Carlos G. Grijalva, M.D.

Professor

carlos.grijalva@vanderbilt.edu

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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Health Policy
Education
M.P.H., Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeM.D., Human Medicine, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, PeruB.S., Human Medicine, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Peru
Office Address
1500 21st. Ave. S.
The Village at Vanderbilt, Suite #2622
Nashville, TN 37212
Research Description
Dr. Grijalva is a Professor in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Health Policy. Dr. Grijalva is also, a member of the Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, a Scholar at the Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research, and an investigator at the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center. His interests include the evaluation of medications’ safety and effectiveness; the design of observational studies; and, methodologies for comparative effectiveness research.
Dr. Grijalva is experienced designing and conducting studies of medications effects using large databases, and his research focuses on the assessments of medications used for diabetes, opioid analgesics, biologic medications, vaccine-preventable respiratory diseases - especially pneumococcal and influenza infections - and the evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination and other preventive programs.
Dr. Grijalva is also the Principal Investigator for a prospective cohort study that was recently conducted among Peruvian Andean children to evaluate the burden of viral respiratory infections and the interaction between respiratory viruses and bacteria. He is also the Principal Investigator for a prospective cohort study of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 transmission within households in Nashville, TN. Dr. Grijalva is also the project lead for a new Vanderbilt Trans-Institutional Program (TIPs), focused on the study of antimicrobial resistance. Dr. Grijalva also serves as the Course Director for Epidemiology I in the Vanderbilt Master of Public Health program, Course Director for PLAN in the School of Medicine, and as Program Director for the new Vanderbilt PROgRESS post-doctoral (T32) training program. He has published more than 235 peer-reviewed articles and mentored several junior investigators. His current work is supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, among other sources.
Publications
Sami S, Tenforde MW, Talbot HK, Lindsell CJ, Steingrub JS, Shapiro NI, Ginde AA, Douin DJ, Prekker ME, Erickson HL, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Gong MN, Khan A, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Rice TW, Casey JD, Grijalva CG, Stubblefield WB, Womack KN, Hager DN, Qadir N, Chang SY, Henning DJ, Wilson JG, Self WH, Patel MM. Adults Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-United States, March-June and October-December 2020: Implications for the Potential Effects of COVID-19 Tier-1 Vaccination on Future Hospitalizations and Outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 7/15/2021; 73(Suppl 1): S32-S37. PMID: 33977301, PMCID: PMC8136001, PII: 6270754, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciab319, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Tenforde MW, Patel MM, Ginde AA, Douin DJ, Talbot HK, Casey JD, Mohr NM, Zepeski A, Gaglani M, McNeal T, Ghamande S, Shapiro NI, Gibbs KW, Files DC, Hager DN, Shehu A, Prekker ME, Erickson HL, Exline MC, Gong MN, Mohamed A, Henning DJ, Steingrub JS, Peltan ID, Brown SM, Martin ET, Monto AS, Khan A, Hough CT, Busse L, Ten Lohuis CC, Duggal A, Wilson JG, Gordon AJ, Qadir N, Chang SY, Mallow C, Gershengorn HB, Babcock HM, Kwon JH, Halasa N, Chappell JD, Lauring AS, Grijalva CG, Rice TW, Jones ID, Stubblefield WB, Baughman A, Womack KN, Lindsell CJ, Hart KW, Zhu Y, Olson SM, Stephenson M, Schrag SJ, Kobayashi M, Verani JR, Self WH, . Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines for Preventing Covid-19 Hospitalizations in the United States. MedRxiv. 2021 Jul 7/8/2021; PMID: 34268515, PMCID: PMC8282104, DOI: 10.1101/2021.07.08.21259776.

Antoon JW, Hall M, Herndon A, Johnson DP, Brown CM, Browning WL, Florin TA, Howard LM, Grijalva CG, Williams DJ. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Influenza-Associated Neurologic Complications in Children. J Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2021 Jul 7/1/2021; PMID: 34216629, PII: S0022-3476(21)00657-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.06.075, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Wiese AD, Osmundson SS, Mitchel E, Adgent M, Phillips S, Patrick SW, Horn A, Samuels LR, Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Prescription Opioid Dose After Vaginal Delivery and the Risk of Serious Opioid-Related Events: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Womens Health Issues [print-electronic]. 2021 Jul; 31(4): 376-83. PMID: 33865673, PMCID: PMC8260443, PII: S1049-3867(21)00024-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.whi.2021.03.002, ISSN: 1878-4321.

Shapiro DJ, Hall M, Lipsett SC, Hersh AL, Ambroggio L, Shah SS, Brogan TV, Gerber JS, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Blaschke AJ, Neuman MI. Short- Versus Prolonged-Duration Antibiotics for Outpatient Pneumonia in Children. J Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2021 Jul; 234: 205-211.e1. PMID: 33745996, PII: S0022-3476(21)00231-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.03.017, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Mousa A, Winskill P, Watson OJ, Ratmann O, Monod M, Ajelli M, Diallo A, Dodd PJ, Grijalva CG, Kiti MC, Krishnan A, Kumar R, Kumar S, Kwok KO, Lanata CF, de Waroux OLP, Leung K, Mahikul W, Melegaro A, Morrow CD, Mossong J, Neal EF, Nokes DJ, Pan-Ngum W, Potter GE, Russell FM, Saha S, Sugimoto JD, Wei WI, Wood RR, Wu JT, Zhang J, Walker PG, Whittaker C. Social Contact Patterns and Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Contact Surveys. MedRxiv. 2021 Jun 6/15/2021; PMID: 34159341, PMCID: PMC8219108, DOI: 10.1101/2021.06.10.21258720.

Howard LM, Liu Y, Zhu Y, Liu D, Willams JV, Gil AI, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Assessing the impact of acute respiratory illnesses on the risk of subsequent respiratory illness. J Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2021 Jun 6/12/2021; PMID: 34120189, PII: 6297571, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiab313, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Stallings C, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Edwards K, Self WH, Williams DJ. Prevalence and Quantification of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Hospitalized Children <6 Years of Age. Hosp Pediatr. 2021 Jun; 11(6): 622-6. PMID: 34035126, PMCID: PMC8142033, PII: hpeds.2020-003053, DOI: 10.1542/hpeds.2020-003053, ISSN: 2154-1671.

Grijalva CG, Feldstein LR, Talbot HK, Aboodi M, Baughman AH, Brown SM, Casey JD, Erickson HL, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Ginde AA, Gong MN, Halasa N, Khan A, Lindsell CJ, Nwosu SK, Peltan ID, Prekker ME, Rice TW, Shapiro NI, Steingrub J, Stubblefield WB, Tenforde MW, Patel M, Self WH, . Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness for Prevention of Severe Influenza-Associated Illness among Adults in the United States, 2019-2020: A test-negative study. Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2021 May 5/20/2021; PMID: 34014274, PII: 6279050, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciab462, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Feldstein LR, Ferdinands JM, Self WH, Randolph AG, Aboodi M, Baughman AH, Brown SM, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs K, Ginde AA, Gong MN, Grijalva CG, Halasa N, Khan A, Lindsell CJ, Newhams M, Peltan ID, Prekker ME, Rice TW, Shapiro NI, Steingrub J, Talbot HK, Halloran ME, Patel M. Modeling the impacts of clinical influenza testing on influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates. J Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2021 May 5/20/2021; PMID: 34013330, PII: 6278475, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiab273, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Tenforde MW, Olson SM, Self WH, Talbot HK, Lindsell CJ, Steingrub JS, Shapiro NI, Ginde AA, Douin DJ, Prekker ME, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Gong MN, Mohamed A, Khan A, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Stubblefield WB, Casey JD, Rice TW, Grijalva CG, Hager DN, Shehu A, Qadir N, Chang SY, Wilson JG, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Calhoun N, Monto AS, Martin ET, Malani A, Zimmerman RK, Silveira FP, Middleton DB, Zhu Y, Wyatt D, Stephenson M, Baughman A, Womack KN, Hart KW, Kobayashi M, Verani JR, Patel MM, , . Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Against COVID-19 Among Hospitalized Adults Aged =65 Years - United States, January-March 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 5/7/2021; 70(18): 674-9. PMID: 33956782, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7018e1, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Antoon JW, Williams DJ, Thurm C, Bendel-Stenzel M, Spaulding AB, Teufel RJ, Reyes MA, Shah SS, Kenyon CC, Hersh AL, Florin TA, Grijalva CG. The COVID-19 Pandemic and Changes in Healthcare Utilization for Pediatric Respiratory and Nonrespiratory Illnesses in the United States. J Hosp Med. 2021 May; 16(5): 294-7. PMID: 33734976, PMCID: PMC8086992, PII: jhm.3608, DOI: 10.12788/jhm.3608, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Fisher KA, Olson SM, Tenforde MW, Self WH, Wu M, Lindsell CJ, Shapiro NI, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Erickson HL, Prekker ME, Steingrub JS, Exline MC, Henning DJ, Wilson JG, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Rice TW, Hager DN, Ginde AA, Talbot HK, Casey JD, Grijalva CG, Flannery B, Patel MM, Feldstein LR. Symptoms and recovery among adult outpatients with and without COVID-19 at 11 healthcare facilities-July 2020, United States. Influenza Other Respir Viruses [print-electronic]. 2021 May; 15(3): 345-51. PMID: 33405338, PMCID: PMC8051737, DOI: 10.1111/irv.12832, ISSN: 1750-2659.

Grijalva CG. WHAT FRACTION OF ADULT COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IS CAUSED BY THE PNEUMOCOCCUS? NEW INSIGHTS FROM SPAIN. Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2021 Apr 4/14/2021; PMID: 33851210, PII: 6225256, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciab314, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Richardson TL, Hackstadt AJ, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Elasy TA, Roumie CL. Hospitalization for Heart Failure Among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Reduced Kidney Function Treated With Metformin Versus Sulfonylureas: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J Am Heart Assoc [print-electronic]. 2021 Apr 4/6/2021; e019211. PMID: 33821674, PMCID: PMC8174186, DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019211, ISSN: 2047-9980.

Marvi TK, Stubblefield WB, Tillman BF, Tenforde MW, Feldstein LR, Patel MM, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Rice TW. Thromboelastography Parameters and Platelet Count on Admission to the ICU and the Development of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019. Crit Care Explor. 2021 Mar; 3(3): e0354. PMID: 33786433, PMCID: PMC7994046, DOI: 10.1097/CCE.0000000000000354, ISSN: 2639-8028.

Sartori LF, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Ampofo K, Gesteland P, Johnson J, McHenry R, Arnold DH, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Williams DJ. Pneumonia Severity in Children: Utility of Procalcitonin in Risk Stratification. Hosp Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2021 Mar; 11(3): 215-22. PMID: 33579748, PMCID: PMC7898232, PII: hpeds.2020-001842, DOI: 10.1542/hpeds.2020-001842, ISSN: 2154-1671.

Min JY, Osmundson SS, Griffin MR, Mitchel E, Wiese AD, Patrick SW, Grijalva CG. Variation in discharge opioid prescribing after vaginal births [letter]. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM [print-electronic]. 2021 Mar; 3(2): 100298. PMID: 33340735, PMCID: PMC8009850, PII: S2589-9333(20)30291-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100298, ISSN: 2589-9333.

Dantuluri KL, Bruce J, Edwards KM, Banerjee R, Griffith H, Howard LM, Grijalva CG. Rurality of Residence and Inappropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Infections Among Young Tennessee Children. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Jan; 8(1): ofaa587. PMID: 33511228, PMCID: PMC7814393, PII: ofaa587, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa587, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Rolfes MA, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, Halasa NB, Kim A, Meece J, Reed C, Talbot HK, Fry AM. Implications of Shortened Quarantine Among Household Contacts of Index Patients with Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection - Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jan 1/1/2021; 69(5152): 1633-7. PMID: 33382676, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm695152a1, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Whitmore CC, Hawley RE, Min JY, Mitchel E, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Building a Data Linkage Foundation for Mother-Child Pharmacoepidemiology Research. Pharmaceut Med [print-electronic]. 2021 Jan; 35(1): 39-47. PMID: 33369725, PII: 10.1007/s40290-020-00371-8, DOI: 10.1007/s40290-020-00371-8, ISSN: 1178-2595.

Self WH, Tenforde MW, Stubblefield WB, Feldstein LR, Steingrub JS, Shapiro NI, Ginde AA, Prekker ME, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Gong MN, Aboodi MS, Khan A, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Lindsell CJ, Rice TW, Jones ID, Halasa N, Talbot HK, Grijalva CG, Casey JD, Hager DN, Qadir N, Henning DJ, Coughlin MM, Schiffer J, Semenova V, Li H, Thornburg NJ, Patel MM, , . Decline in SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies After Mild Infection Among Frontline Health Care Personnel in a Multistate Hospital Network - 12 States, April-August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Nov 11/27/2020; 69(47): 1762-6. PMID: 33237893, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6947a2, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Fisher KA, Olson SM, Tenforde MW, Feldstein LR, Lindsell CJ, Shapiro NI, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Erickson HL, Prekker ME, Steingrub JS, Exline MC, Henning DJ, Wilson JG, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Rice TW, Hager DN, Ginde AA, Talbot HK, Casey JD, Grijalva CG, Flannery B, Patel MM, Self WH, , . Telework Before Illness Onset Among Symptomatic Adults Aged =18 Years With and Without COVID-19 in 11 Outpatient Health Care Facilities - United States, July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Nov 11/6/2020; 69(44): 1648-53. PMID: 33151918, PMCID: PMC7643895, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6944a4, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Grijalva CG, Rolfes MA, Zhu Y, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, Halasa NB, Kim A, Reed C, Fry AM, Talbot HK. Transmission of SARS-COV-2 Infections in Households - Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Nov 11/6/2020; 69(44): 1631-4. PMID: 33151916, PMCID: PMC7643897, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr. mm6944e1, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Antoon JW, Hall M, Herndon A, Carroll A, Ngo ML, Freundlich KL, Stassun JC, Frost P, Johnson DP, Chokshi SB, Brown CM, Browning WL, Feinstein JA, Grijalva CG, Williams DJ. Prevalence of Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interactions Across US Children's Hospitals. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2020 Nov; 146(5): PMID: 33037121, PII: peds.2020-0858, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2020-0858, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Lipsett SC, Hall M, Ambroggio L, Hersh AL, Shah SS, Brogan TV, Gerber JS, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Blaschke AJ, Neuman MI. Antibiotic Choice and Clinical Outcomes in Ambulatory Children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2020 Oct 10/10/2020; PMID: 33045236, PII: S0022-3476(20)31267-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.005, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Bachmann KN, Roumie CL, Wiese AD, Grijalva CG, Buse JB, Bradford R, Zalimeni EO, Knoepp P, Dard S, Morris HL, Donahoo WT, Fanous N, Fonseca V, Katalenich B, Choi S, Louzao D, O'Brien E, Cook MM, Rothman RL, Chakkalakal RJ. Diabetes medication regimens and patient clinical characteristics in the national patient-centered clinical research network, PCORnet. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2020 Oct; 8(5): e00637. PMID: 32881317, PMCID: PMC7507366, DOI: 10.1002/prp2.637, ISSN: 2052-1707.

Howard LM, Thurm C, Dantuluri K, Griffith HG, Katz SE, Ward MJ, Banerjee R, Grijalva CG. Parenteral Antibiotic Use Among Ambulatory Children in United States Children's Hospital Emergency Departments. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Oct; 7(10): ofaa357. PMID: 33123607, PMCID: PMC7579746, PII: ofaa357, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa357, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Feldstein LR, Self WH, Ferdinands JM, Randolph AG, Aboodi M, Baughman AH, Brown SM, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs K, Ginde AA, Gong MN, Grijalva CG, Halasa N, Khan A, Lindsell CJ, Newhams M, Peltan ID, Prekker ME, Rice TW, Shapiro NI, Steingrub J, Talbot HK, Halloran ME, Patel M, . Incorporating real-time influenza detection into the test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness: The real-time test-negative design (rtTND). Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2020 Sep 9/25/2020; PMID: 32974644, PII: 5911459, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1453, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Fisher KA, Tenforde MW, Feldstein LR, Lindsell CJ, Shapiro NI, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Erickson HL, Prekker ME, Steingrub JS, Exline MC, Henning DJ, Wilson JG, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Rice TW, Hager DN, Ginde AA, Talbot HK, Casey JD, Grijalva CG, Flannery B, Patel MM, Self WH, , . Community and Close Contact Exposures Associated with COVID-19 Among Symptomatic Adults =18 Years in 11 Outpatient Health Care Facilities - United States, July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Sep 9/11/2020; 69(36): 1258-64. PMID: 32915165, PMCID: PMC7499837, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6936a5, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Self WH, Tenforde MW, Stubblefield WB, Feldstein LR, Steingrub JS, Shapiro NI, Ginde AA, Prekker ME, Brown SM, Peltan ID, Gong MN, Aboodi MS, Khan A, Exline MC, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Lindsell CJ, Rice TW, Jones ID, Halasa N, Talbot HK, Grijalva CG, Casey JD, Hager DN, Qadir N, Henning DJ, Coughlin MM, Schiffer J, Semenova V, Li H, Thornburg NJ, Patel MM, , . Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Frontline Health Care Personnel in a Multistate Hospital Network - 13 Academic Medical Centers, April-June 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Sep 9/4/2020; 69(35): 1221-6. PMID: 32881855, PMCID: PMC7470460, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6935e2, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Osmundson SS, Min JY, Wiese AD, Hawley RE, Mitchel E, Patrick SW, Samuels LR, Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Opioid Prescribing After Childbirth and Risk for Serious Opioid-Related Events: A Cohort Study [letter]. Ann Intern Med [print-electronic]. 2020 Sep 9/1/2020; 173(5): 412-4. PMID: 32510992, DOI: 10.7326/M19-3805, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Howard LM, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Self WH, Jain S, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Grijalva CG. Parainfluenza Virus Types 1-3 Infections Among Children and Adults Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2020 Jul 7/18/2020; PMID: 32681645, PII: 5873462, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa973, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Stubblefield WB, Talbot HK, Feldstein L, Tenforde MW, Rasheed MAU, Mills L, Lester SN, Freeman B, Thornburg NJ, Jones ID, Ward MJ, Lindsell CJ, Baughman A, Halasa N, Grijalva CG, Rice TW, Patel MM, Self WH, . Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Frontline Healthcare Personnel During the First Month of Caring for COVID-19 Patients - Nashville, Tennessee. Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2020 Jul 7/6/2020; PMID: 32628750, PMCID: PMC7454447, PII: 5868028, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa936, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Chu PY, Hackstadt AJ, Chipman J, Griffin MR, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Elasy T, Roumie CL. Hospitalization for Lactic Acidosis Among Patients With Reduced Kidney Function Treated With Metformin or Sulfonylureas. Diabetes Care [print-electronic]. 2020 Jul; 43(7): 1462-70. PMID: 32327421, PMCID: PMC7305006, PII: dc19-2391, DOI: 10.2337/dc19-2391, ISSN: 1935-5548.

Wiese AD, Everson J, Grijalva CG. Social distancing measures: evidence of interruption of seasonal influenza activity and early lessons of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2020 Jun 6/20/2020; PMID: 32562538, PMCID: PMC7337694, PII: 5860406, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa834, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Liberman JS, D'Agostino McGowan L, Greevy RA, Morrow JA, Griffin MR, Roumie CL, Grijalva CG. Mental health conditions and the risk of chronic opioid therapy among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective veterans affairs cohort study. Clin Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2020 Jun; 39(6): 1793-802. PMID: 32036583, PMCID: PMC7337604, PII: 10.1007/s10067-020-04955-2, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-020-04955-2, ISSN: 1434-9949.

Griffith HG, Dantuluri K, Thurm C, Williams DJ, Banerjee R, Howard LM, Grijalva CG. Considerable variability in antibiotic use among US children's hospitals in 2017-2018. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [print-electronic]. 2020 May; 41(5): 571-8. PMID: 32141424, PII: S0899823X19003738, DOI: 10.1017/ice.2019.373, ISSN: 1559-6834.

Howard LM, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Jain S, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ. Clinical Features of Human Metapneumovirus-Associated Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalizations. Clin Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2020 Feb 2/3/2020; PMID: 32010955, PII: 5721314, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa088, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Zhang JB, Tamboli RA, Albaugh VL, Williams DB, Kilkelly DM, Grijalva CG, Shibao CA. The incidence of orthostatic intolerance after bariatric surgery. Obes Sci Pract. 2020 Feb; 6(1): 76-83. PMID: 32128245, PMCID: PMC7042102, PII: OSP4383, DOI: 10.1002/osp4.383, ISSN: 2055-2238.

Carrell DS, Albertson-Junkans L, Ramaprasan A, Scull G, Mackwood M, Johnson E, Cronkite DJ, Baer A, Hansen K, Green CA, Hazlehurst BL, Janoff SL, Coplan PM, DeVeaugh-Geiss A, Grijalva CG, Liang C, Enger CL, Lange J, Shortreed SM, Von Korff M. Measuring problem prescription opioid use among patients receiving long-term opioid analgesic treatment: development and evaluation of an algorithm for use in EHR and claims data. J Drug Assess. 2020; 9(1): 97-105. PMID: 32489718, PMCID: PMC7241518, PII: 1750419, DOI: 10.1080/21556660.2020.1750419, ISSN: 2155-6660.

Smithee RB, Markus TM, Soda E, Grijalva CG, Xing W, Shang N, Griffin MR, Lessa FC. Pneumonia Hospitalization Coding Changes Associated With Transition From the 9th to 10th Revision of International Classification of Diseases. Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol. 2020 Jan; 7: 2333392820939801. PMID: 32782916, PMCID: PMC7383658, PII: 10.1177_2333392820939801, DOI: 10.1177/2333392820939801, ISSN: 2333-3928.

Min JY, Hackstadt AJ, Griffin MR, Greevy RA, Chipman J, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Roumie CL. Evaluation of weight change and hypoglycaemia as mediators in the association between insulin use and death. Diabetes Obes Metab [print-electronic]. 2019 Dec; 21(12): 2626-34. PMID: 31373104, DOI: 10.1111/dom.13846, ISSN: 1463-1326.

Wiese AD, Huang X, Yu C, Mitchel EF, Kyaw MH, Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Changes in Otitis Media Episodes and Pressure Equalization Tube Insertions Among Young Children Following Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Birth Cohort-based Study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2019 Nov 11/27/2019; 69(12): 2162-9. PMID: 30770533, PII: 5321113, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz142, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Wiese AD, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG. Response to Boettiger. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2019 Nov 11/19/2019; PMID: 31740925, PII: 5629138, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz1136, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Facer B, Wang F, Grijalva CG, Alvarez RD, Shu XO. Survival Outcomes for Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy Versus Traditional Laparoscopy in Clinical Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol [print-electronic]. 2019 Nov 11/9/2019; PMID: 31715149, PII: S0002-9378(19)32614-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.10.104, ISSN: 1097-6868.

Howard LM, Zhu Y, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density during Asymptomatic Respiratory Virus Infection and Risk for Subsequent Acute Respiratory Illness. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2019 Nov; 25(11): 2040-7. PMID: 31625844, PMCID: PMC6810199, DOI: 10.3201/eid2511.190157, ISSN: 1080-6059.

Lipsett SC, Hall M, Ambroggio L, Desai S, Shah SS, Brogan TV, Hersh AL, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Gerber JS, Blaschke AJ, Neuman MI. Predictors of Bacteremia in Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Hosp Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2019 Oct; 9(10): 770-8. PMID: 31519736, PII: hpeds.2019-0149, DOI: 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0149, ISSN: 2154-1671.

Min JY, Grijalva CG, Morrow JA, Whitmore CC, Hawley RE, Singh S, Swain RS, Griffin MR. A comparison of two algorithms to identify sudden cardiac deaths in computerized databases. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2019 Oct; 28(10): 1411-6. PMID: 31390681, PMCID: PMC6810726, DOI: 10.1002/pds.4845, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Roumie CL, Chipman J, Min JY, Hackstadt AJ, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Elasy T, Griffin MR. Association of Treatment With Metformin vs Sulfonylurea With Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Among Patients With Diabetes and Reduced Kidney Function. JAMA [print-electronic]. 2019 Sep 9/19/2019; 1-11. PMID: 31536102, PMCID: PMC6753652, PII: 2751397, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2019.13206, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, DiNubile MJ, Stossel TP, Levinson SL, Williams DJ, Anderson EJ, Bramley AM, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Low Admission Plasma Gelsolin Concentrations Identify Community-acquired Pneumonia Patients at High Risk for Severe Outcomes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2019 Sep 9/13/2019; 69(7): 1218-25. PMID: 30561561, PMCID: PMC6743831, PII: 5250676, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy1049, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Hoang T, Coletti P, Melegaro A, Wallinga J, Grijalva CG, Edmunds JW, Beutels P, Hens N. A Systematic Review of Social Contact Surveys to Inform Transmission Models of Close-contact Infections. Epidemiology. 2019 Sep; 30(5): 723-36. PMID: 31274572, PMCID: PMC6684224, DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001047, ISSN: 1531-5487.

Wiese AD, Grijalva CG. To boost or not to boost? Lessons from the Australian pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2019 Aug 8/7/2019; PMID: 31388668, PII: 5544622, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz735, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Green CA, Perrin NA, Hazlehurst B, Janoff SL, DeVeaugh-Geiss A, Carrell DS, Grijalva CG, Liang C, Enger CL, Coplan PM. Identifying and classifying opioid-related overdoses: A validation study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2019 Aug; 28(8): 1127-37. PMID: 31020755, PMCID: PMC6767606, DOI: 10.1002/pds.4772, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Fritz CQ, Edwards KM, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Anderson EJ, Bramley AM, Jain S, Williams DJ. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Bacteremic Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics. 2019 Jul; 144(1): PMID: 31217309, PMCID: PMC6615516, PII: peds.2018-3090, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2018-3090, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Isturiz RE, Ramirez J, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Counselman FL, Volturo G, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Peyrani P, Wunderink RG, Sherwin R, Overcash JS, Oliva SP, File T, Wiemken TL, McLaughlin JM, Pride MW, Gray S, Alexander R, Ford KD, Jiang Q, Jodar L. Pneumococcal epidemiology among us adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2019 May 5/31/2019; 37(25): 3352-61. PMID: 31072732, PII: S0264-410X(19)30575-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.087, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Wiese AD, Roumie CL, Buse JB, Guzman H, Bradford R, Zalimeni E, Knoepp P, Morris HL, Donahoo WT, Fanous N, Epstein BF, Katalenich BL, Ayala SG, Cook MM, Worley KJ, Bachmann KN, Grijalva CG, Rothman RL, Chakkalakal RJ. Performance of a computable phenotype for identification of patients with diabetes within PCORnet: The Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2019 May; 28(5): 632-9. PMID: 30680840, PMCID: PMC6615719, DOI: 10.1002/pds.4718, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Min JY, Presley CA, Wharton J, Griffin MR, Greevy RA, Hung AM, Chipman J, Grijalva CG, Hackstadt AJ, Roumie CL. Accuracy of a composite event definition for hypoglycemia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2019 May; 28(5): 625-31. PMID: 30843332, PMCID: PMC6497537, DOI: 10.1002/pds.4712, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Min JY, Griffin MR, Chipman J, Hackstadt AJ, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Roumie CL. Recent metformin adherence and the risk of hypoglycaemia in the year following intensification with a sulfonylurea. Diabet. Med [print-electronic]. 2019 Apr; 36(4): 482-90. PMID: 30378161, DOI: 10.1111/dme.13853, ISSN: 1464-5491.

Singh S, Fouayzi H, Anzuoni K, Goldman L, Min JY, Griffin M, Grijalva CG, Morrow JA, Whitmore CC, Leonard CE, Selvan M, Nair V, Zhou Y, Toh S, Petrone A, Williams J, Fazio-Eynullayeva E, Swain R, Tyler Coyle D, Andrade S. Diagnostic Algorithms for Cardiovascular Death in Administrative Claims Databases: A Systematic Review. Drug Saf. 2019 Apr; 42(4): 515-27. PMID: 30471046, PII: 10.1007/s40264-018-0754-z, DOI: 10.1007/s40264-018-0754-z, ISSN: 1179-1942.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on hospitalizations for pneumonia in the United States. Expert Rev Vaccines [print-electronic]. 2019 Apr; 18(4): 327-41. PMID: 30759352, PMCID: PMC6443450, DOI: 10.1080/14760584.2019.1582337, ISSN: 1744-8395.

Osmundson SS, Min JY, Grijalva CG. Opioid prescribing after childbirth: overprescribing and chronic use. Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 2019 Apr; 31(2): 83-9. PMID: 30789842, DOI: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000527, ISSN: 1473-656X.

Osmundson SS, Wiese AD, Min JY, Hawley RE, Patrick SW, Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Delivery type, opioid prescribing, and the risk of persistent opioid use after delivery [letter]. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol [print-electronic]. 2019 Apr; 220(4): 405-7. PMID: 30955527, PMCID: PMC6546169, PII: S0002-9378(18)30910-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.10.026, ISSN: 1097-6868.

Grijalva CG, de St Maurice A. Timing is Everything: Pneumococcal Immunization in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2019 Mar 3/22/2019; PMID: 30899960, PII: 5418540, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz231, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Pratt CQ, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Wunderink RG, Mark Courtney D, Waterer G, Levine MZ, Jefferson S, Self WH, Williams DJ, Finelli L, Bramley AM, Edwards KM, Jain S, Anderson EJ. Serological response to influenza vaccination among adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Influenza Other Respir Viruses [print-electronic]. 2019 Mar; 13(2): 208-12. PMID: 30485702, PMCID: PMC6379631, DOI: 10.1111/irv.12622, ISSN: 1750-2659.

Frush JM, Zhu Y, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Thomsen IP, Self WH, Jain S, Anderson EJ, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Williams DJ. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Use of Antistaphylococcal Therapy in Children Hospitalized with Pneumonia. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Dec 12/1/2018; 13(12): 848-52. PMID: 30379141, PMCID: PMC6321763, DOI: 10.12788/jhm.3093, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Howard LM, Grijalva CG. The central role of pneumococcal colonization in the pathogenesis and control of pneumococcal diseases [editorial]. Future Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2018 Oct; 13: 1453-6. PMID: 30311793, DOI: 10.2217/fmb-2018-0198, ISSN: 1746-0921.

Bellew S, Grijalva CG, Williams DJ, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Zhu Y, Waterer GW, Bramley AM, Jain S, Edwards KM, Self WH. Pneumococcal and Legionella Urinary Antigen Tests in Community-acquired Pneumonia: Prospective Evaluation of Indications for Testing. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2018 Sep 9/28/2018; PMID: 30265290, PII: 5108546, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy826, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Presley CA, Chipman J, Min JY, Grijalva CG, Greevy RA, Griffin MR, Roumie CL. Evaluation of frailty as an unmeasured confounder in observational studies of antidiabetic medications. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci [print-electronic]. 2018 Sep 9/26/2018; PMID: 30256914, PII: 5106974, DOI: 10.1093/gerona/gly224, ISSN: 1758-535X.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Schaffner W, Stein CM, Greevy RA, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Long-acting opioid use and the risk of serious infections: a retrospective cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2018 Sep 9/15/2018; PMID: 30239630, PII: 5098443, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy809, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Schaffner W, Stein CM, Grijalva CG. Opioid Analgesic Use and Risk for Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases. Ann. Intern. Med. 2018 Sep 9/4/2018; 169(5): 355. PMID: 30178014, PII: 2698868, DOI: 10.7326/L18-0295, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Murff HJ, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Hackstadt AJ, McGowan LED, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Metformin use and incidence cancer risk: evidence for a selective protective effect against liver cancer. Cancer Causes Control [print-electronic]. 2018 Jul 7/18/2018; PMID: 30022336, PII: 10.1007/s10552-018-1058-4, DOI: 10.1007/s10552-018-1058-4, ISSN: 1573-7225.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Stein CM, Schaffner W, Greevy RA, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Validation of discharge diagnosis codes to identify serious infections among middle age and older adults. BMJ Open. 2018 Jun 6/19/2018; 8(6): e020857. PMID: 29921683, PMCID: PMC6009457, PII: bmjopen-2017-020857, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020857, ISSN: 2044-6055.

Wiese AD, Grijalva CG. The use of prescribed opioid analgesics & the risk of serious infections. Future Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2018 Jun 6/1/2018; 13: 849-52. PMID: 29896976, DOI: 10.2217/fmb-2018-0101, ISSN: 1746-0921.

Waterer GW, Self WH, Courtney DM, Grijalva CG, Balk RA, Girard TD, Fakhran SS, Trabue C, McNabb P, Anderson EJ, Williams DJ, Bramley AM, Jain S, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG. In-hospital Deaths among Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Chest [print-electronic]. 2018 May 5/30/2018; PMID: 29859184, PII: S0012-3692(18)30801-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.05.021, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Bozio CH, Flanders WD, Finelli L, Bramley AM, Reed C, Gandhi NR, Vidal JE, Erdman D, Levine MZ, Lindstrom S, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Self WH, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Jain S. Use of Multiple Imputation to Estimate the Proportion of Respiratory Virus Detections Among Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Apr; 5(4): ofy061. PMID: 29946553, PMCID: PMC5890478, PII: ofy061, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy061, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Presley CA, Min JY, Chipman J, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Roumie CL. Validation of an algorithm to identify heart failure hospitalisations in patients with diabetes within the veterans health administration. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 3/25/2018; 8(3): e020455. PMID: 29581206, PMCID: PMC5875613, PII: bmjopen-2017-020455, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020455, ISSN: 2044-6055.

Self WH, Upchurch CP, Wunderink RG, Waterer GW, Grijalva CG, Edwards KM. Response [letter]. Chest. 2018 Mar; 153(3): 763-4. PMID: 29519302, PII: S0012-3692(17)32758-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.09.020, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Nelson KN, Grijalva CG, Chochua S, Hawkins PA, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Klugman KP, Vidal JE. Dynamics of Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in Healthy Peruvian Children. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Mar; 5(3): ofy039. PMID: 29588913, PMCID: PMC5842394, PII: ofy039, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy039, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Schaffner W, Stein CM, Greevy RA, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Opioid Analgesic Use and Risk for Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases: A Nested Case-Control Study. Ann. Intern. Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Feb 2/13/2018; PMID: 29435555, PII: 2672601, DOI: 10.7326/M17-1907, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Girard TD, Self WH, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Jain S, Jackson JC. Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a Prospective Cohort Study. J Gen Intern Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/26/2018; PMID: 29374359, PII: 10.1007/s11606-017-4301-x, DOI: 10.1007/s11606-017-4301-x, ISSN: 1525-1497.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, . Procalcitonin as a Marker of Etiology in Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/18/2018; PMID: 29360954, PII: 4816910, DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix1090, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Wunderink RG, Self WH, Anderson EJ, Balk R, Fakhran S, Courtney DM, Qi C, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Whitney CG, Moore MR, Bramley A, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Pneumococcal Community-Acquired Pneumonia Detected by Serotype-Specific Urinary Antigen Detection Assays. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/12/2018; PMID: 29342250, PII: 4682634, DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix1066, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Grijalva CG. Countrywide demonstration of adult protection derived from infant immunisation [editorial]. Thorax [print-electronic]. 2018 Jan 1/9/2018; PMID: 29317547, PII: thoraxjnl-2017-211099, DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-211099, ISSN: 1468-3296.

Nolan VG, Arnold SR, Bramley AM, Ampofo K, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, Jain S, McCullers JA. The etiology and impact of co-infections in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2017 Dec 12/8/2017; PMID: 29228381, PII: 4706283, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix641, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Grijalva CG, O'Donnell M, Talbot HK. Incorporating Markers of Disease Severity into Near Real-Time Influenza Surveillance. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Dec; 14(12): 1766-7. PMID: 29192823, DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201709-719ED, ISSN: 2325-6621.

Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Self WH, Zhu Y, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Anderson EJ, Hicks LA, Bramley AM, Jain S, Grijalva CG. Effectiveness of ß-Lactam Monotherapy vs Macrolide Combination Therapy for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia. JAMA Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct 10/30/2017; PMID: 29084336, PII: 2659321, DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.3225, ISSN: 2168-6211.

Grijalva CG, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR, Shibao CA. Fludrocortisone Is Associated With a Higher Risk of All-Cause Hospitalizations Compared With Midodrine in Patients With Orthostatic Hypotension. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Oct 10/12/2017; 6(10): PMID: 29025750, PII: JAHA.117.006848, DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006848, ISSN: 2047-9980.

Neuman MI, Hall M, Lipsett SC, Hersh AL, Williams DJ, Gerber JS, Brogan TV, Blaschke AJ, Grijalva CG, Parikh K, Ambroggio L, Shah SS, . Utility of Blood Culture Among Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2017 Sep; 140(3): PMID: 28835382, PMCID: PMC5574722, PII: peds.2017-1013, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-1013, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Howard LM, Johnson M, Gil AI, Pekosz A, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, Williams JV, . A novel real-time RT-PCR assay for influenza C tested in Peruvian children. J. Clin. Virol [print-electronic]. 2017 Sep 9/1/2017; 96: 12-6. PMID: 28917132, PII: S1386-6532(17)30242-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2017.08.014, ISSN: 1873-5967.

Lu X, Schneider E, Jain S, Bramley AM, Hymas W, Stockmann C, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Williams DJ, Self WH, Patel A, Chappell JD, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, McCullers JA, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, Erdman DD. Rhinovirus Viremia in Patients Hospitalized with Community Acquired Pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug 8/29/2017; PMID: 28968668, PII: 4096795, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix455, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Upchurch CP, Grijalva CG, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Waterer GW, Anderson EJ, Zhu Y, Hart EM, Carroll F, Bramley AM, Jain S, Edwards KM, Self WH. Community-acquired Pneumonia Visualized on Computed Tomography but Not Chest X-Ray: Pathogens, Severity, and Clinical Outcomes. Chest [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug 8/9/2017; PMID: 28802696, PII: S0012-3692(17)31392-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.07.035, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Bramley AM, Reed C, Finelli L, Self WH, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Stockmann C, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Balk R, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Jain S, . Relationship between Body Mass Index and Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients with Community-acquired Pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2017 May 5/17/2017; PMID: 28520948, PII: 3830171, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix241, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Roumie CL, Min JY, D'Agostino McGowan L, Presley C, Grijalva CG, Hackstadt AJ, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Elasy T, Griffin MR. Comparative Safety of Sulfonylurea and Metformin Monotherapy on the Risk of Heart Failure: A Cohort Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Apr 4/19/2017; 6(4): PMID: 28424149, PII: JAHA.116.005379, DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.116.005379, ISSN: 2047-9980.

Self WH, Balk RA, Grijalva CG, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Anderson EJ, Waterer GW, Courtney DM, Bramley AM, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Blaschke AJ, Jain S, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG. Procalcitonin as a Marker of Etiology in Adults Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr 4/12/2017; PMID: 28407054, PII: 3605415, DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix317, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Williams DJ, Hall M, Gerber JS, Neuman MI, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Parikh K, Mahant S, Blaschke AJ, Shah SS, Grijalva CG, . Impact of a National Guideline on Antibiotic Selection for Hospitalized Pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2017 Mar 3/8/2017; PMID: 28275204, PII: peds.2016-3231, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3231, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Stockmann C, Ampofo K, Killpack J, Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Self WH, Bramley A, Jain S, Pavia AT, Blaschke AJ. Procalcitonin Accurately Identifies Hospitalized Children With Low Risk of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb 2/3/2017; PMID: 28158460, PII: 2966998, DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw091, ISSN: 2048-7207.

Zhang Y, Sakthivel SK, Bramley A, Jain S, Haynes A, Chappell JD, Hymas W, Lenny N, Patel A, Qi C, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Self WH, Williams DJ, Hillyard D, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, McCullers JA, Erdman DD. Serology Enhances Molecular Diagnosis of Respiratory Virus Infections Other than Influenza in Children and Adults Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol [electronic-print]. 2017 Jan; 55(1): 79-89. PMID: 27795341, PII: JCM.01701-16, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01701-16, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Upchurch CP, Grijalva CG, Russ S, Collins SP, Semler MW, Rice TW, Liu D, Ehrenfeld JM, High K, Barrett TW, McNaughton CD, Self WH. Comparison of Etomidate and Ketamine for Induction During Rapid Sequence Intubation of Adult Trauma Patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jan; 69(1): 24-33.e2. PMID: 27993308, PMCID: PMC5180365, PII: S0196-0644(16)30467-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.08.009, ISSN: 1097-6760.

Harris AM, Bramley AM, Jain S, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Self WH, Williams DJ, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Winchell JM, Hicks LA. Influence of Antibiotics on the Detection of Bacteria by Culture-Based and Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1): ofx014. PMID: 28480285, PMCID: PMC5414111, PII: ofx014, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx014.

Oboho IK, Bramley A, Finelli L, Fry A, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Self WH, Williams DJ, Courtney DM, Zhu Y, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, McCullers JA, Wunderink RG, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Jain S. Oseltamivir Use Among Children and Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1): ofw254. PMID: 28480248, PMCID: PMC5413989, PII: ofw254, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw254.

Tomczyk S, Jain S, Bramley AM, Self WH, Anderson EJ, Trabue C, Courtney DM, Grijalva CG, Waterer GW, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Hicks LA. Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults Hospitalized in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(2): ofx088. PMID: 28730159, PMCID: PMC5510457, PII: ofx088, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx088, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Tomczyk S, Jain S, Bramley AM, Self WH, Anderson EJ, Trabue C, Courtney DM, Grijalva CG, Waterer GW, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Hicks LA. Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults Hospitalized in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(2): ofx088. PMID: 28730159, PMCID: PMC5510457, PII: ofx088, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx088, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Howard LM, Fan R, Zhu Y, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Hartinger S, Williams JV, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density Is Associated With Viral Activity but Not With Use of Improved Stoves Among Young Andean Children. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(3): ofx161. PMID: 28929126, PMCID: PMC5601081, PII: ofx161, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx161, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Line Agents for the Treatment of Diabetes Type 2 in Preventing Kidney Function Decline. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2016 Dec 12/7/2016; 11(12): 2177-85. PMID: 27827311, PMCID: PMC5142060, PII: CJN.02630316, DOI: 10.2215/CJN.02630316, ISSN: 1555-905X.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Changes in empyema among U.S. children in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2016 Dec 12/7/2016; 34(50): 6243-9. PMID: 27832918, PII: S0264-410X(16)30997-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.062, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Fan RR, Howard LM, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Williams JV, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density and Evolution of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Young Children, Peru, 2009-2011. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2016 Nov; 22(11): 1996-9. PMID: 27767919, DOI: 10.3201/eid2211.160902, ISSN: 1080-6059.

Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Harrell FE, Reed C, Stockmann C, Arnold SR, Ampofo KK, Anderson EJ, Bramley AM, Wunderink RG, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Jain S, Edwards KM. Predicting Severe Pneumonia Outcomes in Children. Pediatrics. 2016 Oct; 138(4): PMID: 27688362, PII: peds.2016-1019, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1019, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Harrell FE, Reed C, Stockmann C, Arnold SR, Ampofo KK, Anderson EJ, Bramley AM, Wunderink RG, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Jain S, Edwards KM. Predicting Severe Pneumonia Outcomes in Children. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/29/2016; PMID: 27688362, PII: peds.2016-1019, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1019, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Cherry CB, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Verastegui H, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Spatial and Temporal Spread of Acute Viral Respiratory Infections in Young Children Living in High-Altitude Rural Communities: A Prospective Household-Based Study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/11/2016; PMID: 27404599, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001234, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Waterer GW, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, . Reply to Chalmers, et al. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/8/2016; PMID: 27402823, PII: ciw466, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw466, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Wiese AD, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2016 Jun; 22(6): PMID: 27197048, PMCID: PMC4880071, DOI: 10.3201/eid2206.152023, ISSN: 1080-6059.

de St Maurice A, Schaffner W, Griffin MR, Halasa N, Grijalva CG. Persistent Sex Disparities in Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in the Conjugate Vaccine Era. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/30/2016; PMID: 27247342, PII: jiw222, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiw222, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Havers F, Bramley AM, Finelli L, Reed C, Self WH, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Balk R, Courtney DM, Girard TD, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Jain S. Statin Use and Hospital Length of Stay Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-acquired Pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/10/2016; PMID: 27169476, PII: ciw174, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw174, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Anderson EJ, Balk RA, Fakhran SS, Chappell JD, Casimir G, Courtney DM, Trabue C, Waterer GW, Bramley A, Magill S, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Staphylococcus aureus Community-acquired Pneumonia: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/8/2016; PMID: 27161775, PII: ciw300, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw300, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Self WH, Grijalva CG, Williams DJ, Woodworth A, Balk RA, Fakhran S, Zhu Y, Courtney DM, Chappell J, Anderson EJ, Qi C, Waterer GW, Trabue C, Bramley AM, Jain S, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG. Procalcitonin as an Early Marker of the Need for Invasive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Chest [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/20/2016; PMID: 27107491, PII: S0012-3692(16)48560-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.04.010, ISSN: 1931-3543.

Roumie CL, Min JY, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Elasy T, Griffin MR. Risk of hypoglycemia following intensification of metformin treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea. CMAJ [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/5/2016; 188(6): E104-12. PMID: 26811361, PMCID: PMC4818151, PII: cmaj.150904, DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.150904, ISSN: 1488-2329.

Hanke CR, Grijalva CG, Chochua S, Pletz MW, Hornberg C, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Verastegui H, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Klugman KP, Vidal JE. Bacterial Density, Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance of Pneumococcal Strains from the Nasopharynx of Peruvian Children Before and After Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 7. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2016 Apr; 35(4): 432-9. PMID: 26974749, PMCID: PMC4820239, PII: 00006454-201604000-00020, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001030, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Millman AJ, Finelli L, Bramley AM, Peacock G, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Jain S. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization among Children with Neurologic Disorders. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/17/2016; PMID: 27017483, PII: S0022-3476(16)00271-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.049, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Diaz MH, Cross KE, Benitez AJ, Hicks LA, Kutty P, Bramley AM, Chappell JD, Hymas W, Patel A, Qi C, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Jain S, Winchell JM. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Mar; 3(2): ofw071. PMID: 27191004, PMCID: PMC4867659, PII: ofw071, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw071, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Min JY, Griffin MR, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Greevy RA, Liu X, Elasy T, Roumie CL. Comparative Effectiveness of Insulin versus Combination Sulfonylurea and Insulin: a Cohort Study of Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes. J Gen Intern Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb 2/26/2016; PMID: 26921160, PII: 10.1007/s11606-016-3633-2, DOI: 10.1007/s11606-016-3633-2, ISSN: 1525-1497.

Roumie CL, Min JY, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Elasy T, Griffin MR. Risk of hypoglycemia following intensification of metformin treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea. CMAJ [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/25/2016; PMID: 26811361, PII: cmaj.150904, DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.150904, ISSN: 1488-2329.

Parikh K, Hall M, Blaschke AJ, Grijalva CG, Brogan TV, Neuman MI, Williams DJ, Gerber JS, Hersh AL, Shah SS. Aggregate and hospital-level impact of national guidelines on diagnostic resource utilization for children with pneumonia at children's hospitals. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/13/2016; PMID: 26762571, DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2534, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Howard LM, Johnson M, Gil AI, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Lanata CF, Williams JV, Grijalva CG. Molecular Epidemiology of Rhinovirus Detections in Young Children. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Jan; 3(1): ofw001. PMID: 26900577, PMCID: PMC4759584, PII: ofw001, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw001, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Griffin MR. Diabetes treatment intensification and associated changes in HbA1c and body mass index: a cohort study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016; 16(1): 32. PMID: 27255309, PMCID: PMC4890276, PII: 10.1186/s12902-016-0101-2, DOI: 10.1186/s12902-016-0101-2, ISSN: 1472-6823.

Grijalva CG, Wunderink RG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Balk R, Fakhran S, Courtney DM, Anderson EJ, Qi C, Trabue C, Pavia AT, Moore MR, Jain S, Edwards KM, Self WH. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Dec; 2(4): ofv135. PMID: 26512357, PMCID: PMC4621456, PII: ofv135, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv135, ISSN: 2328-8957.

de St Maurice A, Grijalva CG, Fonnesbeck C, Schaffner W, Halasa NB. Racial and Regional Differences in Rates of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 136(5): e1186-94. PMID: 26459652, PMCID: PMC4621799, PII: peds.2015-1773, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1773, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Wiese AD, Griffin MR, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Grijalva CG. Opioid analgesics and the risk of serious infections among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A self-controlled case series study. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/16/2015; PMID: 26473742, DOI: 10.1002/art.39462, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Self WH, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Stockmann CR, McCullers J, Arnold SR, Wunderink RG, Anderson EJ, Lindstrom S, Fry AM, Foppa IM, Finelli L, Bramley AM, Jain S, Griffin MR, Edwards KM. Association Between Hospitalization With Community-Acquired Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Pneumonia and Prior Receipt of Influenza Vaccination. JAMA. 2015 Oct 10/13/2015; 314(14): 1488-97. PMID: 26436611, PMCID: PMC4688454, PII: 2450326, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.12160, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Ahn A, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Chappell JD, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Bramley AM, Jain S, Williams DJ. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Illness Severity among Children Hospitalized with Pneumonia. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct; 167(4): 869-874.e1. PMID: 26231828, PMCID: PMC4586387, PII: S0022-3476(15)00687-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.049, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Howard LM, Johnson M, Williams JV, Zhu Y, Gil AI, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, . Respiratory Viral Detections During Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Periods in Young Andean Children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2015 Oct; 34(10): 1074-80. PMID: 26121205, PMCID: PMC4570861, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000812, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Grijalva CG. Is Pneumonia a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker for Long-Term Mortality? [editorial]. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2015 Sep 9/1/2015; 192(5): 532-4. PMID: 26325152, PMCID: PMC4595697, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201506-1171ED, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Cross KE, Hicks LA, Kutty P, Bramley AM, Chappell JD, Hymas W, Patel A, Qi C, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Self WH, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Jain S, Winchell JM. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Among Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the United States. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Sep; 2(3): ofv106. PMID: 26284257, PMCID: PMC4536330, PII: ofv106, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv106, ISSN: 2328-8957.

Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, Fakhran S, Balk R, Bramley AM, Reed C, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Courtney DM, Chappell JD, Qi C, Hart EM, Carroll F, Trabue C, Donnelly HK, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Waterer GW, Levine M, Lindstrom S, Winchell JM, Katz JM, Erdman D, Schneider E, Hicks LA, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Finelli L, . Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/30/2015; 373(5): 415-27. PMID: 26172429, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1500245, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Self WH, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Chappell JD, Hymas WC, Stockmann C, Bramley AM, Schneider E, Erdman D, Finelli L, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Respiratory Viral Detection in Children and Adults: Comparing Asymptomatic Controls and Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/14/2015; PMID: 26180044, PII: jiv323, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv323, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Self WH, Zhu Y, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Hersh AL, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Hicks LA, Bramley AM, Jain S, Grijalva CG. Antibiotic Choice for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia and Adherence to National Guidelines. Pediatrics. 2015 Jul; 136(1): 44-52. PMID: 26101356, PMCID: PMC4485005, PII: peds.2014-3047, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-3047, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Barrett TW, Baughman AH, Grijalva CG. Comparison of clinical prediction models for resistant bacteria in community-onset pneumonia. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 22(6): 730-40. PMID: 25996620, PMCID: PMC4464985, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12672, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Wolf RB, Edwards K, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Chappell J, Bramley AM, Jain S, Williams DJ. Time to clinical stability among children hospitalized with pneumonia. J Hosp Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 10(6): 380-3. PMID: 25919391, PMCID: PMC4456292, DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2370, ISSN: 1553-5606.

Patrick SW, Dudley J, Martin PR, Harrell FE, Warren MD, Hartmann KE, Ely EW, Grijalva CG, Cooper WO. Prescription opioid epidemic and infant outcomes. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 135(5): 842-50. PMID: 25869370, PMCID: PMC4411781, PII: peds.2014-3299, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-3299, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Restraining the pneumococcus. Lancet Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 May; 15(5): 491-2. PMID: 25801457, PII: S1473-3099(15)70085-X, DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70085-X, ISSN: 1474-4457.

Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Bramley AM, Reed C, Stockmann C, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Self WH, Zhu Y, Patel A, Hymas W, Chappell JD, Kaufman RA, Kan JH, Dansie D, Lenny N, Hillyard DR, Haynes LM, Levine M, Lindstrom S, Winchell JM, Katz JM, Erdman D, Schneider E, Hicks LA, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Pavia AT, McCullers JA, Finelli L, . Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2015 Feb 2/26/2015; 372(9): 835-45. PMID: 25714161, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405870, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Wu A, Budge PJ, Williams J, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Johnson M, Zhu Y, Hartinger S, Verastegui H, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG. Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(6): e0130233. PMID: 26107630, PMCID: PMC4479592, PII: PONE-D-15-02449, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130233, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Grijalva CG, Goeyvaerts N, Verastegui H, Edwards KM, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Hens N, . A household-based study of contact networks relevant for the spread of infectious diseases in the highlands of Peru. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(3): e0118457. PMID: 25734772, PMCID: PMC4348542, PII: PONE-D-14-33053, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118457, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Jules A, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot HK, Williams JV, Poehling KA, Chaves SS, Edwards KM, Schaffner W, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Influenza-related hospitalization and ED visits in children less than 5 years: 2000-2011. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 135(1): e66-74. PMID: 25489015, PMCID: PMC4279064, PII: peds.2014-1168, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1168, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva CG, Roumie CL, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Beck C, Liu X, Griffin MR, Greevy RA. The role of matching when adjusting for baseline differences in the outcome variable of comparative effectiveness studies. J Comp Eff Res. 2015; 4(4): 341-9. PMID: 26274795, DOI: 10.2217/cer.15.16, ISSN: 2042-6313.

Murff HJ, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AH, Liu X, Griffin MR. Thiazolidinedione and Metformin Use and the Risk of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Veterans with Diabetes Mellitus. J Mens Health. 2014 Dec 12/1/2014; 11(4): 157-62. PMID: 25798210, PMCID: PMC4364420, DOI: 10.1089/jomh.2014.0051, ISSN: 1875-6867.

Griffin MR, Mitchel E, Moore MR, Whitney CG, Grijalva CG, . Declines in pneumonia hospitalizations of children aged <2 years associated with the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines - Tennessee, 1998-2012. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2014 Nov 11/7/2014; 63(44): 995-8. PMID: 25375070, PII: mm6344a3, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Baddley JW, Winthrop KL, Chen L, Liu L, Grijalva CG, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Patkar NM, Xie F, Saag KG, Herrinton LJ, Solomon DH, Lewis JD, Curtis JR. Non-viral opportunistic infections in new users of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy: results of the SAfety Assessment of Biologic ThERapy (SABER) study. Ann. Rheum. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 73(11): 1942-8. PMID: 23852763, PMCID: PMC4273901, PII: annrheumdis-2013-203407, DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203407, ISSN: 1468-2060.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Prevention of invasive pneumococcal diseases: beyond cultures. Lancet Respir Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep; 2(9): 676-7. PMID: 25127243, PII: S2213-2600(14)70143-2, DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70143-2, ISSN: 2213-2619.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Lanata CF. Cohort profile: The study of respiratory pathogens in Andean children. Int J Epidemiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 43(4): 1021-30. PMID: 23771719, PMCID: PMC4121548, PII: dyt065, DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyt065, ISSN: 1464-3685.

Neuman MI, Hall M, Gay JC, Blaschke AJ, Williams DJ, Parikh K, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Gerber JS, Grijalva CG, Shah SS. Readmissions among children previously hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics. 2014 Jul; 134(1): 100-9. PMID: 24958590, PMCID: PMC4531280, PII: peds.2014-0331, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-0331, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Johnson M, Gil AI, Verástegui H, Lanata CF, Williams JV. Concordance between RT-PCR-based detection of respiratory viruses from nasal swabs collected for viral testing and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for bacterial testing. J. Clin. Virol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul; 60(3): 309-12. PMID: 24875136, PMCID: PMC4055503, PII: S1386-6532(14)00144-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.04.011, ISSN: 1873-5967.

Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR. Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2014 Jun 6/11/2014; 311(22): 2288-96. PMID: 24915260, PMCID: PMC4149288, PII: 1878717, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.4312, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Gil AI, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Vidal JE, Klugman KP, Lanata CF. The role of influenza and parainfluenza infections in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal acquisition among young children. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 58(10): 1369-76. PMID: 24621951, PMCID: PMC4001292, PII: ciu148, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu148, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Budge PJ, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Johnson M, Klemenc JM, Zhu Y, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, . A household-based study of acute viral respiratory illnesses in Andean children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2014 May; 33(5): 443-7. PMID: 24378948, PMCID: PMC4223552, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000135, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Self WH, Mickanin J, Grijalva CG, Grant FH, Henderson MC, Corley G, Blaschke Ii DG, McNaughton CD, Barrett TW, Talbot TR, Paul BR. Reducing blood culture contamination in community hospital emergency departments: a multicenter evaluation of a quality improvement intervention. Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Mar; 21(3): 274-82. PMID: 24628752, PMCID: PMC3984048, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12337, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Grijalva CG. Decrease in antibiotic use, an added benefit of PCVs. Lancet Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 14(3): 175-7. PMID: 24287185, PII: S1473-3099(13)70356-6, DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70356-6, ISSN: 1474-4457.

Self WH, Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Dupont WD, Barrett TW, Grijalva CG. The high burden of pneumonia on US emergency departments during the 2009 influenza pandemic. J. Infect [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb; 68(2): 156-64. PMID: 24140066, PMCID: PMC3947237, PII: S0163-4453(13)00306-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.10.005, ISSN: 1532-2742.

Budge PJ, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Mäusezahl D, Johnson M, Klemenc JM, Zhu Y, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Grigalva CG, . Impact of home environment interventions on the risk of influenza-associated ARI in Andean children: observations from a prospective household-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e91247. PMID: 24622044, PMCID: PMC3951509, PII: PONE-D-13-40507, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091247, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Distribution of pneumococcal serotypes in adult pneumococcal pneumonia cases: filling the evidence gap to inform vaccination policies [editorial]. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec 12/1/2013; 208(11): 1734-6. PMID: 24092844, PII: jit510, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit510, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Williams DJ, Hall M, Shah SS, Parikh K, Tyler A, Neuman MI, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Blaschke AJ, Grijalva CG. Narrow vs broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy for children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 132(5): e1141-8. PMID: 24167170, PMCID: PMC4530302, PII: peds.2013-1614, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-1614, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Griffin MR, Grijalva CG. Hospitalizations after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination [letter]. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Oct 10/24/2013; 369(17): 1662-3. PMID: 24152270, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1310477, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Shibao C, Grijalva CG, Lipsitz LA, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Early discontinuation of treatment in patients with orthostatic hypotension. Auton Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 177(2): 291-6. PMID: 24008021, PMCID: PMC3988581, PII: S1566-0702(13)00673-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.autneu.2013.08.064, ISSN: 1872-7484.

Self WH, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, McNaughton CD, Barrett TW, Collins SP, Storrow AB, Griffin MR. Rates of emergency department visits due to pneumonia in the United States, July 2006-June 2009. Acad Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 20(9): 957-60. PMID: 24033659, PMCID: PMC3907184, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12203, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Blumkin AK, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Schultz AF, Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Williams JV, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Prill MM, Iwane MK. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than 24 months of age. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 132(2): e341-8. PMID: 23878043, PII: peds.2013-0303, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-0303, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Moore MR, Whitney CG, Grijalva CG. U.S. hospitalizations for pneumonia after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Jul 7/11/2013; 369(2): 155-63. PMID: 23841730, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1209165, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Kawai VK, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Curtis JR, Solomon DH, Delzell E, Chen L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Herrinton L, Liu L, Mitchell EF, Stein CM, Griffin MR. Initiation of tumor necrosis factor a antagonists and risk of fractures in patients with selected rheumatic and autoimmune diseases. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Jul; 65(7): 1085-94. PMID: 23281339, PMCID: PMC3631448, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21937, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Halasa NB, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Talbot TR, Craig AS, Griffin MR, Schaffner W. Nearly complete elimination of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes in Tennessee. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2013 Jun; 32(6): 604-9. PMID: 23348816, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318287fe0d, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Griffin MR. Kidney function decline in metformin versus sulfonylurea initiators: assessment of time-dependent contribution of weight, blood pressure, and glycemic control. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Jun; 22(6): 623-31. PMID: 23592561, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3432, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Beukelman T, Xie F, Baddley JW, Chen L, Delzell E, Grijalva CG, Mannion ML, Patkar NM, Saag KG, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, . Brief report: incidence of selected opportunistic infections among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 May; 65(5): 1384-9. PMID: 23460423, PMCID: PMC3636167, DOI: 10.1002/art.37866, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Ferolla FM, Hijano DR, Acosta PL, Rodríguez A, Dueñas K, Sancilio A, Barboza E, Caría A, Gago GF, Almeida RE, Castro L, Pozzolo C, Martínez MV, Grimaldi LA, Rebec B, Calvo M, Henrichsen J, Nocito C, González M, Barbero G, Losada JV, Caballero MT, Zurankovas V, Raggio M, Schavlovsky G, Kobylarz A, Wimmenauer V, Bugna J, Williams JV, Sastre G, Flamenco E, Pérez AR, Ferrero F, Libster R, Grijalva CG, Polack FP. Macronutrients during pregnancy and life-threatening respiratory syncytial virus infections in children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2013 May 5/1/2013; 187(9): 983-90. PMID: 23449690, PII: rccm.201301-0016OC, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201301-0016OC, ISSN: 1535-4970.

Pelton SI, Pettigrew MM, Barenkamp SJ, Godfroid F, Grijalva CG, Leach A, Patel J, Murphy TF, Selak S, Bakaletz LO. Panel 6: Vaccines. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Apr; 148(4 Suppl): E90-101. PMID: 23536534, PMCID: PMC4029613, PII: 148/4_suppl/E90, DOI: 10.1177/0194599812466535, ISSN: 1097-6817.

Winthrop KL, Baddley JW, Chen L, Liu L, Grijalva CG, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Patkar NM, Xie F, Saag KG, Herrinton LJ, Solomon DH, Lewis JD, Curtis JR. Association between the initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and the risk of herpes zoster. JAMA. 2013 Mar 3/6/2013; 309(9): 887-95. PMID: 23462785, PMCID: PMC3773213, PII: 1660380, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.1099, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Niesner K, Murff HJ, Griffin MR, Wasserman B, Greevy R, Grijalva CG, Roumie CL. Validation of VA administrative data algorithms for identifying cardiovascular disease hospitalization [letter]. Epidemiology. 2013 Mar; 24(2): 334-5. PMID: 23377095, PMCID: PMC4667547, PII: 00001648-201303000-00025, DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182821e75, ISSN: 1531-5487.

Madhi SA, De Wals P, Grijalva CG, Grimwood K, Grossman R, Ishiwada N, Lee PI, Nascimento-Carvalho C, Nohynek H, O'Brien KL, Vergison A, Wolter J. The burden of childhood pneumonia in the developed world: a review of the literature. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2013 Mar; 32(3): e119-27. PMID: 23099423, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182784b26, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Curtis JR, Sharma P, Arora T, Bharat A, Barnes I, Morrisey MA, Kilgore M, Saag KG, Wright NC, Yun HG, Delzell E. Physicians' explanations for apparent gaps in the quality of rheumatology care: results from the US Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Feb; 65(2): 235-43. PMID: 22556118, PMCID: PMC3414685, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21713, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Winthrop KL, Chen L, Fraunfelder FW, Ku JH, Varley CD, Suhler E, Hills WL, Gattey D, Baddley JW, Liu L, Grijalva CG, Delzell E, Beukelman T, Patkar NM, Xie F, Herrinton LJ, Fraunfelder FT, Saag KG, Lewis JD, Solomon DH, Curtis JR. Initiation of anti-TNF therapy and the risk of optic neuritis: from the safety assessment of biologic ThERapy (SABER) Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 155(1): 183-189.e1. PMID: 22967869, PMCID: PMC4142597, PII: S0002-9394(12)00478-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.06.023, ISSN: 1879-1891.

Chien YW, Vidal JE, Grijalva CG, Bozio C, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Griffin MR, Verastegui H, Hartinger SM, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Klugman KP. Density interactions among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx of young Peruvian children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2013 Jan; 32(1): 72-7. PMID: 22935873, PMCID: PMC3525793, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318270d850, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Self WH, Speroff T, Grijalva CG, McNaughton CD, Ashburn J, Liu D, Arbogast PG, Russ S, Storrow AB, Talbot TR. Reducing blood culture contamination in the emergency department: an interrupted time series quality improvement study. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jan; 20(1): 89-97. PMID: 23570482, PMCID: PMC3623801, DOI: 10.1111/acem.12057, ISSN: 1553-2712.

Sakai F, Talekar SJ, Lanata CF, Grijalva CG, Klugman KP, Vidal JE, . Expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence-Related Genes in the Nasopharynx of Healthy Children. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(6): e67147. PMID: 23825636, PMCID: PMC3688971, PII: PONE-D-13-13401, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067147, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Roumie CL, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR. Comparative effectiveness of sulfonylurea and metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Ann. Intern. Med. 2012 Nov 11/6/2012; 157(9): 601-10. PMID: 23128859, PMCID: PMC4667563, PII: 1389845, DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-9-201211060-00003, ISSN: 1539-3704.

Self WH, McNaughton CD, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Chappell JD, Williams JV, Talbot HK, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Diagnostic performance of the BinaxNow Influenza A&B rapid antigen test in ED patients. Am J Emerg Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 30(9): 1955-61. PMID: 22795995, PII: S0735-6757(12)00182-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2012.04.018, ISSN: 1532-8171.

Neuman MI, Hall M, Hersh AL, Brogan TV, Parikh K, Newland JG, Blaschke AJ, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Tyler A, Shah SS. Influence of hospital guidelines on management of children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov; 130(5): e823-30. PMID: 23090342, PII: peds.2012-1285, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-1285, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Brogan TV, Hall M, Williams DJ, Neuman MI, Grijalva CG, Farris RW, Shah SS. Variability in processes of care and outcomes among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2012 Oct; 31(10): 1036-41. PMID: 22653486, PMCID: PMC3504613, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31825f2b10, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Curtis JR, Xie F, Chen L, Muntner P, Grijalva CG, Spettell C, Fernandes J, McMahan RM, Baddley JW, Saag KG, Beukelman T, Delzell E. Use of a disease risk score to compare serious infections associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy among high- versus lower-risk rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Oct; 64(10): 1480-9. PMID: 22833479, PMCID: PMC3687540, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21805, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Beukelman T, Xie F, Chen L, Baddley JW, Delzell E, Grijalva CG, Lewis JD, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Patkar NM, Saag KG, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, . Rates of hospitalized bacterial infection associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and its treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Aug; 64(8): 2773-80. PMID: 22569881, PMCID: PMC3409300, DOI: 10.1002/art.34458, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Fiske CT, Griffin MR, Mitchel E, Sterling TR, Grijalva CG. Accuracy of pharmacy and coded-diagnosis information in identifying tuberculosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2012 Jun; 21(6): 666-9. PMID: 22532509, PMCID: PMC3371104, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3243, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Roumie CL, Beck C, Hung AM, Murff HJ, Liu X, Griffin MR. Reweighted Mahalanobis distance matching for cluster-randomized trials with missing data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 May; 21 Suppl 2: 148-54. PMID: 22552990, PMCID: PMC3760213, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3260, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Self WH, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot HK, Jules A, Widmer KE, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Emergency department visits for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Davidson County, Tennessee, USA. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2012 May; 18(5): 863-5. PMID: 22516043, PMCID: PMC3358080, DOI: 10.3201/eid1805.111233, ISSN: 1080-6059.

Roumie CL, Liu X, Choma NN, Greevy RA, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Initiation of sulfonylureas versus metformin is associated with higher blood pressure at one year. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 21(5): 515-23. PMID: 22431419, PMCID: PMC4667555, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3249, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Toh S, Li L, Harrold LR, Bayliss EA, Curtis JR, Liu L, Chen L, Grijalva CG, Herrinton LJ. Comparative safety of infliximab and etanercept on the risk of serious infections: does the association vary by patient characteristics?. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 21(5): 524-34. PMID: 22411435, PMCID: PMC3330193, DOI: 10.1002/pds.3238, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Culqui DR, Munayco E CV, Grijalva CG, Cayla JA, Horna-Campos O, Alva Ch K, Suarez O LA. Factors associated with the non-completion of conventional anti-tuberculosis treatment in Peru. Arch. Bronconeumol [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 48(5): 150-5. PMID: 22377140, PII: S0300-2896(12)00007-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.arbres.2011.12.008, ISSN: 1579-2129.

Jules A, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot KH, Williams JV, Dupont WD, Edwards KM, Schaffner W, Shay DK, Griffin MR. Estimating age-specific influenza-related hospitalization rates during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Davidson Co, TN. Influenza Other Respir Viruses [print-electronic]. 2012 May; 6(3): e63-71. PMID: 22360812, PMCID: PMC3773818, DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00343.x, ISSN: 1750-2659.

Bharat A, Xie F, Baddley JW, Beukelman T, Chen L, Calabrese L, Delzell E, Grijalva CG, Patkar NM, Saag K, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR. Incidence and risk factors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy among patients with selected rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Apr; 64(4): 612-5. PMID: 22162369, PMCID: PMC3310319, DOI: 10.1002/acr.21564, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR. Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function. Kidney Int [print-electronic]. 2012 Apr; 81(7): 698-706. PMID: 22258320, PMCID: PMC3306005, PII: ki2011444, DOI: 10.1038/ki.2011.444, ISSN: 1523-1755.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Unveiling the burden of influenza-associated pneumococcal pneumonia [editorial]. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb 2/1/2012; 205(3): 355-7. PMID: 22158562, PII: jir753, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir753, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Grijalva CG, Chen L, Delzell E, Baddley JW, Beukelman T, Winthrop KL, Griffin MR, Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Patkar NM, Solomon DH, Lewis JD, Xie F, Saag KG, Curtis JR. Initiation of tumor necrosis factor-a antagonists and the risk of hospitalization for infection in patients with autoimmune diseases. JAMA [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec 12/7/2011; 306(21): 2331-9. PMID: 22056398, PMCID: PMC3428224, PII: jama.2011.1692, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.1692, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Greevy RA, Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Grijalva CG, Murff H, Liu X, Griffin MR. Comparisons of persistence and durability among three oral antidiabetic therapies using electronic prescription-fill data: the impact of adherence requirements and stockpiling. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther [print-electronic]. 2011 Dec; 90(6): 813-9. PMID: 22048232, PII: clpt2011228, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.228, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Herrinton LJ, Curtis JR, Chen L, Liu L, Delzell E, Lewis JD, Solomon DH, Griffin MR, Ouellet-Hellstom R, Beukelman T, Grijalva CG, Haynes K, Kuriya B, Lii J, Mitchel E, Patkar N, Rassen J, Winthrop KL, Nourjah P, Saag KG. Study design for a comprehensive assessment of biologic safety using multiple healthcare data systems. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov; 20(11): 1199-209. PMID: 21919113, PMCID: PMC3312584, DOI: 10.1002/pds.2196, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Grijalva CG, Moore MR, Griffin MR. Assessing the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: what is the value of routinely collected surveillance data?. Lancet Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 11(10): 724-6. PMID: 21621465, PII: S1473-3099(11)70143-8, DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70143-8, ISSN: 1474-4457.

Kawai VK, Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Curtis JR, Solomon DH, Delzell E, Chen L, Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Herrinton L, Liu L, Mitchel EF, Stein CM, Griffin MR. Changes in cotherapies after initiation of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Oct; 63(10): 1415-24. PMID: 22121511, PMCID: PMC3227007, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Emergence of parapneumonic empyema in the USA. Thorax [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug; 66(8): 663-8. PMID: 21617169, PII: thx.2010.156406, DOI: 10.1136/thx.2010.156406, ISSN: 1468-3296.

Huang SS, Johnson KM, Ray GT, Wroe P, Lieu TA, Moore MR, Zell ER, Linder JA, Grijalva CG, Metlay JP, Finkelstein JA. Healthcare utilization and cost of pneumococcal disease in the United States. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr 4/18/2011; 29(18): 3398-412. PMID: 21397721, PII: S0264-410X(11)00336-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.02.088, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Grijalva CG, Pelton SI. A second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for prevention of pneumococcal diseases in children. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2011 Feb; 23(1): 98-104. PMID: 21191300, PMCID: PMC3357900, DOI: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e328341d1f5, ISSN: 1531-698X.

Roumie CL, Huizinga MM, Liu X, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Griffin MR. The effect of incident antidiabetic regimens on lipid profiles in veterans with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 20(1): 36-44. PMID: 21182152, DOI: 10.1002/pds.2029, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Hung AM, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR, Glenn K, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Siew ED, Crawford DC. CRP polymorphisms and chronic kidney disease in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. BMC Med. Genet. 2011; 12: 65. PMID: 21569369, PMCID: PMC3119179, PII: 1471-2350-12-65, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-65, ISSN: 1471-2350.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Simonsen L, Griffin MR. Establishing the baseline burden of influenza in preparation for the evaluation of a countywide school-based influenza vaccination campaign. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2010 Dec 12/10/2010; 29(1): 123-9. PMID: 21050905, PII: S0264-410X(10)01242-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.072, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Glycemic and weight changes after persistent use of incident oral diabetes therapy: a Veterans Administration retrospective cohort study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Nov; 19(11): 1108-12. PMID: 20878643, DOI: 10.1002/pds.2035, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Grijalva CG, Kaltenbach L, Arbogast PG, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and the effects of exposure misclassification on the risk of hospital admission. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 May; 62(5): 730-4. PMID: 20191470, PMCID: PMC2945370, DOI: 10.1002/acr.20087, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Zhu Y, Griffin MR. Increasing incidence of empyema complicating childhood community-acquired pneumonia in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2010 Mar 3/15/2010; 50(6): 805-13. PMID: 20166818, DOI: 10.1086/650573, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Grijalva CG, Kaltenbach L, Arbogast PG, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Initiation of rheumatoid arthritis treatments and the risk of serious infections. Rheumatology (Oxford) [print-electronic]. 2010 Jan; 49(1): 82-90. PMID: 19906833, PMCID: PMC2909794, PII: kep325, DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kep325, ISSN: 1462-0332.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Simonsen L, Mitchel E, Griffin MR. The population impact of a large school-based influenza vaccination campaign. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(11): e15097. PMID: 21209872, PMCID: PMC3013075, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015097, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Nohynek H, Madhi S, Grijalva CG. Childhood bacterial respiratory diseases: past, present, and future. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2009 Oct; 28(10 Suppl): S127-32. PMID: 19918135, PII: 00006454-200910001-00003, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181b6d800, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Grijalva CG. Recognising pneumonia burden through prevention. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2009 Aug 8/21/2009; 27 Suppl 3: C6-8. PMID: 19540635, PII: S0264-410X(09)00848-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.009, ISSN: 1873-2518.

Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. JAMA. 2009 Aug 8/19/2009; 302(7): 758-66. PMID: 19690308, PII: 302/7/758, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1163, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Pont SJ, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Scott TA, Cooper WO. National rates of diarrhea-associated ambulatory visits in children. J. Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2009 Jul; 155(1): 56-61. PMID: 19394047, PII: S0022-3476(09)00111-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.01.075, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Griffin MR. Evidence of effectiveness from a large county-wide school-based influenza immunization campaign. Vaccine [print-electronic]. 2009 May 5/5/2009; 27(20): 2633-6. PMID: 19428871, PII: S0264-410X(09)00290-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.039, ISSN: 0264-410X.

Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Iwane MK, Blumkin AK, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Auinger P, Griffin MR, Poehling KA, Erdman D, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Szilagyi P. The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2009 Feb 2/5/2009; 360(6): 588-98. PMID: 19196675, PII: 360/6/588, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0804877, ISSN: 1533-4406.

CG Grijalva, MR Griffin, JP Nuorti, ND Walter. Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among Young Children Before and After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine � United States, 1997�2006. MMWR. 2009; 58: 1-4.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Gideon PS, Dyer SM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Computerized definitions showed high positive predictive values for identifying hospitalizations for congestive heart failure and selected infections in Medicaid enrollees with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008 Sep; 17(9): 890-5. PMID: 18543352, DOI: 10.1002/pds.1625, ISSN: 1099-1557.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Changing patterns of medication use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a Medicaid population. Rheumatology (Oxford) [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul; 47(7): 1061-4. PMID: 18499716, PII: ken193, DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken193, ISSN: 1462-0332.

Tsai CJ, Griffin MR, Nuorti JP, Grijalva CG. Changing epidemiology of pneumococcal meningitis after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008 Jun 6/1/2008; 46(11): 1664-72. PMID: 18433334, DOI: 10.1086/587897, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Munayco CV, Grijalva CG, Culqui DR, Bolarte JL, Suárez-Ognio LA, Quispe N, Calderon R, Ascencios L, Del Solar M, Salomón M, Bravo F, Gotuzzo E. Outbreak of persistent cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae after mesotherapy sessions, Lima, Peru. Rev Saude Publica. 2008 Feb; 42(1): 146-9. PMID: 18200353, PII: S0034-89102008000100020, ISSN: 0034-8910.

Grijalva CG, Griffin MR. Population-based impact of routine infant immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Feb; 7(1): 83-95. PMID: 18251696, DOI: 10.1586/14760584.7.1.83, ISSN: 1744-8395.

Zetola NM, Grijalva CG, Gertler S, Hare CB, Kaplan B, Dowling T, Colfax G, Katz MH, Klausner JD. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(7): e2591. PMID: 18596933, PMCID: PMC2435630, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002591, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Shibao C, Grijalva CG, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations in the United States. Am. J. Med. 2007 Nov; 120(11): 975-80. PMID: 17976425, PII: S0002-9343(07)00655-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.05.009, ISSN: 1555-7162.

Grijalva CG, Arbogast PG, Griffin MR. Statins and influenza/COPD mortality [letter]. Chest. 2007 Oct; 132(4): 1407; author reply 1407-8. PMID: 17934131, PII: 132/4/1407, DOI: 10.1378/chest.07-0952, ISSN: 0012-3692.

Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Arbogast PG, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR. Assessment of adherence to and persistence on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Med Care. 2007 Oct; 45(10 Supl 2): S66-76. PMID: 17909386, PII: 00005650-200710002-00013, DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318041384c, ISSN: 0025-7079.

Grijalva CG, Weinberg GA, Bennett NM, Staat MA, Craig AS, Dupont WD, Iwane MK, Postema AS, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Estimating the undetected burden of influenza hospitalizations in children. Epidemiol. Infect [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 135(6): 951-8. PMID: 17156502, PMCID: PMC2870647, PII: S095026880600762X, DOI: 10.1017/S095026880600762X, ISSN: 0950-2688.

Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Arbogast PG, Martin SW, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Decline in pneumonia admissions after routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA: a time-series analysis. Lancet. 2007 Apr 4/7/2007; 369(9568): 1179-86. PMID: 17416262, PII: S0140-6736(07)60564-9, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60564-9, ISSN: 1474-547X.

Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Grijalva CG, Martin SW, LaFleur B, Mitchel E, Barth RD, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Reduction of frequent otitis media and pressure-equalizing tube insertions in children after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr; 119(4): 707-15. PMID: 17403841, PII: 119/4/707, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2138, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva CG, Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Schaffner W, Griffin MR. Accuracy and interpretation of rapid influenza tests in children. Pediatrics. 2007 Jan; 119(1): e6-11. PMID: 17200259, PII: 119/1/e6, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-1694, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Grijalva, CG, Nuorti, JP, Edwards, KM, Griffin, MR. Herd immunity after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination - Authors' reply. Lancet. 2007; 370((9583)): 219-20.

Grijalva CG, Edwards KM. Promises and challenges of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for the developing world [editorial]. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2006 Sep 9/15/2006; 43(6): 680-2. PMID: 16912938, PII: CID40231, DOI: 10.1086/506945, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Grijalva CG, Poehling KA, Nuorti JP, Zhu Y, Martin SW, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. National impact of universal childhood immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on outpatient medical care visits in the United States. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3): 865-73. PMID: 16950975, PII: 118/3/865, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0492, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi P, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Bridges CB, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Bernstein DI, Herrera G, Erdman D, Hall CB, Seither R, Griffin MR, . The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006 Jul 7/6/2006; 355(1): 31-40. PMID: 16822994, PII: 355/1/31, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa054869, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Grijalva CG, Craig AS, Dupont WD, Bridges CB, Schrag SJ, Iwane MK, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Estimating influenza hospitalizations among children. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2006 Jan; 12(1): 103-9. PMID: 16494725, PMCID: PMC3372368, DOI: 10.3201/eid1201.050308, ISSN: 1080-6040.

Roumie CL, Halasa NB, Grijalva CG, Edwards KM, Zhu Y, Dittus RS, Griffin MR. Trends in antibiotic prescribing for adults in the United States--1995 to 2002. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Aug; 20(8): 697-702. PMID: 16050877, PMCID: PMC1490171, PII: JGI05620, DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0148.x, ISSN: 1525-1497.

Culqui DR, Grijalva CG, Reategui Sdel R, Cajo JM, Suárez LA. [Predictive factors for noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment in an endemic region of Peru]. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica. 2005 Jul; 18(1): 14-20. PMID: 16105321, PII: S1020-49892005000600003, ISSN: 1020-4989.