Spyros A. Kalams, M.D.

Associate Professor

Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
M.D., University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, ConnecticutB.A., Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Office Address
A-2200 Medical Center North
Research Description
Dr. Kalams joined the Infectious Disease staff at Vanderbilt University in 2002. Dr. Kalams is currently the director of viral immunology studies in the Vanderbilt Infectious Diseases Unit and is the Principal Investigator of the Vanderbilt HIV Vaccine Trials Unit. He is also the Director of the Laboratory Sciences Core of the Tennessee Center For AIDS Research. His laboratory investigates new strategies to quantitate HIV-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) and helper responses, which will be important for the evaluation of vaccines entering clinical trials.

Dr. Kalams was the first to demonstrate the persistence of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones in vivo during chronic HIV infection, and has received NIH R01-funding to 1) Evaluate why CTL responses decline with disease progression, 2) Assess the T-cell repertoire of developing and established immune responses, and 3) Determine whether the avidity of developing CTL responses influences viral set point. Other research interests include understanding the mechanisms of immune escape from CTL recognition (to evaluate the role HIV sequence variation plays in disease progression), and the evaluation of CTL responses of patients with long-term non-progressing HIV-1 infection (to evaluate whether patients without disease progression have unique or more robust immune responses).

Current active projects include 1) Using mass cytometry to identify cell populations able to predict humoral immune responses to influenza vaccination in stem cell transplant recipients (Adults and Children). 2) Identifying the molecular signatures of circulating CD4+ T cells that provide help to B cells, and that predict successful vaccine-induced immune responses (HIV and influenza vaccines). 3) Understanding T cell mediated control of latent tuberculosis infection. The overall theme of these projects is to understand immune responses to natural infection or vaccination.
Clinical Description
Dr. Kalams is an infectious diseases specialist.
Research Keywords
Cellular immune responses directed against viral and bacterial pathogens
Clinical Research Keywords
Therapeutic immunization, HIV vaccines
Koethe JR, Grome H, Jenkins CA, Kalams SA, Sterling TR. The metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity in persons with HIV on long-term antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2016 Jan 1/2/2016; 30(1): 83-91. PMID: 26418084, PMCID: PMC4703444, DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000893, ISSN: 1473-5571.

Hicar MD, Chen X, Kalams SA, Sojar H, Landucci G, Forthal DN, Spearman P, Crowe JE. Low frequency of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies during chronic infection even in quaternary epitope targeting antibodies containing large numbers of somatic mutations. Mol. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec 12/31/2015; 70: 94-103. PMID: 26748387, PII: S0161-5890(15)30125-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.12.002, ISSN: 1872-9142.

Nicholas KJ, Greenplate AR, Flaherty DK, Matlock BK, Juan JS, Smith RM, Irish JM, Kalams SA. Multiparameter analysis of stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: A comparison of mass and fluorescence cytometry. Cytometry A [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov 11/24/2015; PMID: 26599989, DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.22799, ISSN: 1552-4930.

Fuchs JD, Frank I, Elizaga ML, Allen M, Frahm N, Kochar N, Li S, Edupuganti S, Kalams SA, Tomaras GD, Sheets R, Pensiero M, Tremblay MA, Higgins TJ, Latham T, Egan MA, Clarke DK, Eldridge JH, , Mulligan M, Rouphael N, Estep S, Rybczyk K, Dunbar D, Buchbinder S, Wagner T, Isbell R, Chinnell V, Bae J, Escamilla G, Tseng J, Fair R, Ramirez S, Broder G, Briesemeister L, Ferrara A. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 gag Vaccine (HVTN 090). Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Sep; 2(3): ofv082. PMID: 26199949, PMCID: PMC4504730, PII: ofv082, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv082, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Chukwuma VU, Hicar MD, Chen X, Nicholas KJ, Joyner A, Kalams SA, Landucci G, Forthal DN, Spearman PW, Crowe JE. Association of VH4-59 Antibody Variable Gene Usage with Recognition of an Immunodominant Epitope on the HIV-1 Gag Protein. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(7): e0133509. PMID: 26226263, PMCID: PMC4520566, PII: PONE-D-15-16451, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133509, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Lucas A, Lucas M, Strhyn A, Keane NM, McKinnon E, Pavlos R, Moran EM, Meyer-Pannwitt V, Gaudieri S, D'Orsogna L, Kalams S, Ostrov DA, Buus S, Peters B, Mallal S, Phillips E. Abacavir-reactive memory T cells are present in drug naïve individuals. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(2): e0117160. PMID: 25674793, PMCID: PMC4326126, PII: PONE-D-14-35862, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117160, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Frey SE, Peiperl L, McElrath MJ, Kalams S, Goepfert PA, Keefer MC, Baden LR, Lally MA, Mayer K, Blattner WA, Harro CD, Hammer SM, Gorse GJ, Hural J, Tomaras GD, Levy Y, Gilbert P, deCamp A, Russell ND, Elizaga M, Allen M, Corey L. Phase I/II randomized trial of safety and immunogenicity of LIPO-5 alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) prime/LIPO-5 boost in healthy, HIV-1-uninfected adult participants. Clin. Vaccine Immunol [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 21(11): 1589-99. PMID: 25253665, PMCID: PMC4248765, PII: CVI.00450-14, DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00450-14, ISSN: 1556-679X.

Malherbe DC, Pissani F, Sather DN, Guo B, Pandey S, Sutton WF, Stuart AB, Robins H, Park B, Krebs SJ, Schuman JT, Kalams S, Hessell AJ, Haigwood NL. Envelope variants circulating as initial neutralization breadth developed in two HIV-infected subjects stimulate multiclade neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 88(22): 12949-67. PMID: 25210191, PMCID: PMC4249069, PII: JVI.01812-14, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01812-14, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Sather DN, Carbonetti S, Malherbe DC, Pissani F, Stuart AB, Hessell AJ, Gray MD, Mikell I, Kalams SA, Haigwood NL, Stamatatos L. Emergence of broadly neutralizing antibodies and viral coevolution in two subjects during the early stages of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 88(22): 12968-81. PMID: 25122781, PMCID: PMC4249098, PII: JVI.01816-14, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01816-14, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Finak G, Frelinger J, Jiang W, Newell EW, Ramey J, Davis MM, Kalams SA, De Rosa SC, Gottardo R. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis. PLoS Comput. Biol. 2014 Aug; 10(8): e1003806. PMID: 25167361, PMCID: PMC4148203, PII: PCOMPBIOL-D-14-00539, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003806, ISSN: 1553-7358.

Kim DH, Tate J, Dresen WF, Papa FC, Bloch KC, Kalams SA, Ellis CR, Baker MT, Lenihan DJ, Mendes LA. Cardiac implanted electronic device-related infective endocarditis: clinical features, management, and outcomes of 80 consecutive patients. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 37(8): 978-85. PMID: 25060820, DOI: 10.1111/pace.12452, ISSN: 1540-8159.

Goepfert PA, Elizaga ML, Seaton K, Tomaras GD, Montefiori DC, Sato A, Hural J, DeRosa SC, Kalams SA, McElrath MJ, Keefer MC, Baden LR, Lama JR, Sanchez J, Mulligan MJ, Buchbinder SP, Hammer SM, Koblin BA, Pensiero M, Butler C, Moss B, Robinson HL, , . Specificity and 6-month durability of immune responses induced by DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul 7/1/2014; 210(1): 99-110. PMID: 24403557, PMCID: PMC4072895, PII: jiu003, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu003, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Pandhare J, Addai AB, Mantri CK, Hager C, Smith RM, Barnett L, Villalta F, Kalams SA, Dash C. Cocaine enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis: implications in disease progression in cocaine-abusing HIV-1 patients. Am. J. Pathol [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 184(4): 927-36. PMID: 24486327, PMCID: PMC3970001, PII: S0002-9440(14)00009-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.12.004, ISSN: 1525-2191.

Kalams SA, Parker SD, Elizaga M, Metch B, Edupuganti S, Hural J, De Rosa S, Carter DK, Rybczyk K, Frank I, Fuchs J, Koblin B, Kim DH, Joseph P, Keefer MC, Baden LR, Eldridge J, Boyer J, Sherwat A, Cardinali M, Allen M, Pensiero M, Butler C, Khan AS, Yan J, Sardesai NY, Kublin JG, Weiner DB, . Safety and comparative immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine in combination with plasmid interleukin 12 and impact of intramuscular electroporation for delivery. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/1/2013; 208(5): 818-29. PMID: 23840043, PMCID: PMC3733506, PII: jit236, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit236, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Nicholas KJ, Zern EK, Barnett L, Smith RM, Lorey SL, Copeland CA, Sadagopal S, Kalams SA. B cell responses to HIV antigen are a potent correlate of viremia in HIV-1 infection and improve with PD-1 blockade. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(12): e84185. PMID: 24358343, PMCID: PMC3865293, PII: PONE-D-13-32477, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084185, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Fiske CT, de Almeida AS, Shintani AK, Kalams SA, Sterling TR. Abnormal immune responses in persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an in vitro model that simulates in vivo infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin. Vaccine Immunol [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug; 19(8): 1142-9. PMID: 22675156, PMCID: PMC3416084, PII: CVI.00221-12, DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00221-12, ISSN: 1556-679X.

Conrad JA, Ramalingam RK, Duncan CB, Smith RM, Wei J, Barnett L, Simons BC, Lorey SL, Kalams SA. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the magnitude and T cell receptor repertoire diversity of HIV-specific T cell responses without changing T cell clonotype dominance. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2012 Apr; 86(8): 4213-21. PMID: 22258246, PMCID: PMC3318638, PII: JVI.06000-11, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.06000-11, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Hulgan T, Robbins GK, Kalams SA, Samuels DC, Grady B, Shafer R, Murdock DG, Selph D, Haas DW, Pollard RB, . T cell activation markers and African mitochondrial DNA haplogroups among non-Hispanic black participants in AIDS clinical trials group study 384. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(8): e43803. PMID: 22970105, PMCID: PMC3433792, PII: PONE-D-12-11386, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043803, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Kalams SA, Parker S, Jin X, Elizaga M, Metch B, Wang M, Hural J, Lubeck M, Eldridge J, Cardinali M, Blattner WA, Sobieszczyk M, Suriyanon V, Kalichman A, Weiner DB, Baden LR, . Safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine with or without IL-12 and/or IL-15 plasmid cytokine adjuvant in healthy, HIV-1 uninfected adults. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(1): e29231. PMID: 22242162, PMCID: PMC3252307, PII: PONE-D-11-15081, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029231, ISSN: 1932-6203.

de Almeida AS, Fiske CT, Sterling TR, Kalams SA. Increased frequency of regulatory T cells and T lymphocyte activation in persons with previously treated extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clin. Vaccine Immunol [print-electronic]. 2012 Jan; 19(1): 45-52. PMID: 22038848, PMCID: PMC3255960, PII: CVI.05263-11, DOI: 10.1128/CVI.05263-11, ISSN: 1556-679X.

Grady BJ, Samuels DC, Robbins GK, Selph D, Canter JA, Pollard RB, Haas DW, Shafer R, Kalams SA, Murdock DG, Ritchie MD, Hulgan T, . Mitochondrial genomics and CD4 T-cell count recovery after antiretroviral therapy initiation in AIDS clinical trials group study 384. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2011 Dec 12/1/2011; 58(4): 363-70. PMID: 21792066, PMCID: PMC3204178, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31822c688b, ISSN: 1944-7884.

Conrad JA, Ramalingam RK, Smith RM, Barnett L, Lorey SL, Wei J, Simons BC, Sadagopal S, Meyer-Olson D, Kalams SA. Dominant clonotypes within HIV-specific T cell responses are programmed death-1high and CD127low and display reduced variant cross-reactivity. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun 6/15/2011; 186(12): 6871-85. PMID: 21562156, PMCID: PMC3403726, PII: jimmunol.1004234, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1004234, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Meyer-Olson D, Simons BC, Conrad JA, Smith RM, Barnett L, Lorey SL, Duncan CB, Ramalingam R, Kalams SA. Clonal expansion and TCR-independent differentiation shape the HIV-specific CD8+ effector-memory T-cell repertoire in vivo. Blood [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul 7/22/2010; 116(3): 396-405. PMID: 20424187, PMCID: PMC2913459, PII: blood-2009-11-254136, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-11-254136, ISSN: 1528-0020.

Hicar MD, Chen X, Briney B, Hammonds J, Wang JJ, Kalams S, Spearman PW, Crowe JE. Pseudovirion particles bearing native HIV envelope trimers facilitate a novel method for generating human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2010 Jul; 54(3): 223-35. PMID: 20531016, PMCID: PMC2930513, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181dc98a3, ISSN: 1944-7884.

Hicar MD, Kalams SA, Spearman PW, Crowe JE. Emerging studies of human HIV-specific antibody repertoires. Vaccine. 2010 May 5/26/2010; 28 Suppl 2: B18-23. PMID: 20510738, PMCID: PMC2879399, PII: S0264-410X(10)00144-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.002, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Kernodle DS, Sadagopal S, Kalams SA. Re: Misleading comments in Ranganathan et al. "Recombinant pro-apoptotic Mycobacterium tuberculosis generates CD8+ T cell responses against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env and M. tuberculosis in neonatal mice" [letter]. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb 2/25/2010; 28(9): 2064-5. PMID: 20038429, PII: S0264-410X(09)01933-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.029, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Sadagopal S, Lorey SL, Barnett L, Sutherland D, Basham R, Erdem H, Kalams SA, Haas DW. Enhanced PD-1 expression by T cells in cerebrospinal fluid does not reflect functional exhaustion during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan; 84(1): 131-40. PMID: 19828602, PMCID: PMC2798447, PII: JVI.01181-09, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01181-09, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Schneidewind A, Tang Y, Brockman MA, Ryland EG, Dunkley-Thompson J, Steel-Duncan JC, St John MA, Conrad JA, Kalams SA, Noel F, Allen TM, Christie CD, Feeney ME. Maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus escape mutations subverts HLA-B57 immunodominance but facilitates viral control in the haploidentical infant. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 83(17): 8616-27. PMID: 19515764, PMCID: PMC2738193, PII: JVI.00730-09, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00730-09, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Spearman P, Kalams S, Elizaga M, Metch B, Chiu YL, Allen M, Weinhold KJ, Ferrari G, Parker SD, McElrath MJ, Frey SE, Fuchs JD, Keefer MC, Lubeck MD, Egan M, Braun R, Eldridge JH, Haynes BF, Corey L, . Safety and immunogenicity of a CTL multiepitope peptide vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a phase I trial. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2009 Jan 1/7/2009; 27(2): 243-9. PMID: 18996425, PMCID: PMC2692338, PII: S0264-410X(08)01443-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.051, ISSN: 0264-410X.

Sadagopal S, Braunstein M, Hager CC, Wei J, Daniel AK, Bochan MR, Crozier I, Smith NE, Gates HO, Barnett L, Van Kaer L, Price JO, Blackwell TS, Kalams SA, Kernodle DS. Reducing the activity and secretion of microbial antioxidants enhances the immunogenicity of BCG. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2009; 4(5): e5531. PMID: 19436730, PMCID: PMC2677452, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005531, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Sather DN, Armann J, Ching LK, Mavrantoni A, Sellhorn G, Caldwell Z, Yu X, Wood B, Self S, Kalams S, Stamatatos L. Factors associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2009 Jan; 83(2): 757-69. PMID: 18987148, PMCID: PMC2612355, PII: JVI.02036-08, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02036-08, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Ramalingam RK, Meyer-Olson D, Shoukry NH, Bowen DG, Walker CM, Kalams SA. Kinetic analysis by real-time PCR of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells in peripheral blood and liver after challenge with HCV. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov; 82(21): 10487-92. PMID: 18715926, PMCID: PMC2573177, PII: JVI.00588-08, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00588-08, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Sadagopal S, Lorey SL, Barnett L, Basham R, Lebo L, Erdem H, Haman K, Avison M, Waddell K, Haas DW, Kalams SA. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid compared to those in blood among antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-positive subjects. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov; 82(21): 10418-28. PMID: 18715919, PMCID: PMC2573184, PII: JVI.01190-08, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01190-08, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Simons BC, Vancompernolle SE, Smith RM, Wei J, Barnett L, Lorey SL, Meyer-Olson D, Kalams SA. Despite biased TRBV gene usage against a dominant HLA B57-restricted epitope, TCR diversity can provide recognition of circulating epitope variants. J. Immunol. 2008 Oct 10/1/2008; 181(7): 5137-46. PMID: 18802118, PII: 181/7/5137, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Kang Y, Li D, Kalams SA, Eid JE. DC-Dielectrophoretic separation of biological cells by size. Biomed Microdevices. 2008 Apr; 10(2): 243-9. PMID: 17899384, DOI: 10.1007/s10544-007-9130-y, ISSN: 1387-2176.

Wang YN, Kang Y, Xu D, Chon CH, Barnett L, Kalams SA, Li D, Li D. On-chip counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Lab Chip [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 8(2): 309-15. PMID: 18231671, DOI: 10.1039/b713932b, ISSN: 1473-0197.

Antons AK, Wang R, Oswald-Richter K, Tseng M, Arendt CW, Kalams SA, Unutmaz D. Naive precursors of human regulatory T cells require FoxP3 for suppression and are susceptible to HIV infection. J. Immunol. 2008 Jan 1/15/2008; 180(2): 764-73. PMID: 18178814, PII: 180/2/764, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Antons AK, Wang R, Kalams SA, Unutmaz D. Suppression of HIV-specific and allogeneic T cell activation by human regulatory T cells is dependent on the strength of signals. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(8): e2952. PMID: 18698349, PMCID: PMC2490715, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002952, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Hajizadeh R, Sato H, Carlisle J, Nadaf MT, Evans W, Shepherd BE, Miller RF, Kalams SA, Drake WP. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen 85A induces Th-1 immune responses in systemic sarcoidosis. J. Clin. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2007 Jul; 27(4): 445-54. PMID: 17357846, PMCID: PMC3962023, DOI: 10.1007/s10875-007-9080-4, ISSN: 0271-9142.

Simons BC, Kalams SA. The potential role of epitope-specific T-cell receptor diversity in the control of HIV replication. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2007 May; 2(3): 177-82. PMID: 19372884, PII: 01222929-200705000-00003, DOI: 10.1097/COH.0b013e3280ef692f, ISSN: 1746-6318.

Oswald-Richter K, Grill SM, Leelawong M, Tseng M, Kalams SA, Hulgan T, Haas DW, Unutmaz D. Identification of a CCR5-expressing T cell subset that is resistant to R5-tropic HIV infection. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Apr; 3(4): e58. PMID: 17465678, PMCID: PMC1857714, PII: 06-PLPA-RA-0420R2, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030058, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Fu TM, Dubey SA, Mehrotra DV, Freed DC, Trigona WL, Adams-Muhler L, Clair JH, Evans TG, Steigbigel R, Jacobson JM, Goepfert PA, Mulligan MJ, Kalams SA, Rinaldo C, Zhu L, Cox KS, Guan L, Long R, Persaud N, Caulfield MJ, Sadoff JC, Emini EA, Thaler S, Shiver JW. Evaluation of cellular immune responses in subjects chronically infected with HIV type 1. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2007 Jan; 23(1): 67-76. PMID: 17263635, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2006.0114, ISSN: 0889-2229.

Meyer-Olson D, Brady KW, Bartman MT, O'Sullivan KM, Simons BC, Conrad JA, Duncan CB, Lorey S, Siddique A, Draenert R, Addo M, Altfeld M, Rosenberg E, Allen TM, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Fluctuations of functionally distinct CD8+ T-cell clonotypes demonstrate flexibility of the HIV-specific TCR repertoire. Blood [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar 3/15/2006; 107(6): 2373-83. PMID: 16322475, PMCID: PMC1895729, PII: 2005-04-1636, DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-04-1636, ISSN: 0006-4971.

Koibuchi T, Allen TM, Lichterfeld M, Mui SK, O'Sullivan KM, Trocha A, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Limited sequence evolution within persistently targeted CD8 epitopes in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Virol. 2005 Jul; 79(13): 8171-81. PMID: 15956562, PMCID: PMC1143727, PII: 79/13/8171, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.13.8171-8181.2005, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Cox JH, Ferrari G, Kalams SA, Lopaczynski W, Oden N, D'souza MP, . Results of an ELISPOT proficiency panel conducted in 11 laboratories participating in international human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine trials. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2005 Jan; 21(1): 68-81. PMID: 15665646, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2005.21.68, ISSN: 0889-2229.

Lebedeva T, Anikeeva N, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Gaidarov I, Keen JH, Sykulev Y. Major histocompatibility complex class I-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 association on the surface of target cells: implications for antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology. 2004 Dec; 113(4): 460-71. PMID: 15554924, PMCID: PMC1782605, PII: IMM1985, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01985.x, ISSN: 0019-2805.

Meyer-Olson D, Shoukry NH, Brady KW, Kim H, Olson DP, Hartman K, Shintani AK, Walker CM, Kalams SA. Limited T cell receptor diversity of HCV-specific T cell responses is associated with CTL escape. J. Exp. Med. 2004 Aug 8/2/2004; 200(3): 307-19. PMID: 15289502, PMCID: PMC2211982, PII: jem.20040638, DOI: 10.1084/jem.20040638, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Yang OO, Sarkis PT, Trocha A, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Impacts of avidity and specificity on the antiviral efficiency of HIV-1-specific CTL. J. Immunol. 2003 Oct 10/1/2003; 171(7): 3718-24. PMID: 14500671, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Anikeeva N, Lebedeva T, Sumaroka M, Kalams SA, Sykulev Y. Soluble HIV-specific T cell receptor: expression, purification and analysis of the specificity. J. Immunol. Methods. 2003 Jun 6/1/2003; 277(1-2): 75-86. PMID: 12799041, PII: S0022175903001790, ISSN: 0022-1759.

Yang OO, Sarkis PT, Ali A, Harlow JD, Brander C, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Determinant of HIV-1 mutational escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med [print-electronic]. 2003 May 5/19/2003; 197(10): 1365-75. PMID: 12743169, PMCID: PMC2193781, PII: jem.20022138, DOI: 10.1084/jem.20022138, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Kalams SA. Cellular immunity for prevention and clearance of HIV infection. Curr. Mol. Med. 2003 May; 3(3): 195-208. PMID: 12699357, ISSN: 1566-5240.

Anikeeva N, Lebedeva T, Krogsgaard M, Tetin SY, Martinez-Hackert E, Kalams SA, Davis MM, Sykulev Y. Distinct molecular mechanisms account for the specificity of two different T-cell receptors. Biochemistry. 2003 Apr 4/29/2003; 42(16): 4709-16. PMID: 12705834, DOI: 10.1021/bi026864+, ISSN: 0006-2960.

Meyer-Olson D, Brady KW, Blackard JT, Allen TM, Islam S, Shoukry NH, Hartman K, Walker CM, Kalams SA. Analysis of the TCR beta variable gene repertoire in chimpanzees: identification of functional homologs to human pseudogenes. J. Immunol. 2003 Apr 4/15/2003; 170(8): 4161-9. PMID: 12682248, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Draenert R, Altfeld M, Brander C, Basgoz N, Corcoran C, Wurcel AG, Stone DR, Kalams SA, Trocha A, Addo MM, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Comparison of overlapping peptide sets for detection of antiviral CD8 and CD4 T cell responses. J. Immunol. Methods. 2003 Apr 4/1/2003; 275(1-2): 19-29. PMID: 12667667, PII: S0022175902005410, ISSN: 0022-1759.

Valdez H, Mitsuyasu R, Landay A, Sevin AD, Chan ES, Spritzler J, Kalams SA, Pollard RB, Fahey J, Fox L, Namkung A, Estep S, Moss R, Sahner D, Lederman MM. Interleukin-2 Increases CD4+ lymphocyte numbers but does not enhance responses to immunization: results of A5046s. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2003 Jan 1/15/2003; 187(2): 320-5. PMID: 12552459, PII: JID020565, DOI: 10.1086/346056, ISSN: 0022-1899.

Cohen GB, Islam SA, Noble MS, Lau C, Brander C, Altfeld MA, Rosenberg ES, Schmitz JE, Cameron TO, Kalams SA. Clonotype tracking of TCR repertoires during chronic virus infections. Virology. 2002 Dec 12/20/2002; 304(2): 474-84. PMID: 12504586, PII: S0042682202917435, ISSN: 0042-6822.

Yang OO, Nguyen PT, Kalams SA, Dorfman T, Göttlinger HG, Stewart S, Chen IS, Threlkeld S, Walker BD. Nef-mediated resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Virol. 2002 Feb; 76(4): 1626-31. PMID: 11799157, PMCID: PMC135916, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Altfeld M, Addo MM, Eldridge RL, Yu XG, Thomas S, Khatri A, Strick D, Phillips MN, Cohen GB, Islam SA, Kalams SA, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, . Vpr is preferentially targeted by CTL during HIV-1 infection. J. Immunol. 2001 Sep 9/1/2001; 167(5): 2743-52. PMID: 11509618, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Hochberg EP, Chillemi AC, Wu CJ, Neuberg D, Canning C, Hartman K, Alyea EP, Soiffer RJ, Kalams SA, Ritz J. Quantitation of T-cell neogenesis in vivo after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adults. Blood. 2001 Aug 8/15/2001; 98(4): 1116-21. PMID: 11493459, ISSN: 0006-4971.

Day CL, Shea AK, Altfeld MA, Olson DP, Buchbinder SP, Hecht FM, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Relative dominance of epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons with shared HLA alleles. J. Virol. 2001 Jul; 75(14): 6279-91. PMID: 11413294, PMCID: PMC114350, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.75.14.6279-6291.2001, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Islam SA, Hay CM, Hartman KE, He S, Shea AK, Trocha AK, Dynan MJ, Reshamwala N, Buchbinder SP, Basgoz NO, Kalams SA. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones in a subject with rapid disease progression. J. Virol. 2001 May; 75(10): 4907-11. PMID: 11312363, PMCID: PMC114246, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.75.10.4907-4911.2001, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Flores-Villanueva PO, Yunis EJ, Delgado JC, Vittinghoff E, Buchbinder S, Leung JY, Uglialoro AM, Clavijo OP, Rosenberg ES, Kalams SA, Braun JD, Boswell SL, Walker BD, Goldfeld AE. Control of HIV-1 viremia and protection from AIDS are associated with HLA-Bw4 homozygosity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2001 Apr 4/24/2001; 98(9): 5140-5. PMID: 11309482, PMCID: PMC33177, PII: 071548198, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.071548198, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Altfeld MA, Livingston B, Reshamwala N, Nguyen PT, Addo MM, Shea A, Newman M, Fikes J, Sidney J, Wentworth P, Chesnut R, Eldridge RL, Rosenberg ES, Robbins GK, Brander C, Sax PE, Boswell S, Flynn T, Buchbinder S, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Sette A, Kalams SA. Identification of novel HLA-A2-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes predicted by the HLA-A2 supertype peptide-binding motif. J. Virol. 2001 Feb; 75(3): 1301-11. PMID: 11152503, PMCID: PMC114036, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.75.3.1301-1311.2001, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Goulder PJ, Altfeld MA, Rosenberg ES, Nguyen T, Tang Y, Eldridge RL, Addo MM, He S, Mukherjee JS, Phillips MN, Bunce M, Kalams SA, Sekaly RP, Walker BD, Brander C. Substantial differences in specificity of HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells in acute and chronic HIV infection. J. Exp. Med. 2001 Jan 1/15/2001; 193(2): 181-94. PMID: 11148222, PMCID: PMC2193346, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Goulder PJ, Tang Y, Brander C, Betts MR, Altfeld M, Annamalai K, Trocha A, He S, Rosenberg ES, Ogg G, O'Callaghan CA, Kalams SA, McKinney RE, Mayer K, Koup RA, Pelton SI, Burchett SK, McIntosh K, Walker BD. Functionally inert HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not play a major role in chronically infected adults and children. J. Exp. Med. 2000 Dec 12/18/2000; 192(12): 1819-32. PMID: 11120778, PMCID: PMC2213508, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Tremblay CL, Giguel F, Merrill DP, Wong JT, Rosenberg E, Kalams S, Walker BD, D'Aquila RT, Hirsch MS. Marked differences in quantity of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 detected in persons with controlled plasma viremia by a simple enhanced culture method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2000 Nov; 38(11): 4246-8. PMID: 11060100, PMCID: PMC87573, ISSN: 0095-1137.

Altfeld MA, Trocha A, Eldridge RL, Rosenberg ES, Phillips MN, Addo MM, Sekaly RP, Kalams SA, Burchett SA, McIntosh K, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Identification of dominant optimal HLA-B60- and HLA-B61-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes: rapid characterization of CTL responses by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. J. Virol. 2000 Sep; 74(18): 8541-9. PMID: 10954555, PMCID: PMC116366, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Poznansky MC, Evans RH, Foxall RB, Olszak IT, Piascik AH, Hartman KE, Brander C, Meyer TH, Pykett MJ, Chabner KT, Kalams SA, Rosenzweig M, Scadden DT. Efficient generation of human T cells from a tissue-engineered thymic organoid. Nat. Biotechnol. 2000 Jul; 18(7): 729-34. PMID: 10888839, DOI: 10.1038/77288, ISSN: 1087-0156.

Severino ME, Sipsas NV, Nguyen PT, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Johnson RP, Yang OO. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Virol. 2000 Jul; 74(14): 6695-9. PMID: 10864688, PMCID: PMC112184, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Goulder PJ, Brander C, Annamalai K, Mngqundaniso N, Govender U, Tang Y, He S, Hartman KE, O'Callaghan CA, Ogg GS, Altfeld MA, Rosenberg ES, Cao H, Kalams SA, Hammond M, Bunce M, Pelton SI, Burchett SA, McIntosh K, Coovadia HM, Walker BD. Differential narrow focusing of immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in infected African and caucasoid adults and children. J. Virol. 2000 Jun; 74(12): 5679-90. PMID: 10823876, PMCID: PMC112056, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Brander C, Yang OO, Jones NG, Lee Y, Goulder P, Johnson RP, Trocha A, Colbert D, Hay C, Buchbinder S, Bergmann CC, Zweerink HJ, Wolinsky S, Blattner WA, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Efficient processing of the immunodominant, HLA-A*0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope despite multiple variations in the epitope flanking sequences. J. Virol. 1999 Dec; 73(12): 10191-8. PMID: 10559335, PMCID: PMC113072, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Kalams SA, Goulder PJ, Shea AK, Jones NG, Trocha AK, Ogg GS, Walker BD. Levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte effector and memory responses decline after suppression of viremia with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8): 6721-8. PMID: 10400770, PMCID: PMC112757, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Kalams SA, Buchbinder SP, Rosenberg ES, Billingsley JM, Colbert DS, Jones NG, Shea AK, Trocha AK, Walker BD. Association between virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8): 6715-20. PMID: 10400769, PMCID: PMC112756, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Brander C, Goulder PJ, Luzuriaga K, Yang OO, Hartman KE, Jones NG, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Persistent HIV-1-specific CTL clonal expansion despite high viral burden post in utero HIV-1 infection. J. Immunol. 1999 Apr 4/15/1999; 162(8): 4796-800. PMID: 10202022, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Kalams SA, Walker BD. The critical need for CD4 help in maintaining effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J. Exp. Med. 1998 Dec 12/21/1998; 188(12): 2199-204. PMID: 9858506, PMCID: PMC2212425, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Quayle AJ, Coston WM, Trocha AK, Kalams SA, Mayer KH, Anderson DJ. Detection of HIV-1-specific CTLs in the semen of HIV-infected individuals. J. Immunol. 1998 Oct 10/15/1998; 161(8): 4406-10. PMID: 9780219, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Shen DF, Doukhan L, Kalams S, Delwart E. High-resolution analysis of T-cell receptor beta-chain repertoires using DNA heteroduplex tracking: generally stable, clonal CD8+ expansions in all healthy young adults. J. Immunol. Methods. 1998 Jun 6/1/1998; 215(1-2): 113-21. PMID: 9744753, PII: S0022-1759(98)00066-0, ISSN: 0022-1759.

Brander C, Hartman KE, Trocha AK, Jones NG, Johnson RP, Korber B, Wentworth P, Buchbinder SP, Wolinsky S, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Lack of strong immune selection pressure by the immunodominant, HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in chronic human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. J. Clin. Invest. 1998 Jun 6/1/1998; 101(11): 2559-66. PMID: 9616227, PMCID: PMC508845, DOI: 10.1172/JCI2405, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Kalams SA. Latent infection of cells in HIV disease: abstract and commentary. JAMA. 1998 Mar 3/11/1998; 279(10): 807-8. PMID: 9508160, ISSN: 0098-7484.

Wagner L, Yang OO, Garcia-Zepeda EA, Ge Y, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Pasternack MS, Luster AD. Beta-chemokines are released from HIV-1-specific cytolytic T-cell granules complexed to proteoglycans. Nature. 1998 Feb 2/26/1998; 391(6670): 908-11. PMID: 9495345, DOI: 10.1038/36129, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Connor RI, Korber BT, Graham BS, Hahn BH, Ho DD, Walker BD, Neumann AU, Vermund SH, Mestecky J, Jackson S, Fenamore E, Cao Y, Gao F, Kalams S, Kunstman KJ, McDonald D, McWilliams N, Trkola A, Moore JP, Wolinsky SM. Immunological and virological analyses of persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 while participating in trials of recombinant gp120 subunit vaccines. J. Virol. 1998 Feb; 72(2): 1552-76. PMID: 9445059, PMCID: PMC124637, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Collins KL, Chen BK, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Baltimore D. HIV-1 Nef protein protects infected primary cells against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature. 1998 Jan 1/22/1998; 391(6665): 397-401. PMID: 9450757, DOI: 10.1038/34929, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Rosenberg ES, Billingsley JM, Caliendo AM, Boswell SL, Sax PE, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia. Science. 1997 Nov 11/21/1997; 278(5342): 1447-50. PMID: 9367954, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Cao H, Kanki P, Sankalé JL, Dieng-Sarr A, Mazzara GP, Kalams SA, Korber B, Mboup S, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cross-reactivity among different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clades: implications for vaccine development. J. Virol. 1997 Nov; 71(11): 8615-23. PMID: 9343219, PMCID: PMC192325, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Yang OO, Tran AC, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Roberts MR, Walker BD. Lysis of HIV-1-infected cells and inhibition of viral replication by universal receptor T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997 Oct 10/14/1997; 94(21): 11478-83. PMID: 9326635, PMCID: PMC23511, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Threlkeld SC, Wentworth PA, Kalams SA, Wilkes BM, Ruhl DJ, Keogh E, Sidney J, Southwood S, Walker BD, Sette A. Degenerate and promiscuous recognition by CTL of peptides presented by the MHC class I A3-like superfamily: implications for vaccine development. J. Immunol. 1997 Aug 8/15/1997; 159(4): 1648-57. PMID: 9257824, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Yang OO, Kalams SA, Trocha A, Cao H, Luster A, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by CD8+ cells: evidence for HLA class I-restricted triggering of cytolytic and noncytolytic mechanisms. J. Virol. 1997 Apr; 71(4): 3120-8. PMID: 9060675, PMCID: PMC191444, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Walter JB, Brander C, Mammen M, Garboczi DN, Kalams SA, Whitesides GM, Walker BD, Eisen HN. Stimulation of human cytotoxic T cells with HIV-1-derived peptides presented by recombinant HLA-A2 peptide complexes. Int. Immunol. 1997 Mar; 9(3): 451-9. PMID: 9088983, ISSN: 0953-8178.

Sipsas NV, Kalams SA, Trocha A, He S, Blattner WA, Walker BD, Johnson RP. Identification of type-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to homologous viral proteins in laboratory workers accidentally infected with HIV-1. J. Clin. Invest. 1997 Feb 2/15/1997; 99(4): 752-62. PMID: 9045880, PMCID: PMC507860, DOI: 10.1172/JCI119221, ISSN: 0021-9738.

Wilson CC, Kalams SA, Wilkes BM, Ruhl DJ, Gao F, Hahn BH, Hanson IC, Luzuriaga K, Wolinsky S, Koup R, Buchbinder SP, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Overlapping epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 presented by HLA A, B, and C molecules: effects of viral variation on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. J. Virol. 1997 Feb; 71(2): 1256-64. PMID: 8995649, PMCID: PMC191180, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Yang OO, Kalams SA, Rosenzweig M, Trocha A, Jones N, Koziel M, Walker BD, Johnson RP. Efficient lysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Virol. 1996 Sep; 70(9): 5799-806. PMID: 8709196, PMCID: PMC190594, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Rosenzweig M, Marks DF, Zhu H, Hempel D, Mansfield KG, Sehgal PK, Kalams S, Scadden DT, Johnson RP. In vitro T lymphopoiesis of human and rhesus CD34+ progenitor cells. Blood. 1996 May 5/15/1996; 87(10): 4040-8. PMID: 8639759, ISSN: 0006-4971.

Harrer T, Harrer E, Kalams SA, Elbeik T, Staprans SI, Feinberg MB, Cao Y, Ho DD, Yilma T, Caliendo AM, Johnson RP, Buchbinder SP, Walker BD. Strong cytotoxic T cell and weak neutralizing antibody responses in a subset of persons with stable nonprogressing HIV type 1 infection. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 1996 May 5/1/1996; 12(7): 585-92. PMID: 8743084, ISSN: 0889-2229.

Harrer T, Harrer E, Kalams SA, Barbosa P, Trocha A, Johnson RP, Elbeik T, Feinberg MB, Buchbinder SP, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in asymptomatic long-term nonprogressing HIV-1 infection. Breadth and specificity of the response and relation to in vivo viral quasispecies in a person with prolonged infection and low viral load. J. Immunol. 1996 Apr 4/1/1996; 156(7): 2616-23. PMID: 8786327, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Dynan MJ, Hartman KE, Harrer T, Harrer E, Trocha AK, Blattner WA, Buchbinder SP, Walker BD. T cell receptor usage and fine specificity of human immunodeficiency virus 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones: analysis of quasispecies recognition reveals a dominant response directed against a minor in vivo variant. J. Exp. Med. 1996 Apr 4/1/1996; 183(4): 1669-79. PMID: 8666925, PMCID: PMC2192525, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Freedman AR, Zhu H, Levine JD, Kalams S, Scadden DT. Generation of human T lymphocytes from bone marrow CD34+ cells in vitro. Nat. Med. 1996 Jan; 2(1): 46-51. PMID: 8564838, ISSN: 1078-8956.

Wilson CC, Wong JT, Girard DD, Merrill DP, Dynan M, An DD, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Hirsch MS, D'Aquila RT. Ex vivo expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons in the presence of combination antiretroviral agents. J. Infect. Dis. 1995 Jul; 172(1): 88-96. PMID: 7541065, ISSN: 0022-1899.

Hammond SA, Johnson RP, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Takiguchi M, Safrit JT, Koup RA, Siliciano RF. An epitope-selective, transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP)-1/2-independent pathway and a more general TAP-1/2-dependent antigen-processing pathway allow recognition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein by CD8+ CTL. J. Immunol. 1995 Jun 6/1/1995; 154(11): 6140-56. PMID: 7538543, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Kalams SA, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and HIV-1 related neurologic disorders. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 1995; 202: 79-88. PMID: 7587372, ISSN: 0070-217X.

Price P, Johnson RP, Scadden DT, Jassoy C, Rosenthal T, Kalams S, Walker BD. Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes reactive with human immunodeficiency virus-1 produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and variable amounts of interleukins 2, 3, and 4 following stimulation with the cognate epitope. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1995 Jan; 74(1): 100-6. PMID: 7527747, PII: S0090122985710148, ISSN: 0090-1229.

Kalams SA, Walker BD. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in HIV-1 infection. Clin. Lab. Med. 1994 Jun; 14(2): 271-99. PMID: 7924192, ISSN: 0272-2712.

Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Trocha AK, Dynan MJ, Ngo HS, D'Aquila RT, Kurnick JT, Walker BD. Longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) gene usage by human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones reveals a limited TCR repertoire. J. Exp. Med. 1994 Apr 4/1/1994; 179(4): 1261-71. PMID: 8145043, PMCID: PMC2191456, ISSN: 0022-1007.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 12/26/2007
We are looking for a postdoc to help evaluate cell-mediated immune responses directed against HIV. The broad goals of several related projects are to:

1) Evaluate why CTL responses decline with disease progression, 2) Assess the T-cell repertoire of developing and established immune responses, and 3) Determine whether the avidity of developing CTL responses influences viral set point.

Other research interests include understanding the mechanisms of immune escape from CTL recognition (to evaluate the role HIV sequence variation plays in disease progression), and the evaluation of CTL responses of patients with long-term non-progressing HIV-1 infection (to evaluate whether patients without disease progression have unique or more robust immune responses).

Techniques used to evaluate these responses will include (but are not limited to): Multi-color flow cytometry, Flow sorting, Real-time PCR, Sequencing of T cell receptor genes, intracellular cytokine secretion analysis by flow cytometry and ELISpot.