Stephan Heckers, M.D.

Faculty Appointments
Chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Professor of PsychologyWilliam P. and Henry B. Test Chair in Schizophrenia ResearchProfessor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences
M.Sc., Harvard University, Cambridge, MassachusettsM.D., Medicine, Universität Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Office Address
Room 3060, VPH
1601 23rd Avenue South Room 3060
Nashville, TN 37212
Research Description
Dr. Stephan Heckers joined the Vanderbilt faculty as Chair of Psychiatry in 2006. He studies the neural basis of psychiatric disorders and is particularly interested in the disease mechanisms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. He is a member of several editorial boards and the Scientific Council of the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (formerly NARSAD).
Clinical Description
Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Research Keywords
Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Neuroimaging, Neuroanatomy
Clinical Research Keywords
Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Bao S, Bermudez C, Huo Y, Parvathaneni P, Rodriguez W, Resnick SM, D'Haese PF, McHugo M, Heckers S, Dawant BM, Lyu I, Landman BA. Registration-based image enhancement improves multi-atlas segmentation of the thalamic nuclei and hippocampal subfields. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2019 Jun; 59: 143-52. PMID: 30880111, PII: S0730-725X(18)30404-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2019.03.014, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Feola B, Armstrong K, Woodward ND, Heckers S, Blackford JU. Childhood temperament is associated with distress, anxiety and reduced quality of life in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2019 Mar 3/11/2019; 275: 196-203. PMID: 30925307, PII: S0165-1781(18)32352-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.03.016, ISSN: 1872-7123.

Sheffield JM, Rogers BP, Blackford JU, Heckers S, Woodward ND. Accelerated Aging of Functional Brain Networks Supporting Cognitive Function in Psychotic Disorders. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2019 Jan 1/4/2019; PMID: 30739807, PII: S0006-3223(18)32120-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.12.016, ISSN: 1873-2402.

Armstrong K, Avery S, Blackford JU, Woodward N, Heckers S. Impaired associative inference in the early stage of psychosis. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2018 Dec; 202: 86-90. PMID: 29954698, PII: S0920-9964(18)30389-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.06.049, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Quinn M, McHugo M, Armstrong K, Woodward N, Blackford J, Heckers S. Impact of substance use disorder on gray matter volume in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging [print-electronic]. 2018 Oct 10/30/2018; 280: 9-14. PMID: 30121336, PII: S0925-4927(18)30004-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2018.08.002, ISSN: 1872-7506.

Wilson JE, Heckers S, Ely EW, . The authors reply. Crit. Care Med. 2018 Jul; 46(7): e722-e723. PMID: 29912122, PMCID: PMC6078202, PII: 00003246-201807000-00057, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003161, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Öngür D, Heckers S. JAMA Psychiatry-The Year in Review, 2017. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 May 5/1/2018; 75(5): 421-2. PMID: 29541746, PII: 2674959, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4161, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Avery SN, Rogers BP, Heckers S. Hippocampal Network Modularity Is Associated With Relational Memory Dysfunction in Schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging [print-electronic]. 2018 May; 3(5): 423-32. PMID: 29653904, PMCID: PMC5940573, PII: S2451-9022(18)30044-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.02.001, ISSN: 2451-9030.

McHugo M, Talati P, Woodward ND, Armstrong K, Blackford JU, Heckers S. Regionally specific volume deficits along the hippocampal long axis in early and chronic psychosis. Neuroimage Clin [print-electronic]. 2018; 20: 1106-14. PMID: 30380517, PMCID: PMC6202690, PII: S2213-1582(18)30331-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2018.10.021, ISSN: 2213-1582.

Wilson JE, Carlson R, Duggan MC, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Wang L, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Francis A, Nicolson SE, Dittus RS, Heckers S, Ely EW, . Delirium and Catatonia in Critically Ill Patients: The Delirium and Catatonia Prospective Cohort Investigation. Crit. Care Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug 8/24/2017; PMID: 28841632, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002642, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Heckers S. JAMA Psychiatry 2016 Year in Review. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 May 5/1/2017; 74(5): 439-40. PMID: 28384672, PII: 2616164, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0568, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Heckers S. Project for a Scientific Psychiatry: Neuroscience Literacy. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 4/1/2017; 74(4): 315. PMID: 28273290, PII: 2607492, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.3392, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Ridgewell C, Blackford JU, McHugo M, Heckers S. Personality traits predicting quality of life and overall functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 182: 19-23. PMID: 27746053, PMCID: PMC5376216, PII: S0920-9964(16)30451-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.10.007, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Plassard AJ, McHugo M, Heckers S, Landman BA. Multi-Scale Hippocampal Parcellation Improves Atlas-Based Segmentation Accuracy. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb 2/11/2017; 10133: PMID: 28781411, PMCID: PMC5544133, DOI: 10.1117/12.2254425, ISSN: 0277-786X.

Theiss JD, Ridgewell C, McHugo M, Heckers S, Blackford JU. Manual segmentation of the human bed nucleus of the stria terminalis using 3T MRI. Neuroimage [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb 2/1/2017; 146: 288-92. PMID: 27876653, PMCID: PMC5358094, PII: S1053-8119(16)30665-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.11.047, ISSN: 1095-9572.

Seldin K, Armstrong K, Schiff ML, Heckers S. Reducing the Diagnostic Heterogeneity of Schizoaffective Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2017; 8: 18. PMID: 28239362, PMCID: PMC5300988, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00018, ISSN: 1664-0640.

Talati P, Rane S, Donahue MJ, Heckers S. Hippocampal arterial cerebral blood volume in early psychosis. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct 10/30/2016; 256: 21-5. PMID: 27644028, PMCID: PMC5064837, PII: S0925-4927(16)30070-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.09.002, ISSN: 1872-7123.

Eichenbaum H, Amaral DG, Buffalo EA, Buzsáki G, Cohen N, Davachi L, Frank L, Heckers S, Morris RG, Moser EI, Nadel L, O'Keefe J, Preston A, Ranganath C, Silva A, Witter M. Hippocampus at 25. Hippocampus [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct; 26(10): 1238-49. PMID: 27399159, PMCID: PMC5367855, DOI: 10.1002/hipo.22616, ISSN: 1098-1063.

Woodward ND, Heckers S. Mapping Thalamocortical Functional Connectivity in Chronic and Early Stages of Psychotic Disorders. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun 6/15/2016; 79(12): 1016-25. PMID: 26248537, PMCID: PMC4698230, PII: S0006-3223(15)00534-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.06.026, ISSN: 1873-2402.

Rane S, Talati P, Donahue MJ, Heckers S. Inflow-vascular space occupancy (iVASO) reproducibility in the hippocampus and cortex at different blood water nulling times. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 75(6): 2379-87. PMID: 26192478, PMCID: PMC4720590, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25836, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Heckers S. Studies of auditory verbal hallucinations. Psychophysiology. 2016 Mar; 53(3): 305-7. PMID: 26877117, DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12591, ISSN: 1540-5958.

Avery SN, VanDerKlok RM, Heckers S, Blackford JU. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb 2/28/2016; 236: 53-7. PMID: 26776300, PMCID: PMC4747684, PII: S0165-1781(15)30890-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.12.035, ISSN: 1872-7123.

Heckers S. The Value of Psychiatric Diagnoses [editorial]. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 Dec; 72(12): 1165-6. PMID: 26560736, PII: 2469101, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2250, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Woodward ND, Heckers S. Brain Structure in Neuropsychologically Defined Subgroups of Schizophrenia and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 41(6): 1349-59. PMID: 25904725, PMCID: PMC4601708, PII: sbv048, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbv048, ISSN: 1745-1701.

Berretta S, Heckers S, Benes FM. Searching human brain for mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Implications for studies on schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 167(1-3): 91-7. PMID: 25458567, PMCID: PMC4427537, PII: S0920-9964(14)00588-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.10.019, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Heckers S, Konradi C. GABAergic mechanisms of hippocampal hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 167(1-3): 4-11. PMID: 25449711, PMCID: PMC4402105, PII: S0920-9964(14)00533-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.041, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Thakkar KN, Schall JD, Heckers S, Park S. Disrupted Saccadic Corollary Discharge in Schizophrenia. J. Neurosci. 2015 Jul 7/8/2015; 35(27): 9935-45. PMID: 26156994, PMCID: PMC4495243, PII: 35/27/9935, DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0473-15.2015, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Talati P, Rane S, Skinner J, Gore J, Heckers S. Increased hippocampal blood volume and normal blood flow in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun 6/30/2015; 232(3): 219-25. PMID: 25896442, PMCID: PMC4439302, PII: S0925-4927(15)00067-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.03.007, ISSN: 1872-7123.

Blackford JU, Williams LE, Heckers S. Neural correlates of out-group bias predict social impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 164(1-3): 203-9. PMID: 25864952, PMCID: PMC4512167, PII: S0920-9964(15)00156-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.019, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Wilson JE, Niu K, Nicolson SE, Levine SZ, Heckers S. The diagnostic criteria and structure of catatonia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 164(1-3): 256-62. PMID: 25595653, PII: S0920-9964(14)00769-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.12.036, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Polyn SM, McCluey JD, Morton NW, Woolard AA, Luksik AS, Heckers S. Temporal context and the organisational impairment of memory search in schizophrenia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry [print-electronic]. 2015; 20(4): 296-310. PMID: 25861879, DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2015.1031372, ISSN: 1464-0619.

Heckers S. The tradition and future of JAMA Psychiatry. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 Jan; 72(1): 3-4. PMID: 25564788, PII: 2088574, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2613, ISSN: 2168-6238.

McHugo M, Rogers BP, Talati P, Woodward ND, Heckers S. Increased Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations but Normal Hippocampal-Default Mode Network Connectivity in Schizophrenia. Front Psychiatry. 2015; 6: 92. PMID: 26157396, PMCID: PMC4478381, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00092, ISSN: 1664-0640.

Talati P, Rane S, Kose S, Gore J, Heckers S. Anterior-posterior cerebral blood volume gradient in human subiculum. Hippocampus [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 24(5): 503-9. PMID: 24677295, PMCID: PMC4039089, DOI: 10.1002/hipo.22257, ISSN: 1098-1063.

Avery SN, Clauss JA, Winder DG, Woodward N, Heckers S, Blackford JU. BNST neurocircuitry in humans. Neuroimage [print-electronic]. 2014 May 5/1/2014; 91: 311-23. PMID: 24444996, PMCID: PMC4214684, PII: S1053-8119(14)00038-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.017, ISSN: 1095-9572.

Heckers S. Future in psychopathology research. Schizophr Bull. 2014 Mar; 40 Suppl 2: S147-51. PMID: 24562493, PMCID: PMC3934398, PII: sbt159, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbt159, ISSN: 1745-1701.

Wilson JE, Nian H, Heckers S. The schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: a conundrum in the clinical setting. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb; 264(1): 29-34. PMID: 23625467, PMCID: PMC4207055, DOI: 10.1007/s00406-013-0410-7, ISSN: 1433-8491.

Talati P, Rane S, Kose S, Blackford JU, Gore J, Donahue MJ, Heckers S. Increased hippocampal CA1 cerebral blood volume in schizophrenia. Neuroimage Clin. 2014; 5: 359-64. PMID: 25161901, PMCID: PMC4141978, PII: S2213-1582(14)00096-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.07.004, ISSN: 2213-1582.

Williams LE, Blackford JU, Luksik A, Gauthier I, Heckers S. Reduced habituation in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec; 151(1-3): 124-32. PMID: 24200419, PMCID: PMC3908315, PII: S0920-9964(13)00563-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.10.017, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Heckers S. What is the core of schizophrenia? [editorial]. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 70(10): 1009-10. PMID: 23925674, PII: 1725656, DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2276, ISSN: 2168-6238.

Heckers S, Barch DM, Bustillo J, Gaebel W, Gur R, Malaspina D, Owen MJ, Schultz S, Tandon R, Tsuang M, Van Os J, Carpenter W. Structure of the psychotic disorders classification in DSM-5. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 11-4. PMID: 23707641, PII: S0920-9964(13)00255-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.039, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Sheffield JM, Williams LE, Blackford JU, Heckers S. Childhood sexual abuse increases risk of auditory hallucinations in psychotic disorders. Compr Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 54(7): 1098-104. PMID: 23815887, PMCID: PMC3779472, PII: S0010-440X(13)00129-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.013, ISSN: 1532-8384.

Tandon R, Heckers S, Bustillo J, Barch DM, Gaebel W, Gur RE, Malaspina D, Owen MJ, Schultz S, Tsuang M, van Os J, Carpenter W. Catatonia in DSM-5. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 26-30. PMID: 23806583, PII: S0920-9964(13)00234-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.034, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Tandon R, Gaebel W, Barch DM, Bustillo J, Gur RE, Heckers S, Malaspina D, Owen MJ, Schultz S, Tsuang M, Van Os J, Carpenter W. Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 3-10. PMID: 23800613, PII: S0920-9964(13)00283-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.05.028, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Tsuang MT, Van Os J, Tandon R, Barch DM, Bustillo J, Gaebel W, Gur RE, Heckers S, Malaspina D, Owen MJ, Schultz S, Carpenter W. Attenuated psychosis syndrome in DSM-5. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 31-5. PMID: 23773295, PMCID: PMC3778120, PII: S0920-9964(13)00259-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.05.004, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Malaspina D, Owen MJ, Heckers S, Tandon R, Bustillo J, Schultz S, Barch DM, Gaebel W, Gur RE, Tsuang M, Van Os J, Carpenter W. Schizoaffective Disorder in the DSM-5. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 21-5. PMID: 23707642, PII: S0920-9964(13)00226-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.026, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Barch DM, Bustillo J, Gaebel W, Gur R, Heckers S, Malaspina D, Owen MJ, Schultz S, Tandon R, Tsuang M, Van Os J, Carpenter W. Logic and justification for dimensional assessment of symptoms and related clinical phenomena in psychosis: relevance to DSM-5. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 15-20. PMID: 23706415, PII: S0920-9964(13)00227-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.027, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Avery SN, Williams LE, Woolard AA, Heckers S. Relational memory and hippocampal function in psychotic bipolar disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/11/2013; PMID: 24022592, PMCID: PMC3952027, DOI: 10.1007/s00406-013-0442-z, ISSN: 1433-8491.

Heckers S, Konradi C. Substantia nigra hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 7/15/2013; 74(2): 82-3. PMID: 23809261, PII: S0006-3223(13)00387-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.04.017, ISSN: 1873-2402.

Shinn AK, Heckers S, Öngür D. The special treatment of first rank auditory hallucinations and bizarre delusions in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 May; 146(1-3): 17-21. PMID: 23523693, PMCID: PMC3667611, PII: S0920-9964(13)00144-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.02.040, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Granja-Ingram NM, James J, Clark N, Stovall J, Heckers S. Successful re-exposure to clozapine after eosinophilia and clinically suspected myocarditis. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2013 Mar; 35(1): 95-6. PMID: 23567609, PII: S1516-44462013000100018, ISSN: 1809-452X.

Jacobowski NL, Heckers S, Bobo WV. Delirious mania: detection, diagnosis, and clinical management in the acute setting. J Psychiatr Pract. 2013 Jan; 19(1): 15-28. PMID: 23334676, PII: 00131746-201301000-00003, DOI: 10.1097/01.pra.0000426324.67322.06, ISSN: 1538-1145.

Sheffield JM, Williams LE, Woodward ND, Heckers S. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 143(1): 185-91. PMID: 23178105, PMCID: PMC3540174, PII: S0920-9964(12)00606-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2012.10.032, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Rane S, Kose S, Gore JC, Heckers S. Altered functional and structural connectivity in a schizophrenia patient with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Jan; 170(1): 122-3. PMID: 23288389, PII: 1555609, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12060822, ISSN: 1535-7228.

Woodward ND, Karbasforoushan H, Heckers S. Thalamocortical dysconnectivity in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Oct; 169(10): 1092-9. PMID: 23032387, PMCID: PMC3810300, PII: 1367841, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010056, ISSN: 1535-7228.

Sheffield JM, Williams LE, Cohen N, Heckers S. Relational memory in psychotic bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2012 Aug; 14(5): 537-46. PMID: 22834462, PMCID: PMC3407974, DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01036.x, ISSN: 1399-5618.

Gunther ML, Morandi A, Krauskopf E, Pandharipande P, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Thompson J, Shintani AK, Geevarghese S, Miller RR, Canonico A, Merkle K, Cannistraci CJ, Rogers BP, Gatenby JC, Heckers S, Gore JC, Hopkins RO, Ely EW, . The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors: the VISIONS cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Jul; 40(7): 2022-32. PMID: 22710202, PMCID: PMC3697780, PII: 00003246-201207000-00003, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318250acc0, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Armstrong K, Williams LE, Heckers S. Revised associative inference paradigm confirms relational memory impairment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 26(4): 451-8. PMID: 22612578, PMCID: PMC3721027, PII: 2012-13227-001, DOI: 10.1037/a0028667, ISSN: 1931-1559.

Yüksel C, McCarthy J, Shinn A, Pfaff DL, Baker JT, Heckers S, Renshaw P, Ongür D. Gray matter volume in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic features. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 138(2-3): 177-82. PMID: 22445668, PMCID: PMC3372612, PII: S0920-9964(12)00156-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2012.03.003, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Hagemeyer N, Goebbels S, Papiol S, Kästner A, Hofer S, Begemann M, Gerwig UC, Boretius S, Wieser GL, Ronnenberg A, Gurvich A, Heckers SH, Frahm J, Nave KA, Ehrenreich H. A myelin gene causative of a catatonia-depression syndrome upon aging. EMBO Mol Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 4(6): 528-39. PMID: 22473874, PMCID: PMC3443947, DOI: 10.1002/emmm.201200230, ISSN: 1757-4684.

Armstrong K, Kose S, Williams L, Woolard A, Heckers S. Impaired associative inference in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 38(3): 622-9. PMID: 21134974, PMCID: PMC3329990, PII: sbq145, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbq145, ISSN: 1745-1701.

Woolard AA, Heckers S. Anatomical and functional correlates of human hippocampal volume asymmetry. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2012 Jan 1/30/2012; 201(1): 48-53. PMID: 22285719, PMCID: PMC3289761, PII: S0925-4927(11)00273-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.07.016, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Williams LE, Avery SN, Woolard AA, Heckers S. Intact relational memory and normal hippocampal structure in the early stage of psychosis. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2012 Jan 1/15/2012; 71(2): 105-13. PMID: 22055016, PMCID: PMC3322647, PII: S0006-3223(11)00913-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.016, ISSN: 1873-2402.

Rogers BP, Sheffield JM, Luksik AS, Heckers S. Systematic Error in Hippocampal Volume Asymmetry Measurement is Minimal with a Manual Segmentation Protocol. Front Neurosci. 2012; 6: 179. PMID: 23248580, PMCID: PMC3521226, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00179, ISSN: 1662-453X.

Heckers S. Diagnostic criteria for schizoaffective disorder [editorial]. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012 Jan; 12(1): 1-3. PMID: 22243039, DOI: 10.1586/ern.11.179, ISSN: 1744-8360.

Heckers S. Bleuler and the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 37(6): 1131-5. PMID: 21873614, PMCID: PMC3196934, PII: sbr108, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbr108, ISSN: 1745-1701.

Wang AY, Lohmann KM, Yang CK, Zimmerman EI, Pantazopoulos H, Herring N, Berretta S, Heckers S, Konradi C. Bipolar disorder type 1 and schizophrenia are accompanied by decreased density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons in the parahippocampal region. Acta Neuropathol [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 122(5): 615-26. PMID: 21968533, PMCID: PMC4207060, DOI: 10.1007/s00401-011-0881-4, ISSN: 1432-0533.

Konradi C, Yang CK, Zimmerman EI, Lohmann KM, Gresch P, Pantazopoulos H, Berretta S, Heckers S. Hippocampal interneurons are abnormal in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Sep; 131(1-3): 165-73. PMID: 21745723, PMCID: PMC3159834, PII: S0920-9964(11)00312-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.06.007, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Woodward ND, Rogers B, Heckers S. Functional resting-state networks are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 130(1-3): 86-93. PMID: 21458238, PMCID: PMC3139756, PII: S0920-9964(11)00157-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.03.010, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Konradi C, Zimmerman EI, Yang CK, Lohmann KM, Gresch P, Pantazopoulos H, Berretta S, Heckers S. Hippocampal interneurons in bipolar disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 68(4): 340-50. PMID: 21135314, PMCID: PMC3197787, PII: archgenpsychiatry.2010.175, DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.175, ISSN: 1538-3636.

Williams LE, Must A, Avery S, Woolard A, Woodward ND, Cohen NJ, Heckers S. Eye-movement behavior reveals relational memory impairment in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2010 Oct 10/1/2010; 68(7): 617-24. PMID: 20655509, PMCID: PMC3184178, PII: S0006-3223(10)00575-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.05.035, ISSN: 1873-2402.

Janz DR, Abel TW, Jackson JC, Gunther ML, Heckers S, Ely EW. Brain autopsy findings in intensive care unit patients previously suffering from delirium: a pilot study. J Crit Care [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 25(3): 538.e7-12. PMID: 20580199, PMCID: PMC3755870, PII: S0883-9441(10)00126-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.05.004, ISSN: 1557-8615.

Woolard AA, Kose S, Woodward ND, Verbruggen F, Logan GD, Heckers S. Intact associative learning in patients with schizophrenia: evidence from a Go/NoGo paradigm. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep; 122(1-3): 131-5. PMID: 20226631, PMCID: PMC2902634, PII: S0920-9964(10)01143-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.02.1057, ISSN: 1573-2509.

Heckers S, Tandon R, Bustillo J. Catatonia in the DSM--shall we move or not? [editorial]. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar; 36(2): 205-7. PMID: 19933711, PMCID: PMC2833126, PII: sbp136, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbp136, ISSN: 1745-1701.

Heckers S, Konradi C. Hippocampal pathology in schizophrenia. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010; 4: 529-53. PMID: 21312412, ISSN: 1866-3370.

Rogers BP, Avery SN, Heckers S. Internal representation of hierarchical sequences involves the default network. BMC Neurosci. 2010; 11: 54. PMID: 20423509, PMCID: PMC2868853, PII: 1471-2202-11-54, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-11-54, ISSN: 1471-2202.

Walter H, Heckers S, Kassubek J, Erk S, Frasch K, Abler B. Further evidence for aberrant prefrontal salience coding in schizophrenia. Front Behav Neurosci. 2010; 3: 62. PMID: 20161811, PMCID: PMC2821181, DOI: 10.3389/neuro.08.062.2009, ISSN: 1662-5153.

Heckers S. Who is at risk for a psychotic disorder?. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 35(5): 847-50. PMID: 19633213, PMCID: PMC2728826, PII: sbp078, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbp078, ISSN: 1745-1701.

Heckers S. Is schizoaffective disorder a useful diagnosis?. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2009 Aug; 11(4): 332-7. PMID: 19635243, ISSN: 1535-1645.

Sim K, Yang GL, Loh D, Poon LY, Sitoh YY, Verma S, Keefe R, Collinson S, Chong SA, Heckers S, Nowinski W, Pantelis C. White matter abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits associated with the passivity phenomenon in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2009 May 5/15/2009; 172(2): 121-7. PMID: 19297135, PII: S0925-4927(09)00035-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.02.003, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Bobo WV, Murphy MJ, Heckers SH. Recurring episodes of Bell's mania after cerebrovascular accident. Psychosomatics. 2009 May; 50(3): 285-8. PMID: 19567770, PII: S0033-3182(09)70801-1, DOI: 10.1176/appi.psy.50.3.285, ISSN: 1545-7206.

Heckers S. Neurobiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. 2009 May; 38(5): 431-2. PMID: 19521644, ISSN: 0304-4602.

Zalesak M, Heckers S. The role of the hippocampus in transitive inference. Psychiatry Res [print-electronic]. 2009 Apr 4/30/2009; 172(1): 24-30. PMID: 19216061, PMCID: PMC2693094, PII: S0925-4927(08)00146-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.09.008, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Chen Y, Norton D, McBain R, Ongur D, Heckers S. Visual and cognitive processing of face information in schizophrenia: detection, discrimination and working memory. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2009 Jan; 107(1): 92-8. PMID: 18947982, PMCID: PMC2640943, PII: S0920-9964(08)00409-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2008.09.010, ISSN: 0920-9964.

Carter CS, Heckers S, Nichols T, Pine DS, Strother S. Optimizing the design and analysis of clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging research studies. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/15/2008; 64(10): 842-9. PMID: 18718572, PII: S0006-3223(08)00781-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.06.014, ISSN: 1873-2402.

Abler B, Greenhouse I, Ongur D, Walter H, Heckers S. Abnormal reward system activation in mania. Neuropsychopharmacology [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug; 33(9): 2217-27. PMID: 17987058, PMCID: PMC2574988, PII: 1301620, DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301620, ISSN: 0893-133X.

Heckers S. Making progress in schizophrenia research [editorial]. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 34(4): 591-4. PMID: 18492660, PMCID: PMC2632461, PII: sbn046, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbn046, ISSN: 0586-7614.

Lisman JE, Coyle JT, Green RW, Javitt DC, Benes FM, Heckers S, Grace AA. Circuit-based framework for understanding neurotransmitter and risk gene interactions in schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2008 May; 31(5): 234-42. PMID: 18395805, PMCID: PMC2680493, PII: S0166-2236(08)00089-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2008.02.005, ISSN: 0166-2236.

Chen Y, Norton D, Ongur D, Heckers S. Inefficient face detection in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 34(2): 367-74. PMID: 17631619, PMCID: PMC2632392, PII: sbm071, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbm071, ISSN: 0586-7614.

Ongür D, Pohlman J, Dow AL, Eisch AJ, Edwin F, Heckers S, Cohen BM, Patel TB, Carlezon WA. Electroconvulsive seizures stimulate glial proliferation and reduce expression of Sprouty2 within the prefrontal cortex of rats. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep 9/1/2007; 62(5): 505-12. PMID: 17336937, PII: S0006-3223(06)01485-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.11.014, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Wisco JJ, Kuperberg G, Manoach D, Quinn BT, Busa E, Fischl B, Heckers S, Sorensen AG. Abnormal cortical folding patterns within Broca's area in schizophrenia: evidence from structural MRI. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 94(1-3): 317-27. PMID: 17490861, PMCID: PMC2034662, PII: S0920-9964(07)00161-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2007.03.031, ISSN: 0920-9964.

Weiss AP, Goff D, Schacter DL, Ditman T, Freudenreich O, Henderson D, Heckers S. Fronto-hippocampal function during temporal context monitoring in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry [print-electronic]. 2006 Dec 12/1/2006; 60(11): 1268-77. PMID: 17020747, PII: S0006-3223(06)00817-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.06.025, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Sim K, Cullen T, Ongur D, Heckers S. Testing models of thalamic dysfunction in schizophrenia using neuroimaging. J Neural Transm (Vienna) [print-electronic]. 2006 Jul; 113(7): 907-28. PMID: 16252070, DOI: 10.1007/s00702-005-0363-8, ISSN: 0300-9564.

Sim K, DeWitt I, Ditman T, Zalesak M, Greenhouse I, Goff D, Weiss AP, Heckers S. Hippocampal and parahippocampal volumes in schizophrenia: a structural MRI study. Schizophr Bull [print-electronic]. 2006 Apr; 32(2): 332-40. PMID: 16319377, PMCID: PMC2632210, PII: sbj030, DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbj030, ISSN: 0586-7614.

Ongür D, Cullen TJ, Wolf DH, Rohan M, Barreira P, Zalesak M, Heckers S. The neural basis of relational memory deficits in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2006 Apr; 63(4): 356-65. PMID: 16585464, PII: 63/4/356, DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.63.4.356, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Holt DJ, Kunkel L, Weiss AP, Goff DC, Wright CI, Shin LM, Rauch SL, Hootnick J, Heckers S. Increased medial temporal lobe activation during the passive viewing of emotional and neutral facial expressions in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res [print-electronic]. 2006 Feb 2/28/2006; 82(2-3): 153-62. PMID: 16377154, PII: S0920-9964(05)00465-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2005.09.021, ISSN: 0920-9964.

Manoach DS, White N, Lindgren KA, Heckers S, Coleman MJ, Dubal S, Goff DC, Holzman PS. Intact hemispheric specialization for spatial and shape working memory in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 2005 Oct 10/1/2005; 78(1): 1-12. PMID: 16076549, PII: S0920-9964(05)00253-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2005.06.017, ISSN: 0920-9964.

Ongür D, Zalesak M, Weiss AP, Ditman T, Titone D, Heckers S. Hippocampal activation during processing of previously seen visual stimulus pairs. Psychiatry Res. 2005 Aug 8/30/2005; 139(3): 191-8. PMID: 16055310, PII: S0925-4927(05)00071-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2005.05.006, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Holt DJ, Weiss AP, Rauch SL, Wright CI, Zalesak M, Goff DC, Ditman T, Welsh RC, Heckers S. Sustained activation of the hippocampus in response to fearful faces in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry. 2005 May 5/1/2005; 57(9): 1011-9. PMID: 15860342, PII: S0006-3223(05)00110-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.01.033, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Heckers S, Titone D. Hippocampus, IV: relational memory. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr; 162(4): 663. PMID: 15800135, PII: 162/4/663, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.4.663, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Heckers S, Benes F. Hippocampus, III: GABA-containing cell bodies and GAD mRNA. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Mar; 162(3): 450. PMID: 15741459, PII: 162/3/450, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.3.450, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Weiss AP, Dewitt I, Goff D, Ditman T, Heckers S. Anterior and posterior hippocampal volumes in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 2005 Feb 2/1/2005; 73(1): 103-12. PMID: 15567082, PII: S0920-9964(04)00184-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2004.05.018, ISSN: 0920-9964.

Wiegand LC, Warfield SK, Levitt JJ, Hirayasu Y, Salisbury DF, Heckers S, Bouix S, Schwartz D, Spencer M, Dickey CC, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. An in vivo MRI study of prefrontal cortical complexity in first-episode psychosis. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Jan; 162(1): 65-70. PMID: 15625203, PMCID: PMC2768063, PII: 162/1/65, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.65, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Sim K, Mahendran R, Siris SG, Heckers S, Chong SA. Subjective quality of life in first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders with comorbid depression. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Dec 12/15/2004; 129(2): 141-7. PMID: 15590041, PII: S0165-1781(04)00203-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2004.07.007, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Heckers S. The hippocampus in schizophrenia [letter]. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Nov; 161(11): 2138-9. PMID: 15514431, PII: 161/11/2138-a, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.11.2138-a, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Ongür D, Heckers S. A role for glia in the action of electroconvulsive therapy. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Sep; 12(5): 253-62. PMID: 15590574, PII: YF4DBY0EMFLRX6ER, DOI: 10.1080/10673220490886185, ISSN: 1067-3229.

Sim K, Su A, Fujii S, Yang SY, Chong MY, Ungvari GS, Si T, Chung EK, Tsang HY, Chan YH, Heckers S, Shinfuku N, Tan CH. Antipsychotic polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia: a multicentre comparative study in East Asia. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Aug; 58(2): 178-83. PMID: 15255800, PMCID: PMC1884580, PII: BCP2102, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2004.02102.x, ISSN: 0306-5251.

Heckers S, Weiss AP, Deckersbach T, Goff DC, Morecraft RJ, Bush G. Anterior cingulate cortex activation during cognitive interference in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Apr; 161(4): 707-15. PMID: 15056518, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.4.707, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Weiss AP, Zalesak M, DeWitt I, Goff D, Kunkel L, Heckers S. Impaired hippocampal function during the detection of novel words in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry. 2004 Apr 4/1/2004; 55(7): 668-75. PMID: 15038994, PII: S0006322304000678, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.01.004, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Manoach DS, White NS, Lindgren KA, Heckers S, Coleman MJ, Dubal S, Holzman PS. Hemispheric specialization of the lateral prefrontal cortex for strategic processing during spatial and shape working memory. Neuroimage. 2004 Mar; 21(3): 894-903. PMID: 15006656, PII: S1053811903006712, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.10.025, ISSN: 1053-8119.

Konradi C, Eaton M, MacDonald ML, Walsh J, Benes FM, Heckers S. Molecular evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2004 Mar; 61(3): 300-8. PMID: 14993118, PII: 61/3/300, DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.61.3.300, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Lange N, Lake S, Sperling R, Brown J, Routledge C, Albert M, Heckers S. Two macroscopic and microscopic brain imaging studies of human hippocampus in early Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia research. Stat Med. 2004 Jan 1/30/2004; 23(2): 327-50. PMID: 14716733, DOI: 10.1002/sim.1720, ISSN: 0277-6715.

Wiegand LC, Warfield SK, Levitt JJ, Hirayasu Y, Salisbury DF, Heckers S, Dickey CC, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Prefrontal cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol. Psychiatry. 2004 Jan 1/15/2004; 55(2): 131-40. PMID: 14732592, PMCID: PMC2794421, PII: S0006322303008552, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Shin LM, Shin PS, Heckers S, Krangel TS, Macklin ML, Orr SP, Lasko N, Segal E, Makris N, Richert K, Levering J, Schacter DL, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Hippocampal function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Hippocampus. 2004; 14(3): 292-300. PMID: 15132428, DOI: 10.1002/hipo.10183, ISSN: 1050-9631.

Heckers S, Zalesak M, Weiss AP, Ditman T, Titone D. Hippocampal activation during transitive inference in humans. Hippocampus. 2004; 14(2): 153-62. PMID: 15098721, DOI: 10.1002/hipo.10189, ISSN: 1050-9631.

Konradi C, Heckers S. Molecular aspects of glutamate dysregulation: implications for schizophrenia and its treatment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Feb; 97(2): 153-79. PMID: 12559388, PMCID: PMC4203361, PII: S0163725802003285, ISSN: 0163-7258.

Weiss AP, Schacter DL, Goff DC, Rauch SL, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Heckers S. Impaired hippocampal recruitment during normal modulation of memory performance in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry. 2003 Jan 1/1/2003; 53(1): 48-55. PMID: 12513944, PII: S000632230201541X, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Heckers S, Goff D, Weiss AP. Reversed hemispheric asymmetry during simple visual perception in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2002 Nov 11/30/2002; 116(1-2): 25-32. PMID: 12426031, PII: S0925492702000677, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Heckers S. How many bipolar mixed states are there?. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2002 Sep; 10(5): 276-9. PMID: 12202453, ISSN: 1067-3229.

Weiss AP, Dodson CS, Goff DC, Schacter DL, Heckers S. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Sep; 159(9): 1506-13. PMID: 12202270, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.9.1506, ISSN: 0002-953X.

Heckers S, Weiss AP, Alpert NM, Schacter DL. Hippocampal and brain stem activation during word retrieval after repeated and semantic encoding. Cereb. Cortex. 2002 Sep; 12(9): 900-7. PMID: 12183389, ISSN: 1047-3211.

Heckers S, Stone D, Walsh J, Shick J, Koul P, Benes FM. Differential hippocampal expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 messenger RNA in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2002 Jun; 59(6): 521-9. PMID: 12044194, PII: yoa10083, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Heckers S, Konradi C. Hippocampal neurons in schizophrenia. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2002 May; 109(5-6): 891-905. PMID: 12111476, PMCID: PMC4205576, DOI: 10.1007/s007020200073, ISSN: 0300-9564.

Konradi C, Heckers S. Antipsychotic drugs and neuroplasticity: insights into the treatment and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry. 2001 Nov 11/15/2001; 50(10): 729-42. PMID: 11720691, PMCID: PMC4205586, PII: S0006-3223(01)01267-7, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Weiss AP, Heckers S. Neuroimaging of declarative memory in schizophrenia. Scand J Psychol. 2001 Jul; 42(3): 239-50. PMID: 11501738, ISSN: 0036-5564.

Goff DC, Heckers S, Freudenreich O. Schizophrenia. Med. Clin. North Am. 2001 May; 85(3): 663-89. PMID: 11349479, ISSN: 0025-7125.

Heckers S. Neuroimaging studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Hippocampus. 2001; 11(5): 520-8. PMID: 11732705, DOI: 10.1002/hipo.1068, ISSN: 1050-9631.

Savage CR, Deckersbach T, Heckers S, Wagner AD, Schacter DL, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Rauch SL. Prefrontal regions supporting spontaneous and directed application of verbal learning strategies: evidence from PET. Brain. 2001 Jan; 124(Pt 1): 219-31. PMID: 11133799, ISSN: 0006-8950.

Heckers S, Curran T, Goff D, Rauch SL, Fischman AJ, Alpert NM, Schacter DL. Abnormalities in the thalamus and prefrontal cortex during episodic object recognition in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry. 2000 Oct 10/1/2000; 48(7): 651-7. PMID: 11032976, PII: S0006-3223(00)00919-7, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Heckers S. Neural models of schizophrenia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2000 Sep; 2(3): 267-79. PMID: 22033839, PMCID: PMC3181608, ISSN: 1294-8322.

Leveque JC, Macías W, Rajadhyaksha A, Carlson RR, Barczak A, Kang S, Li XM, Coyle JT, Huganir RL, Heckers S, Konradi C. Intracellular modulation of NMDA receptor function by antipsychotic drugs. J. Neurosci. 2000 Jun 6/1/2000; 20(11): 4011-20. PMID: 10818136, PMCID: PMC4203343, PII: 20/11/4011, ISSN: 1529-2401.

Kuperberg G, Heckers S. Schizophrenia and cognitive function. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2000 Apr; 10(2): 205-10. PMID: 10753790, PII: S0959-4388(00)00068-4, ISSN: 0959-4388.

Heckers S, Konradi C. Anatomic and molecular principles of psychopharmacology. A primer for psychiatrists. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000 Jan; 9(1): 1-22. PMID: 10674188, ISSN: 1056-4993.

Weiss AP, Heckers S. Neuroimaging of hallucinations: a review of the literature. Psychiatry Res. 1999 Dec 12/20/1999; 92(2-3): 61-74. PMID: 10674360, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Heckers S, Goff D, Schacter DL, Savage CR, Fischman AJ, Alpert NM, Rauch SL. Functional imaging of memory retrieval in deficit vs nondeficit schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1999 Dec; 56(12): 1117-23. PMID: 10591289, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Grachev ID, Berdichevsky D, Rauch SL, Heckers S, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS, Alpert NM. A method for assessing the accuracy of intersubject registration of the human brain using anatomic landmarks. Neuroimage. 1999 Feb; 9(2): 250-68. PMID: 9927554, PII: S1053-8119(98)90397-4, DOI: 10.1006/nimg.1998.0397, ISSN: 1053-8119.

Heckers S, Rauch SL, Goff D, Savage CR, Schacter DL, Fischman AJ, Alpert NM. Impaired recruitment of the hippocampus during conscious recollection in schizophrenia. Nat. Neurosci. 1998 Aug; 1(4): 318-23. PMID: 10195166, DOI: 10.1038/1137, ISSN: 1097-6256.

Heckers S, Anick D, Boverman JF, Stern TA. Priapism following olanzapine administration in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Psychosomatics. 1998 May; 39(3): 288-90. PMID: 9664777, PII: S0033-3182(98)71347-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0033-3182(98)71347-7, ISSN: 0033-3182.

Rauch SL, Whalen PJ, Curran T, McInerney S, Heckers S, Savage CR. Thalamic deactivation during early implicit sequence learning: a functional MRI study. Neuroreport. 1998 Mar 3/30/1998; 9(5): 865-70. PMID: 9579681, ISSN: 0959-4965.

Ohtake T, Heckers S, Wiley RG, Lappi DA, Mesulam MM, Geula C. Retrograde degeneration and colchicine protection of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons following hippocampal injections of an immunotoxin against the P75 nerve growth factor receptor. Neuroscience. 1997 May; 78(1): 123-33. PMID: 9135094, PII: S0306452296005209, ISSN: 0306-4522.

Heckers S. Neuropathology of schizophrenia: cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and neurotransmitter-specific projection systems. Schizophr Bull. 1997; 23(3): 403-21. PMID: 9327506, ISSN: 0586-7614.

Becker T, Elmer K, Schneider F, Schneider M, Grodd W, Bartels M, Heckers S, Beckmann H. Confirmation of reduced temporal limbic structure volume on magnetic resonance imaging in male patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1996 Jul 7/31/1996; 67(2): 135-43. PMID: 8876013, ISSN: 0165-1781.

Konradi C, Heckers S. Haloperidol-induced Fos expression in striatum is dependent upon transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein. Neuroscience. 1995 Apr; 65(4): 1051-61. PMID: 7617161, PII: 0306-4522(94)00546-H, ISSN: 0306-4522.

Konradi C, Cole RL, Heckers S, Hyman SE. Amphetamine regulates gene expression in rat striatum via transcription factor CREB. J. Neurosci. 1994 Sep; 14(9): 5623-34. PMID: 8083758, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Berger-Sweeney J, Heckers S, Mesulam MM, Wiley RG, Lappi DA, Sharma M. Differential effects on spatial navigation of immunotoxin-induced cholinergic lesions of the medial septal area and nucleus basalis magnocellularis. J. Neurosci. 1994 Jul; 14(7): 4507-19. PMID: 8027790, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Heckers S, Ohtake T, Wiley RG, Lappi DA, Geula C, Mesulam MM. Complete and selective cholinergic denervation of rat neocortex and hippocampus but not amygdala by an immunotoxin against the p75 NGF receptor. J. Neurosci. 1994 Mar; 14(3 Pt 1): 1271-89. PMID: 8120624, ISSN: 0270-6474.

Emre M, Heckers S, Mash DC, Geula C, Mesulam MM. Cholinergic innervation of the amygdaloid complex in the human brain and its alterations in old age and Alzheimer's disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 1993 Oct 10/1/1993; 336(1): 117-34. PMID: 8254109, DOI: 10.1002/cne.903360110, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Konradi C, Kobierski LA, Nguyen TV, Heckers S, Hyman SE. The cAMP-response-element-binding protein interacts, but Fos protein does not interact, with the proenkephalin enhancer in rat striatum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993 Aug 8/1/1993; 90(15): 7005-9. PMID: 8346209, PMCID: PMC47064, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Deckert J, Berger W, Kleopa K, Heckers S, Ransmayr G, Heinsen H, Beckmann H, Riederer P. Adenosine A1 receptors in human hippocampus: inhibition of [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine binding by antagonist drugs. Neurosci. Lett. 1993 Feb 2/19/1993; 150(2): 191-4. PMID: 8469419, ISSN: 0304-3940.

Gsell W, Lange KW, Pfeuffer R, Heckers S, Heinsen H, Senitz D, Jellinger K, Ransmayr G, Wichart I, Vock R. How to run a brain bank. A report from the Austro-German brain bank. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. 1993; 39: 31-70. PMID: 8360664, ISSN: 0303-6995.

Heckers S, Geula C, Mesulam MM. Cholinergic innervation of the human thalamus: dual origin and differential nuclear distribution. J. Comp. Neurol. 1992 Nov 11/1/1992; 325(1): 68-82. PMID: 1282919, DOI: 10.1002/cne.903250107, ISSN: 0021-9967.

Heckers S, Geula C, Mesulam MM. Acetylcholinesterase-rich pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging. 1992 Jul; 13(4): 455-60. PMID: 1508295, ISSN: 0197-4580.

Konradi C, Kornhuber J, Sofic E, Heckers S, Riederer P, Beckmann H. Variations of monoamines and their metabolites in the human brain putamen. Brain Res. 1992 May 5/8/1992; 579(2): 285-90. PMID: 1628216, PII: 0006-8993(92)90062-E, ISSN: 0006-8993.

Heckers S, Heinsen H, Geiger B, Beckmann H. Hippocampal neuron number in schizophrenia. A stereological study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1991 Nov; 48(11): 1002-8. PMID: 1747014, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Heckers S, Heinsen H, Heinsen Y, Beckmann H. Cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia in schizophrenia: a volumetric postmortem study. Biol. Psychiatry. 1991 Mar 3/15/1991; 29(6): 556-66. PMID: 2054430, ISSN: 0006-3223.

Heckers S, Heinsen H, Heinsen YC, Beckmann H. Limbic structures and lateral ventricle in schizophrenia. A quantitative postmortem study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1990 Nov; 47(11): 1016-22. PMID: 2133373, ISSN: 0003-990X.

Heckers S, Heinsen H, Heinsen Y, Beckmann H. Morphometry of the parahippocampal gyrus in schizophrenics and controls. Some anatomical considerations. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. 1990; 80(2): 151-5. PMID: 2317316.

Sofic E, Götz M, Frölich L, Burger R, Heckers S, Riederer P, Jellinger K, Beckmann H. Reflection of changes in membrane constituents in various regions of Alzheimer brains to differential scanning thermograms. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. 1990; 32: 259-67. PMID: 2089096, ISSN: 0303-6995.