, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Archer KR, Coronado RA, Haislip LR, Abraham CM, Vanston SW, Lazaro AE, Jackson JC, Ely EW, Guillamondegui OD, Obremskey WT. Telephone-based goal management training for adults with mild traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015; 16: 244. PMID: 26031289, PMCID: PMC4454274, PII: 10.1186/s13063-015-0775-1, DOI: 10.1186/s13063-015-0775-1, ISSN: 1745-6215.

Inoue S, Vasilevskis EE, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Graves AJ, Thompson J, Shintani A, Ely EW. The impact of lymphopenia on delirium in ICU patients. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(5): e0126216. PMID: 25992641, PMCID: PMC4439144, PII: PONE-D-15-01328, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126216, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Casarin A, McAuley DF, Alce TM, Zhao X, Ely EW, Jackson JC, McDowell C, Agus A, Murphy L, Page VJ. Evaluating early administration of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin in the prevention and treatment of delirium in critically ill ventilated patients (MoDUS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015; 16: 218. PMID: 25982544, PMCID: PMC4440514, PII: 10.1186/s13063-015-0731-0, DOI: 10.1186/s13063-015-0731-0, ISSN: 1745-6215.

Pfoh ER, Chan KS, Dinglas VD, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Morris PE, Hough CL, Mendez-Tellez PA, Ely EW, Huang M, Needham DM, Hopkins RO, . Cognitive screening among acute respiratory failure survivors: a cross-sectional evaluation of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Crit Care. 2015; 19: 220. PMID: 25939482, PMCID: PMC4480909, PII: 10.1186/s13054-015-0934-5, DOI: 10.1186/s13054-015-0934-5, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Trogrlic Z, van der Jagt M, Bakker J, Balas MC, Ely EW, van der Voort PH, Ista E. A systematic review of implementation strategies for assessment, prevention, and management of ICU delirium and their effect on clinical outcomes. Crit Care. 2015; 19: 157. PMID: 25888230, PMCID: PMC4428250, PII: 10.1186/s13054-015-0886-9, DOI: 10.1186/s13054-015-0886-9, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Neufeld KJ, Nelliot A, Inouye SK, Ely EW, Bienvenu OJ, Lee HB, Needham DM. Delirium diagnosis methodology used in research: a survey-based study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 22(12): 1513-21. PMID: 24745562, PMCID: PMC4164600, PII: S1064-7481(14)00090-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jagp.2014.03.003, ISSN: 1545-7214.

Abraham CM, Obremskey WT, Song Y, Jackson JC, Ely EW, Archer KR. Hospital delirium and psychological distress at 1 year and health-related quality of life after moderate-to-severe traumatic injury without intracranial hemorrhage. Arch Phys Med Rehabil [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 95(12): 2382-9. PMID: 25175161, PII: S0003-9993(14)01008-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.08.005, ISSN: 1532-821X.

Khan BA, Fadel WF, Tricker JL, Carlos WG, Farber MO, Hui SL, Campbell NL, Ely EW, Boustani MA. Effectiveness of implementing a wake up and breathe program on sedation and delirium in the ICU. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Dec; 42(12): e791-5. PMID: 25402299, PMCID: PMC4311879, PII: 00003246-201412000-00038, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000660, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Han JH, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani A, Graves AJ, Schnelle JF, Dittus RS, Powers JS, Wilson A, Storrow AB, Ely EW. Impaired arousal at initial presentation predicts 6-month mortality: an analysis of 1084 acutely ill older patients. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 9(12): 772-8. PMID: 25352356, PMCID: PMC4326096, DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2276, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Andresen JM, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Davidson MA, Ely EW, Watson PL. Burst suppression on processed electroencephalography as a predictor of postcoma delirium in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Oct; 42(10): 2244-51. PMID: 25072756, PMCID: PMC4493889, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000522, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Gaspardo P, Peressoni L, Comisso I, Mistraletti G, Ely EW, Morandi A. Delirium among critically ill adults: evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Italian 'Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit'. Intensive Crit Care Nurs [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct; 30(5): 283-91. PMID: 25059104, PII: S0964-3397(14)00042-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2014.05.002, ISSN: 1532-4036.

Han JH, Schnelle JF, Ely EW. The relationship between a chief complaint of "altered mental status" and delirium in older emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 21(8): 937-40. PMID: 25154589, PMCID: PMC4150739, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12436, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Morandi A, Hughes CG, Thompson JL, Pandharipande PP, Shintani AK, Vasilevskis EE, Han JH, Jackson JC, Laskowitz DT, Bernard GR, Ely EW, Girard TD. Statins and delirium during critical illness: a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Aug; 42(8): 1899-909. PMID: 24810528, PMCID: PMC4103957, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000398, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Fudim M, Ely EW, Laffer CL, Elijovich F. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma on physical examination. Eur. Heart J [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul; 35(26): 1705. PMID: 24334718, PII: eht536, DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht536, ISSN: 1522-9645.

Ely EW. Our enlightened understanding of the risks of persistent delirium [letter]. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Jun 6/1/2014; 189(11): 1442-3. PMID: 24881943, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201403-0550LE, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Jackson JC, Santoro MJ, Ely TM, Boehm L, Kiehl AL, Anderson LS, Ely EW. Improving patient care through the prism of psychology: application of Maslow's hierarchy to sedation, delirium, and early mobility in the intensive care unit. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 29(3): 438-44. PMID: 24636724, PMCID: PMC4718660, PII: S0883-9441(14)00037-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.009, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Balas MC, Vasilevskis EE, Olsen KM, Schmid KK, Shostrom V, Cohen MZ, Peitz G, Gannon DE, Sisson J, Sullivan J, Stothert JC, Lazure J, Nuss SL, Jawa RS, Freihaut F, Ely EW, Burke WJ. Effectiveness and safety of the awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle. Crit. Care Med. 2014 May; 42(5): 1024-36. PMID: 24394627, PMCID: PMC4105208, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000129, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Brummel NE, Thompson JL, Hughes CG, Pun BT, Vasilevskis EE, Morandi A, Shintani AK, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 2(5): 369-79. PMID: 24815803, PMCID: PMC4107313, PII: S2213-2600(14)70051-7, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70051-7, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Haglund NA, Schlendorf K, Keebler M, Gupta C, Maltais S, Ely EW, Lenihan D. Is a palpable pulse always restored during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a patient with a left ventricular assist device?. Am. J. Med. Sci. 2014 Apr; 347(4): 322-7. PMID: 24508865, PII: S0002-9629(15)30367-0, DOI: 10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000219, ISSN: 1538-2990.

Watson PL, Malow BA, Ely EW. The authors reply [letter]. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Apr; 42(4): e313-4. PMID: 24633123, PII: 00003246-201404000-00065, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000207, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Vasilevskis EE, Ely EW. 2013: updates in delirium. Neurohospitalist. 2014 Apr; 4(2): 58-60. PMID: 24707331, PMCID: PMC3975797, PII: 10.1177_1941874414524796, DOI: 10.1177/1941874414524796, ISSN: 1941-8744.

Brummel NE, Girard TD, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, Morandi A, Hughes CG, Graves AJ, Shintani A, Murphy E, Work B, Pun BT, Boehm L, Gill TM, Dittus RS, Jackson JC. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 40(3): 370-9. PMID: 24257969, PMCID: PMC3943568, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-013-3136-0, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Han JH, Wilson A, Graves AJ, Shintani A, Schnelle JF, Dittus RS, Powers JS, Vernon J, Storrow AB, Ely EW. Validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit in older emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Feb; 21(2): 180-7. PMID: 24673674, PMCID: PMC4034173, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12309, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Dittus RS, Gill TM, Bernard GR, Ely EW, Girard TD. Delirium in the ICU and subsequent long-term disability among survivors of mechanical ventilation. Crit. Care Med. 2014 Feb; 42(2): 369-77. PMID: 24158172, PMCID: PMC3947028, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a645bd, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Brummel NE, Ely EW. Sedation level and the prevalence of delirium [letter]. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan; 40(1): 135. PMID: 23982729, PMCID: PMC3869188, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-013-3083-9, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Almeida IC, Soares M, Bozza FA, Shinotsuka CR, Bujokas R, Souza-Dantas VC, Ely EW, Salluh JI. The impact of acute brain dysfunction in the outcomes of mechanically ventilated cancer patients. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e85332. PMID: 24465538, PMCID: PMC3899009, PII: PONE-D-13-31932, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085332, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Han JH, Wilson A, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani A, Schnelle JF, Dittus RS, Graves AJ, Storrow AB, Shuster J, Ely EW. Diagnosing delirium in older emergency department patients: validity and reliability of the delirium triage screen and the brief confusion assessment method. Ann Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 62(5): 457-65. PMID: 23916018, PMCID: PMC3936572, PII: S0196-0644(13)00436-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.05.003, ISSN: 1097-6760.

Calvo-Ayala E, Khan BA, Farber MO, Ely EW, Boustani MA. Interventions to improve the physical function of ICU survivors: a systematic review. Chest. 2013 Nov; 144(5): 1469-80. PMID: 23949645, PMCID: PMC3817929, PII: S0012-3692(13)60721-7, DOI: 10.1378/chest.13-0779, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Pun BT, Brummel NE, Hughes CG, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani AK, Moons KG, Geevarghese SK, Canonico A, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Oct 10/3/2013; 369(14): 1306-16. PMID: 24088092, PMCID: PMC3922401, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301372, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Brummel NE, Vasilevskis EE, Han JH, Boehm L, Pun BT, Ely EW. Implementing delirium screening in the ICU: secrets to success. Crit. Care Med. 2013 Sep; 41(9): 2196-208. PMID: 23896832, PMCID: PMC3772682, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31829a6f1e, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Page VJ, Ely EW, Gates S, Zhao XB, Alce T, Shintani A, Jackson J, Perkins GD, McAuley DF. Effect of intravenous haloperidol on the duration of delirium and coma in critically ill patients (Hope-ICU): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 1(7): 515-23. PMID: 24461612, PMCID: PMC4730945, PII: S2213-2600(13)70166-8, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70166-8, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Watson PL, Pandharipande P, Gehlbach BK, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Dittus BS, Bernard GR, Malow BA, Ely EW. Atypical sleep in ventilated patients: empirical electroencephalography findings and the path toward revised ICU sleep scoring criteria. Crit. Care Med. 2013 Aug; 41(8): 1958-67. PMID: 23863228, PMCID: PMC3875326, PII: 00003246-201308000-00016, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828a3f75, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Watson PL, Pandharipande P, Gehlbach BK, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Dittus BS, Bernard GR, Malow BA, Ely EW. Atypical Sleep in Ventilated Patients: Empirical Electroencephalography Findings and the Path Toward Revised ICU Sleep Scoring Criteria. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun 6/12/2013; PMID: 23764974, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b01e1828af75, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Wang C, Wu Y, Yue P, Ely EW, Huang J, Yang X, Liu Y. Delirium assessment using Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit in Chinese critically ill patients. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 28(3): 223-9. PMID: 23159138, PII: S0883-9441(12)00331-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.10.004, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Morandi A, Barnett N, Miller RR, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Ely EW, Ware LB. Vitamin D and delirium in critically ill patients: a preliminary investigation. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 28(3): 230-5. PMID: 22884531, PMCID: PMC3498519, PII: S0883-9441(12)00186-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.06.011, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Smith HA, Brink E, Fuchs DC, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Pediatric delirium: monitoring and management in the pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr. Clin. North Am [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 60(3): 741-60. PMID: 23639666, PII: S0031-3955(13)00024-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2013.02.010, ISSN: 1557-8240.

Smith HA, Berutti T, Brink E, Strohler B, Fuchs DC, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Pediatric critical care perceptions on analgesia, sedation, and delirium. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 34(2): 244-61. PMID: 23716315, DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1342987, ISSN: 1098-9048.

Jackson JC, Ely EW. Cognitive impairment after critical illness: etiologies, risk factors, and future directions. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 34(2): 216-22. PMID: 23716312, DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1342984, ISSN: 1098-9048.

Ely EW, Barr J. Pain/agitation/delirium [editorial]. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 34(2): 151-2. PMID: 23716306, DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1342974, ISSN: 1098-9048.

Hughes CG, Morandi A, Girard TD, Riedel B, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Pun BT, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Association between endothelial dysfunction and acute brain dysfunction during critical illness. Anesthesiology. 2013 Mar; 118(3): 631-9. PMID: 23263016, PMCID: PMC3580006, DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31827bd193, ISSN: 1528-1175.

McPherson JA, Wagner CE, Boehm LM, Hall JD, Johnson DC, Miller LR, Burns KM, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Delirium in the cardiovascular ICU: exploring modifiable risk factors. Crit. Care Med. 2013 Feb; 41(2): 405-13. PMID: 23263581, PMCID: PMC3557701, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31826ab49b, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gélinas C, Dasta JF, Davidson JE, Devlin JW, Kress JP, Joffe AM, Coursin DB, Herr DL, Tung A, Robinson BR, Fontaine DK, Ramsay MA, Riker RR, Sessler CN, Pun B, Skrobik Y, Jaeschke R, . Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit. Care Med. 2013 Jan; 41(1): 263-306. PMID: 23269131, PII: 00003246-201301000-00029, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182783b72.

Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gélinas C, Dasta JF, Davidson JE, Devlin JW, Kress JP, Joffe AM, Coursin DB, Herr DL, Tung A, Robinson BR, Fontaine DK, Ramsay MA, Riker RR, Sessler CN, Pun B, Skrobik Y, Jaeschke R, . Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the Intensive Care Unit: executive summary. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2013 Jan 1/1/2013; 70(1): 53-8. PMID: 23261901, PII: 70/1/53.

Girard TD, Ware LB, Bernard GR, Pandharipande PP, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Associations of markers of inflammation and coagulation with delirium during critical illness. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 38(12): 1965-73. PMID: 22903241, PMCID: PMC3606929, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-012-2678-x, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Schiro E, Work B, Pun BT, Boehm L, Gill TM, Ely EW. A combined early cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for people who are critically ill: the activity and cognitive therapy in the intensive care unit (ACT-ICU) trial. Phys Ther [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 92(12): 1580-92. PMID: 22577067, PMCID: PMC3513484, PII: ptj.20110414, DOI: 10.2522/ptj.20110414, ISSN: 1538-6724.

Seymour CW, Pandharipande PP, Koestner T, Hudson LD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Girard TD. Diurnal sedative changes during intensive care: impact on liberation from mechanical ventilation and delirium. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Oct; 40(10): 2788-96. PMID: 22824928, PMCID: PMC3576216, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825b8ade, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Vasilevskis EE, Ely EW. The Danger of Delirium: Comment on "Delirium and Long-term Cognitive Trajectory Among Persons With Dementia". Arch. Intern. Med. 2012 Sep 9/24/2012; 172(17): 1331-2. PMID: 22911486, PII: 1351355, DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3414, ISSN: 1538-3679.

Vasilevskis EE, Han JH, Hughes CG, Ely EW. Epidemiology and risk factors for delirium across hospital settings. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2012 Sep; 26(3): 277-87. PMID: 23040281, PMCID: PMC3580997, PII: S1521-6896(12)00036-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpa.2012.07.003, ISSN: 1878-1608.

Morandi A, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Bellelli G, Trabucchi M, Ely EW. Understanding terminology of delirium and long-term cognitive impairment in critically ill patients. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2012 Sep; 26(3): 267-76. PMID: 23040280, PII: S1521-6896(12)00051-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpa.2012.08.001, ISSN: 1878-1608.

Ely EW, Dittus RS, Girard TD. Point: should benzodiazepines be avoided in mechanically ventilated patients? Yes [editorial]. Chest. 2012 Aug; 142(2): 281-4; discussion 289. PMID: 22871750, PII: 1262315, DOI: 10.1378/chest.12-1189, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Gunther ML, Morandi A, Krauskopf E, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Thompson J, Shintani AK, Geevarghese S, Miller RR, Canonico A, Merkle K, Cannistraci CJ, Rogers BP, Gatenby JC, Heckers S, Gore JC, Hopkins RO, Ely EW, . The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors: the VISIONS cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Jul; 40(7): 2022-32. PMID: 22710202, PMCID: PMC3697780, PII: 00003246-201207000-00003, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318250acc0, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Morandi A, Rogers BP, Gunther ML, Merkle K, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Thompson J, Shintani AK, Geevarghese S, Miller RR, Canonico A, Cannistraci CJ, Gore JC, Ely EW, Hopkins RO, . The relationship between delirium duration, white matter integrity, and cognitive impairment in intensive care unit survivors as determined by diffusion tensor imaging: the VISIONS prospective cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Jul; 40(7): 2182-9. PMID: 22584766, PMCID: PMC3378755, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318250acdc, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Khan BA, Guzman O, Campbell NL, Walroth T, Tricker JL, Hui SL, Perkins A, Zawahiri M, Buckley JD, Farber MO, Ely EW, Boustani MA. Comparison and agreement between the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale in evaluating patients' eligibility for delirium assessment in the ICU. Chest. 2012 Jul; 142(1): 48-54. PMID: 22539644, PMCID: PMC3610594, PII: S0012-3692(12)60388-2, DOI: 10.1378/chest.11-2100, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Kohli U, Pandharipande P, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Friedman EA, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Ely EW, Tyndale RF, Choi L, Stein CM, Kurnik D. CYP2A6 genetic variation and dexmedetomidine disposition. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 68(6): 937-42. PMID: 22271297, PMCID: PMC3352974, DOI: 10.1007/s00228-011-1208-z, ISSN: 1432-1041.

Jackson JC, Ely EW, Morey MC, Anderson VM, Denne LB, Clune J, Siebert CS, Archer KR, Torres R, Janz D, Schiro E, Jones J, Shintani AK, Levine B, Pun BT, Thompson J, Brummel NE, Hoenig H. Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Apr; 40(4): 1088-97. PMID: 22080631, PMCID: PMC3755871, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182373115, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Balas MC, Vasilevskis EE, Burke WJ, Boehm L, Pun BT, Olsen KM, Peitz GJ, Ely EW. Critical care nurses' role in implementing the "ABCDE bundle" into practice. Crit Care Nurse. 2012 Apr; 32(2): 35-8, 40. PMID: 22467611, PMCID: PMC3375171, PII: 32/2/35, DOI: 10.4037/ccn2012229, ISSN: 1940-8250.

Adams Wilson JR, Morandi A, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Boomershine CS, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. The association of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism with acute brain dysfunction during critical illness*. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Mar; 40(3): 835-41. PMID: 22080637, PMCID: PMC3625666, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318236f62d, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Franco JG, Ricardo C, Muñoz JF, de Pablo J, W P, Ely EW, Smith HA. Diagnosing delirium in critically ill children: Spanish translation and cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit [letter]. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Mar; 40(3): 1034. PMID: 22343876, PMCID: PMC3826446, PII: 00003246-201203000-00075, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31823c8b1c, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Hipp DM, Ely EW. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of delirium in critically ill patients. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jan; 9(1): 158-75. PMID: 22270810, PMCID: PMC3271151, DOI: 10.1007/s13311-011-0102-9, ISSN: 1878-7479.

de Grahl C, Luetz A, Gratopp A, Gensel D, Mueller J, Smith H, Ely EW, Krude H, Spies C. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU): translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area. Ger Med Sci [print-electronic]. 2012; 10: Doc07. PMID: 22557940, PMCID: PMC3334933, PII: 000158, DOI: 10.3205/000158, ISSN: 1612-3174.

Richards JE, Guillamondegui OD, Archer KR, Jackson JC, Ely EW, Obremskey WT. The association of reamed intramedullary nailing and long-term cognitive impairment. J Orthop Trauma. 2011 Dec; 25(12): 707-13. PMID: 22089759, PMCID: PMC3912993, PII: 00005131-201112000-00001, DOI: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e318225f358, ISSN: 1531-2291.

Pandharipande PP, Ely EW. Sedation and analgesia in the ICU: pharmacology, protocolization, and clinical consequences. Preface. Anesthesiol Clin. 2011 Dec; 29(4): xv-xvi. PMID: 22078923, PII: S1932-2275(11)00088-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.anclin.2011.10.001, ISSN: 1932-2275.

Smith HA, Fuchs DC, Pandharipande PP, Barr FE, Ely EW. Delirium: an emerging frontier in the management of critically ill children. Anesthesiol Clin. 2011 Dec; 29(4): 729-50. PMID: 22078920, PII: S1932-2275(11)00086-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.anclin.2011.09.011, ISSN: 1932-2275.

Vasilevskis EE, Morandi A, Boehm L, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Thompson JL, Shintani A, Gordon SM, Pun BT, Ely EW. Delirium and sedation recognition using validated instruments: reliability of bedside intensive care unit nursing assessments from 2007 to 2010. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Nov; 59 Suppl 2: S249-55. PMID: 22091569, PMCID: PMC3233973, DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03673.x, ISSN: 1532-5415.

Choi L, Caffo BS, Kohli U, Pandharipande P, Kurnik D, Ely EW, Stein CM. A Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear mixture model in the presence of artifactual outliers in a population pharmacokinetic study. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 38(5): 613-36. PMID: 21847635, PMCID: PMC3182101, DOI: 10.1007/s10928-011-9211-7, ISSN: 1573-8744.

Jackson JC, Archer KR, Bauer R, Abraham CM, Song Y, Greevey R, Guillamondegui O, Ely EW, Obremskey W. A prospective investigation of long-term cognitive impairment and psychological distress in moderately versus severely injured trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2011 Oct; 71(4): 860-6. PMID: 21537211, DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182151961, ISSN: 1529-8809.

Morandi A, Hughes CG, Girard TD, McAuley DF, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Statins and brain dysfunction: a hypothesis to reduce the burden of cognitive impairment in patients who are critically ill. Chest. 2011 Sep; 140(3): 580-5. PMID: 21896517, PMCID: PMC3168859, PII: 140/3/580, DOI: 10.1378/chest.10-3065, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Morandi A, Gunther ML, Pandharipande PP, Jackson JC, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Ely EW, Girard TD. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and delirium in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients: a preliminary investigation. Int Psychogeriatr [print-electronic]. 2011 Sep; 23(7): 1175-81. PMID: 21294938, PMCID: PMC3654518, PII: S1041610210002486, DOI: 10.1017/S1041610210002486, ISSN: 1741-203X.

Ely EW. A piece of my mind. Cyanosis. JAMA. 2011 Jun 6/15/2011; 305(23): 2388-9. PMID: 21673285, PII: 305/23/2388, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.816, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Morandi A, Vasilevskis EE, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Solberg LM, Neal EB, Koestner T, Torres R, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Han JH, Schnelle J, Fick DM, Ely EW, Kripalani S. Inappropriate medications in elderly ICU survivors: where to intervene?. Arch. Intern. Med. 2011 Jun 6/13/2011; 171(11): 1032-4. PMID: 21670372, PMCID: PMC3575737, PII: 171/11/1032, DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.233, ISSN: 1538-3679.

Han JH, Bryce SN, Ely EW, Kripalani S, Morandi A, Shintani A, Jackson JC, Storrow AB, Dittus RS, Schnelle J. The effect of cognitive impairment on the accuracy of the presenting complaint and discharge instruction comprehension in older emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun; 57(6): 662-671.e2. PMID: 21272958, PMCID: PMC3603343, PII: S0196-0644(10)01834-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.12.002, ISSN: 1097-6760.

Han JH, Eden S, Shintani A, Morandi A, Schnelle J, Dittus RS, Storrow AB, Ely EW. Delirium in older emergency department patients is an independent predictor of hospital length of stay. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2011 May; 18(5): 451-7. PMID: 21521405, PMCID: PMC3768130, DOI: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01065.x, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Speroff T, Ely EW, Greevy R, Weinger MB, Talbot TR, Wall RJ, Deshpande JK, France DJ, Nwosu S, Burgess H, Englebright J, Williams MV, Dittus RS. Quality improvement projects targeting health care-associated infections: comparing Virtual Collaborative and Toolkit approaches. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2011 May; 6(5): 271-8. PMID: 21312329, DOI: 10.1002/jhm.873, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Guillamondegui OD, Richards JE, Ely EW, Jackson JC, Archer KR, Norris PR, Obremskey WT. Does hypoxia affect intensive care unit delirium or long-term cognitive impairment after multiple trauma without intracranial hemorrhage?. J Trauma. 2011 Apr; 70(4): 910-5. PMID: 21610396, PII: 00005373-201104000-00023, DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182114f18, ISSN: 1529-8809.

Morandi A, Brummel NE, Ely EW. Sedation, delirium and mechanical ventilation: the 'ABCDE' approach. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2011 Feb; 17(1): 43-9. PMID: 21169829, DOI: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283427243, ISSN: 1531-7072.

Rice TW, Ware LB, Haponik EF, Chiles C, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Steingrub JS, Hite RD, Matthay MA, Wright P, Ely EW, . Vascular pedicle width in acute lung injury: correlation with intravascular pressures and ability to discriminate fluid status. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2011; 15(2): R86. PMID: 21385351, PMCID: PMC3219344, PII: cc10084, DOI: 10.1186/cc10084, ISSN: 1466-609X.

McGrane S, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Woodworth A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels at admission as predictors of duration of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2011; 15(2): R78. PMID: 21366899, PMCID: PMC3219330, PII: cc10070, DOI: 10.1186/cc10070, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Smith HA, Boyd J, Fuchs DC, Melvin K, Berry P, Shintani A, Eden SK, Terrell MK, Boswell T, Wolfram K, Sopfe J, Barr FE, Pandharipande PP, Ely EW. Diagnosing delirium in critically ill children: Validity and reliability of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. Crit. Care Med. 2011 Jan; 39(1): 150-7. PMID: 20959783, PMCID: PMC3776416, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181feb489, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Speroff T, Nwosu S, Greevy R, Weinger MB, Talbot TR, Wall RJ, Deshpande JK, France DJ, Ely EW, Burgess H, Englebright J, Williams MV, Dittus RS. Organisational culture: variation across hospitals and connection to patient safety climate. Qual Saf Health Care. 2010 Dec; 19(6): 592-6. PMID: 21127115, PII: 19/6/592, DOI: 10.1136/qshc.2009.039511, ISSN: 1475-3901.

Vasilevskis EE, Ely EW, Speroff T, Pun BT, Boehm L, Dittus RS. Reducing iatrogenic risks: ICU-acquired delirium and weakness--crossing the quality chasm. Chest. 2010 Nov; 138(5): 1224-33. PMID: 21051398, PMCID: PMC4694109, PII: 138/5/1224, DOI: 10.1378/chest.10-0466, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Vasilevskis EE, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Ely EW. A screening, prevention, and restoration model for saving the injured brain in intensive care unit survivors. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Oct; 38(10 Suppl): S683-91. PMID: 21164415, PMCID: PMC3679543, PII: 00003246-201010001-00027, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181f245d3, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Morandi A, Gunther ML, Vasilevskis EE, Girard TD, Hopkins RO, Jackson JC, Pandharipande P, Ely EW. Neuroimaging in delirious intensive care unit patients: a preliminary case series report. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2010 Sep; 7(9): 28-33. PMID: 20941349, PMCID: PMC2952644, ISSN: 1555-5194.

Jacobowski NL, Girard TD, Mulder JA, Ely EW. Communication in critical care: family rounds in the intensive care unit. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2010 Sep; 19(5): 421-30. PMID: 20810417, PMCID: PMC3707491, PII: 19/5/421, DOI: 10.4037/ajcc2010656, ISSN: 1937-710X.

Agarwal V, O'Neill PJ, Cotton BA, Pun BT, Haney S, Thompson J, Kassebaum N, Shintani A, Guy J, Ely EW, Pandharipande P. Prevalence and risk factors for development of delirium in burn intensive care unit patients. J Burn Care Res. 2010 Sep; 31(5): 706-15. PMID: 20647937, PMCID: PMC3773484, DOI: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e3181eebee9, ISSN: 1559-0488.

Janz DR, Abel TW, Jackson JC, Gunther ML, Heckers S, Ely EW. Brain autopsy findings in intensive care unit patients previously suffering from delirium: a pilot study. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 25(3): 538.e7-12. PMID: 20580199, PMCID: PMC3755870, PII: S0883-9441(10)00126-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.05.004, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Han JH, Shintani A, Eden S, Morandi A, Solberg LM, Schnelle J, Dittus RS, Storrow AB, Ely EW. Delirium in the emergency department: an independent predictor of death within 6 months. Ann Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 56(3): 244-252.e1. PMID: 20363527, PMCID: PMC3768121, PII: S0196-0644(10)00220-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.03.003, ISSN: 1097-6760.

Han JH, Wilson A, Ely EW. Delirium in the older emergency department patient: a quiet epidemic. Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am. 2010 Aug; 28(3): 611-31. PMID: 20709246, PMCID: PMC3708798, PII: S0733-8627(10)00034-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.emc.2010.03.005, ISSN: 1558-0539.

Jackson JC, Girard TD, Gordon SM, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Thomason JW, Pun BT, Canonico AE, Dunn JG, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Long-term cognitive and psychological outcomes in the awakening and breathing controlled trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul 7/15/2010; 182(2): 183-91. PMID: 20299535, PMCID: PMC2913233, PII: 200903-0442OC, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200903-0442OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Girard TD, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Gordon SM, Canonico AE, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Jul; 38(7): 1513-20. PMID: 20473145, PMCID: PMC3638813, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e47be1, ISSN: 1530-0293.

King MS, Render ML, Ely EW, Watson PL. Liberation and animation: strategies to minimize brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb; 31(1): 87-96. PMID: 20101551, DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1246284, ISSN: 1098-9048.

Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Carson SS, Schmidt GA, Wright PE, Canonico AE, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Meltzer HY, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, . Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of antipsychotics for intensive care unit delirium: the MIND randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Feb; 38(2): 428-37. PMID: 20095068, PMCID: PMC3645269, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pandharipande P, Banerjee A, McGrane S, Ely EW. Liberation and animation for ventilated ICU patients: the ABCDE bundle for the back-end of critical care. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2010; 14(3): 157. PMID: 20497606, PMCID: PMC2911702, PII: cc8999, DOI: 10.1186/cc8999, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Chumbler NR, Quigley P, Sanford J, Griffiths P, Rose D, Morey M, Ely EW, Hoenig H. Implementing telerehabilitation research for stroke rehabilitation with community dwelling veterans: lessons learned. Int J Telerehabil. 2010; 2(1): 15-22. PMID: 25945169, PMCID: PMC4296788, PII: v2n1-art-10.5195-ijt.2010.6047, DOI: 10.5195/ijt.2010.6047, ISSN: 1945-2020.

Pandharipande PP, Sanders RD, Girard TD, McGrane S, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Herr DL, Maze M, Ely EW, . Effect of dexmedetomidine versus lorazepam on outcome in patients with sepsis: an a priori-designed analysis of the MENDS randomized controlled trial. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2010; 14(2): R38. PMID: 20233428, PMCID: PMC2887145, PII: cc8916, DOI: 10.1186/cc8916, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Jackson JC, Hopkins RO, Miller RR, Gordon SM, Wheeler AP, Ely EW. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and cognitive decline: a review and case study. South. Med. J. 2009 Nov; 102(11): 1150-7. PMID: 19864995, PMCID: PMC3776422, DOI: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181b6a592, ISSN: 1541-8243.

Shintani AK, Girard TD, Eden SK, Arbogast PG, Moons KG, Ely EW. Immortal time bias in critical care research: application of time-varying Cox regression for observational cohort studies. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Nov; 37(11): 2939-45. PMID: 19770737, PMCID: PMC3365557, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b7fbbb, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pandharipande PP, Morandi A, Adams JR, Girard TD, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Ely EW. Plasma tryptophan and tyrosine levels are independent risk factors for delirium in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2009 Nov; 35(11): 1886-92. PMID: 19588122, PMCID: PMC3673700, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-009-1573-6, ISSN: 1432-1238.

Smith HA, Fuchs DC, Pandharipande PP, Barr FE, Ely EW. Delirium: an emerging frontier in the management of critically ill children. Crit Care Clin. 2009 Jul; 25(3): 593-614, x. PMID: 19576533, PMCID: PMC2793079, PII: S0749-0704(09)00041-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccc.2009.05.002, ISSN: 1557-8232.

Morandi A, Solberg LM, Habermann R, Cleeton P, Peterson E, Ely EW, Schnelle J. Documentation and management of words associated with delirium among elderly patients in postacute care: a pilot investigation. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009 Jun; 10(5): 330-4. PMID: 19497545, PII: S1525-8610(09)00079-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2009.02.002, ISSN: 1538-9375.

Morandi A, Watson PL, Trabucchi M, Ely EW. Advances in sedation for critically ill patients. Minerva Anestesiol [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun; 75(6): 385-91. PMID: 18636058, PII: R02085354, ISSN: 1827-1596.

Han JH, Morandi A, Ely EW, Callison C, Zhou C, Storrow AB, Dittus RS, Habermann R, Schnelle J. Delirium in the nursing home patients seen in the emergency department. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 May; 57(5): 889-94. PMID: 19484845, PMCID: PMC4970317, DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02219.x, ISSN: 1532-5415.

Janz DR, O'Neal HR, Ely EW. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: A case report and review of the literature. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Apr; 37(4): 1470-4. PMID: 19242348, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819cc502, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pandharipande PP, Shintani AK, Hagerman HE, St Jacques PJ, Rice TW, Sanders NW, Ware LB, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Derivation and validation of Spo2/Fio2 ratio to impute for Pao2/Fio2 ratio in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Apr; 37(4): 1317-21. PMID: 19242333, PMCID: PMC3776410, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819cefa9, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Patel RP, Gambrell M, Speroff T, Scott TA, Pun BT, Okahashi J, Strength C, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Burgess H, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Delirium and sedation in the intensive care unit: survey of behaviors and attitudes of 1384 healthcare professionals. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Mar; 37(3): 825-32. PMID: 19237884, PMCID: PMC3719180, PII: 00003246-200903000-00004, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819b8608, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Han JH, Zimmerman EE, Cutler N, Schnelle J, Morandi A, Dittus RS, Storrow AB, Ely EW. Delirium in older emergency department patients: recognition, risk factors, and psychomotor subtypes. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2009 Mar; 16(3): 193-200. PMID: 19154565, PMCID: PMC5015887, PII: ACEM339, DOI: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00339.x, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Morandi A, Jackson JC, Ely EW. Delirium in the intensive care unit. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009 Feb; 21(1): 43-58. PMID: 19219712, PII: 908702882, DOI: 10.1080/09540260802675296, ISSN: 1369-1627.

Watson PL, Shintani AK, Tyson R, Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Ely EW. Presence of electroencephalogram burst suppression in sedated, critically ill patients is associated with increased mortality. Crit. Care Med. 2008 Dec; 36(12): 3171-7. PMID: 19020432, PMCID: PMC3768119, PII: 00003246-200812000-00007, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318186b9ce, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Pandharipande P, Cotton BA, Shintani A, Thompson J, Pun BT, Morris JA, Dittus R, Ely EW. Prevalence and risk factors for development of delirium in surgical and trauma intensive care unit patients. J Trauma. 2008 Jul; 65(1): 34-41. PMID: 18580517, PMCID: PMC3773485, DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31814b2c4d, ISSN: 1529-8809.

Soja SL, Pandharipande PP, Fleming SB, Cotton BA, Miller LR, Weaver SG, Lee BT, Ely EW. Implementation, reliability testing, and compliance monitoring of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit in trauma patients. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 34(7): 1263-8. PMID: 18297270, PMCID: PMC3773486, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-008-1031-x, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Girard TD, Ely EW. Protocol-driven ventilator weaning: reviewing the evidence. Clin. Chest Med. 2008 Jun; 29(2): 241-52, v. PMID: 18440434, PII: S0272-5231(08)00028-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccm.2008.02.004, ISSN: 0272-5231.

Girard TD, Kress JP, Fuchs BD, Thomason JW, Schweickert WD, Pun BT, Taichman DB, Dunn JG, Pohlman AS, Kinniry PA, Jackson JC, Canonico AE, Light RW, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Gordon SM, Hall JB, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008 Jan 1/12/2008; 371(9607): 126-34. PMID: 18191684, PII: S0140-6736(08)60105-1, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60105-1, ISSN: 1474-547X.

Girard TD, Ely EW. Delirium in the critically ill patient. Handb Clin Neurol. 2008; 90: 39-56. PMID: 18631816, PII: S0072-9752(07)01703-4, DOI: 10.1016/S0072-9752(07)01703-4, ISSN: 0072-9752.

Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Ely EW. Delirium in the intensive care unit. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2008; 12 Suppl 3: S3. PMID: 18495054, PMCID: PMC2391269, PII: cc6149, DOI: 10.1186/cc6149, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, Maze M, Girard TD, Miller RR, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Jackson JC, Deppen SA, Stiles RA, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007 Dec 12/12/2007; 298(22): 2644-53. PMID: 18073360, PII: 298/22/2644, DOI: 10.1001/jama.298.22.2644, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Pandharipande P, Cotton BA, Shintani A, Thompson J, Costabile S, Truman Pun B, Dittus R, Ely EW. Motoric subtypes of delirium in mechanically ventilated surgical and trauma intensive care unit patients. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct; 33(10): 1726-31. PMID: 17549455, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-007-0687-y, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Pun BT, Ely EW. The importance of diagnosing and managing ICU delirium. Chest. 2007 Aug; 132(2): 624-36. PMID: 17699134, PII: S0012-3692(15)37460-2, DOI: 10.1378/chest.06-1795, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Girard TD, Ely EW. Bacteremia and sepsis in older adults. Clin. Geriatr. Med. 2007 Aug; 23(3): 633-47, viii. PMID: 17631238, PII: S0749-0690(07)00042-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.cger.2007.05.003, ISSN: 0749-0690.

Miller RR, Ely EW. Delirium and cognitive dysfunction in the intensive care unit. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2007 Feb; 9(1): 26-34. PMID: 17257510, ISSN: 1523-3812.

Gunther ML, Jackson JC, Ely EW. Loss of IQ in the ICU brain injury without the insult. Med. Hypotheses [print-electronic]. 2007; 69(6): 1179-82. PMID: 17555884, PII: S0306-9877(07)00305-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2007.03.039, ISSN: 0306-9877.

Girard TD, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Gordon SM, Pun BT, Henderson MS, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2007; 11(1): R28. PMID: 17316452, PMCID: PMC2151865, PII: cc5708, DOI: 10.1186/cc5708, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Jackson JC, Hart RP, Gordon SM, Hopkins RO, Girard TD, Ely EW. Post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms following critical illness in medical intensive care unit patients: assessing the magnitude of the problem. Crit Care. 2007; 11(1): R27. PMID: 17316451, PMCID: PMC2151890, PII: cc5707, DOI: 10.1186/cc5707, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Jackson JC, Obremskey W, Bauer R, Greevy R, Cotton BA, Anderson V, Song Y, Ely EW. Long-term cognitive, emotional, and functional outcomes in trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2007 Jan; 62(1): 80-8. PMID: 17215737, PII: 00005373-200701000-00010, DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31802ce9bd, ISSN: 0022-5282.

Ely EW, Girard TD, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Gordon SM, Thomason JW, Pun BT, Canonico AE, Light RW, Pandharipande P, Laskowitz DT. Apolipoprotein E4 polymorphism as a genetic predisposition to delirium in critically ill patients. Crit. Care Med. 2007 Jan; 35(1): 112-7. PMID: 17133176, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000251925.18961.CA, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Miller RR, Ely EW. Delirium and cognitive dysfunction in the intensive care unit. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun; 27(3): 210-20. PMID: 16791755, DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-945532, ISSN: 1069-3424.

Miller RR, Ely EW. Radiographic measures of intravascular volume status: the role of vascular pedicle width. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2006 Jun; 12(3): 255-62. PMID: 16672786, PII: 00075198-200606000-00014, DOI: 10.1097/01.ccx.0000224871.31947.8d, ISSN: 1070-5295.

Pandharipande P, Ely EW. Sedative and analgesic medications: risk factors for delirium and sleep disturbances in the critically ill. Crit Care Clin. 2006 Apr; 22(2): 313-27, vii. PMID: 16678002, PII: S0749-0704(06)00011-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ccc.2006.02.010, ISSN: 0749-0704.

Peterson JF, Pun BT, Dittus RS, Thomason JW, Jackson JC, Shintani AK, Ely EW. Delirium and its motoric subtypes: a study of 614 critically ill patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 Mar; 54(3): 479-84. PMID: 16551316, PII: JGS621, DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.00621.x, ISSN: 0002-8614.

Pandharipande P, Shintani A, Peterson J, Pun BT, Wilkinson GR, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Lorazepam is an independent risk factor for transitioning to delirium in intensive care unit patients. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jan; 104(1): 21-6. PMID: 16394685, PII: 00000542-200601000-00005, ISSN: 0003-3022.

Pandharipande P, Ely EW, Maze M. Alpha-2 agonists: can they modify the outcomes in the Postanesthesia Care Unit?. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Nov; 6(7): 749-54. PMID: 16305453, ISSN: 1389-4501.

Thomason JW, Shintani A, Peterson JF, Pun BT, Jackson JC, Ely EW. Intensive care unit delirium is an independent predictor of longer hospital stay: a prospective analysis of 261 non-ventilated patients. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2005 Aug; 9(4): R375-81. PMID: 16137350, PMCID: PMC1269454, PII: cc3729, DOI: 10.1186/cc3729, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Pandharipande P, Jackson J, Ely EW. Delirium: acute cognitive dysfunction in the critically ill. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005 Aug; 11(4): 360-8. PMID: 16015117, PII: 00075198-200508000-00014, ISSN: 1070-5295.

Pandharipande P, Ely EW. Narcotic-based sedation regimens for critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2005 Jun; 9(3): 247-8. PMID: 15987412, PMCID: PMC1175895, PII: cc3523, DOI: 10.1186/cc3523, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Pun BT, Gordon SM, Peterson JF, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Foss J, Harding SD, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Large-scale implementation of sedation and delirium monitoring in the intensive care unit: a report from two medical centers. Crit. Care Med. 2005 Jun; 33(6): 1199-205. PMID: 15942331, PII: 00003246-200506000-00002, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Girard TD, Opal SM, Ely EW. Insights into severe sepsis in older patients: from epidemiology to evidence-based management. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2005 Mar 3/1/2005; 40(5): 719-27. PMID: 15714419, PII: CID34226, DOI: 10.1086/427876, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Gordon SM, Jackson JC, Ely EW, Burger C, Hopkins RO. Clinical identification of cognitive impairment in ICU survivors: insights for intensivists. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2004 Nov; 30(11): 1997-2008. PMID: 15549252, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-004-2418-y, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Jackson JC, Gordon SM, Ely EW, Burger C, Hopkins RO. Research issues in the evaluation of cognitive impairment in intensive care unit survivors. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2004 Nov; 30(11): 2009-16. PMID: 15372146, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-004-2422-2, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Ely EW, Truman B, Manzi DJ, Sigl JC, Shintani A, Bernard GR. Consciousness monitoring in ventilated patients: bispectral EEG monitors arousal not delirium. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2004 Aug; 30(8): 1537-43. PMID: 15127189, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-004-2298-1, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Jackson JC, Gordon SM, Hart RP, Hopkins RO, Ely EW. The association between delirium and cognitive decline: a review of the empirical literature. Neuropsychol Rev. 2004 Jun; 14(2): 87-98. PMID: 15264710, ISSN: 1040-7308.

Bernard GR, Margolis BD, Shanies HM, Ely EW, Wheeler AP, Levy H, Wong K, Wright TJ, . Extended evaluation of recombinant human activated protein C United States Trial (ENHANCE US): a single-arm, phase 3B, multicenter study of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in severe sepsis. Chest. 2004 Jun; 125(6): 2206-16. PMID: 15189943, PII: S0012-3692(16)58997-1, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Ely EW, Stephens RK, Jackson JC, Thomason JW, Truman B, Gordon S, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Current opinions regarding the importance, diagnosis, and management of delirium in the intensive care unit: a survey of 912 healthcare professionals. Crit. Care Med. 2004 Jan; 32(1): 106-12. PMID: 14707567, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000098033.94737.84, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW. Optimizing outcomes for older patients treated in the intensive care unit [editorial]. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2003 Dec; 29(12): 2112-5. PMID: 12879233, PII: 10.1007/s00134-003-1845-5, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-003-1845-5, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Ely EW, Angus DC, Williams MD, Bates B, Qualy R, Bernard GR. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) treatment of older patients with severe sepsis. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2003 Jul 7/15/2003; 37(2): 187-95. PMID: 12856210, PII: CID30712, DOI: 10.1086/375775, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A, Thomason JW, Wheeler AP, Gordon S, Francis J, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Sessler CN, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). JAMA. 2003 Jun 6/11/2003; 289(22): 2983-91. PMID: 12799407, PII: 289/22/2983, DOI: 10.1001/jama.289.22.2983, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Truman B, Ely EW. Monitoring delirium in critically ill patients. Using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit. Crit Care Nurse. 2003 Apr; 23(2): 25-36; quiz 37. PMID: 12725193, ISSN: 0279-5442.

Ely EW, Kleinpell RM, Goyette RE. Advances in the understanding of clinical manifestations and therapy of severe sepsis: an update for critical care nurses. Am. J. Crit. Care. 2003 Mar; 12(2): 120-33; quiz 134. PMID: 12625170, ISSN: 1062-3264.

Ely EW, Laterre PF, Angus DC, Helterbrand JD, Levy H, Dhainaut JF, Vincent JL, Macias WL, Bernard GR, . Drotrecogin alfa (activated) administration across clinically important subgroups of patients with severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2003 Jan; 31(1): 12-9. PMID: 12544987, DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000046070.25223.79, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Haponik EF. Using the chest radiograph to determine intravascular volume status: the role of vascular pedicle width. Chest. 2002 Mar; 121(3): 942-50. PMID: 11888980, PII: S0012-3692(16)44731-8, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Ely EW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, Ancukiewicz M, Steinberg KP, Bernard GR. Recovery rate and prognosis in older persons who develop acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 2002 Jan 1/1/2002; 136(1): 25-36. PMID: 11777361, PII: 200201010-00008, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Ely EW, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Gordon S, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Hart RP, Dittus R. Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). JAMA. 2001 Dec 12/5/2001; 286(21): 2703-10. PMID: 11730446, PII: jce10051, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Ely EW, Gautam S, Margolin R, Francis J, May L, Speroff T, Truman B, Dittus R, Bernard R, Inouye SK. The impact of delirium in the intensive care unit on hospital length of stay. Intensive Care Med [print-electronic]. 2001 Dec; 27(12): 1892-900. PMID: 11797025, DOI: 10.1007/s00134-001-1132-2, ISSN: 0342-4642.

Ely EW, Meade MO, Haponik EF, Kollef MH, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Stoller JK. Mechanical ventilator weaning protocols driven by nonphysician health-care professionals: evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2001 Dec; 120(6 Suppl): 454S-63S. PMID: 11742965, PII: S0012-3692(15)50003-2, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Wall RJ, Dittus RS, Ely EW. Protocol-driven care in the intensive care unit: a tool for quality. Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2001 Dec; 5(6): 283-5. PMID: 11737905, PMCID: PMC137367, ISSN: 1364-8535.

Bernard GR, Ely EW, Wright TJ, Fraiz J, Stasek JE, Russell JA, Mayers I, Rosenfeld BA, Morris PE, Yan SB, Helterbrand JD. Safety and dose relationship of recombinant human activated protein C for coagulopathy in severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2001 Nov; 29(11): 2051-9. PMID: 11700394, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Runo JR, Ely EW. Treating dyspnea in a patient with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. West. J. Med. 2001 Sep; 175(3): 197-201. PMID: 11527853, PMCID: PMC1071542, ISSN: 0093-0415.

Holcomb BW, Wheeler AP, Ely EW. New ways to reduce unnecessary variation and improve outcomes in the intensive care unit. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2001 Aug; 7(4): 304-11. PMID: 11571430, ISSN: 1070-5295.

Ely EW, Smith AC, Chiles C, Aquino SL, Harle TS, Evans GW, Haponik EF. Radiologic determination of intravascular volume status using portable, digital chest radiography: a prospective investigation in 100 patients. Crit. Care Med. 2001 Aug; 29(8): 1502-12. PMID: 11505116, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Margolin R, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Dittus R, Speroff T, Gautam S, Bernard GR, Inouye SK. Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients: validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Crit. Care Med. 2001 Jul; 29(7): 1370-9. PMID: 11445689, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ, . Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001 Mar 3/8/2001; 344(10): 699-709. PMID: 11236773, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200103083441001, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Ely EW, Siegel MD, Inouye SK. Delirium in the intensive care unit: an under-recognized syndrome of organ dysfunction. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2001; 22(2): 115-26. PMID: 16088667, DOI: 10.1055/s-2001-13826, ISSN: 1069-3424.

Holcomb BW, Loyd JE, Ely EW, Johnson J, Robbins IM. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: a case series and new observations. Chest. 2000 Dec; 118(6): 1671-9. PMID: 11115457, PII: S0012-3692(15)37877-6, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Pierson RN, Milstone AP, Loyd JE, Lewis BH, Pinson CW, Ely EW. Lung allocation in the United States, 1995-1997: an analysis of equity and utility. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 2000 Sep; 19(9): 846-51. PMID: 11008073, PII: S1053-2498(00)00151-0, ISSN: 1053-2498.

Milstone AP, Brumble LM, Loyd JE, Ely EW, Roberts JR, Pierson RN, Dummer JS. Active CMV infection before lung transplantation: risk factors and clinical implications. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 2000 Aug; 19(8): 744-50. PMID: 10967267, PII: S1053-2498(00)00134-0, ISSN: 1053-2498.

Ely EW. The utility of weaning protocols to expedite liberation from mechanical ventilation. Respir Care Clin N Am. 2000 Jun; 6(2): 303-19,vi. PMID: 10757964, PII: S1078-5337(05)70071-X, ISSN: 1078-5337.

Ely EW, Baker AM, Evans GW, Haponik EF. The distribution of costs of care in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crit. Care Med. 2000 Feb; 28(2): 408-13. PMID: 10708175, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Hite RD, Baker AM, Johnson MM, Bowton DL, Haponik EF. Venous air embolism from central venous catheterization: a need for increased physician awareness. Crit. Care Med. 1999 Oct; 27(10): 2113-7. PMID: 10548191, ISSN: 0090-3493.

Ely EW, Evans GW, Haponik EF. Mechanical ventilation in a cohort of elderly patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Ann. Intern. Med. 1999 Jul 7/20/1999; 131(2): 96-104. PMID: 10419447, PII: 199907200-00004, ISSN: 0003-4819.

Ely EW, Baker AM, Evans GW, Haponik EF. The prognostic significance of passing a daily screen of weaning parameters. Intensive Care Med. 1999 Jun; 25(6): 581-7. PMID: 10416909, ISSN: 0342-4642.