Eric P. Skaar, Ph.D.

University Distinguished Professor

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Faculty Appointments
Director, Microbial Path Program University Distinguished Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology Ernest W. Goodpasture Chair in Pathology #2University Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences
Ph.D., Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Northwestern University, Evanston/Chicago, IllinoisM.P.H., Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Northwestern University, Evanston/Chicago, IllinoisB.S., Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
Office Address
A-5102 MCN
1161 21st Ave South
Nashville, TN 2363
Research Description
In order for bacterial pathogens to cause disease, they must obtain nutrients inside their vertebrate hosts. The primary nutrients that are limiting to the growth of bacteria inside vertebrates are metals. This is due to the fact that vertebrates have developed numerous metal chelation systems that serve as a host defense against microbial infection. This process is called nutritional immunity. My laboratory is interested in identifying the host and bacterial factors that are involved in this battle for metal during the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. We use techniques from biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and chemistry to answer fundamental questions pertaining to the host-pathogen interaction. In particular, we focus on diseases caused by the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (Staph infections), Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax), and Acinetobacter baumannii (leading cause of hospital infections and battlefield wound infections). The long term goal of our research is to develop novel therapies to treat microbial diseases.
Research Keywords
The pathogenesis of bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (Staph infections), Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax), and Acinetobacter baumannii (soft tissue infections).
Bennett MR, Bombardi RG, Kose N, Parrish EH, Nagel MB, Petit RA, Read TD, Schey KL, Thomsen IP, Skaar EP, Crowe JE. Human mAbs to Staphylococcus aureus IsdA Provide Protection Through Both Heme-Blocking and Fc-Mediated Mechanisms. J. Infect. Dis. 2019 Apr 4/8/2019; 219(8): 1264-73. PMID: 30496483, PMCID: PMC6452300, PII: 5218956, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy635, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Palmer LD, Skaar EP. Cuts Both Ways: Proteases Modulate Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. MBio. 2019 Feb 2/26/2019; 10(1): PMID: 30808700, PMCID: PMC6391915, PII: mBio.00115-19, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00115-19, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Grunenwald CM, Choby JE, Juttukonda LJ, Beavers WN, Weiss A, Torres VJ, Skaar EP. Manganese Detoxification by MntE Is Critical for Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. MBio. 2019 Feb 2/26/2019; 10(1): PMID: 30808698, PMCID: PMC6391924, PII: mBio.02915-18, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02915-18, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Lonergan ZR, Nairn BL, Wang J, Hsu YP, Hesse LE, Beavers WN, Chazin WJ, Trinidad JC, VanNieuwenhze MS, Giedroc DP, Skaar EP. An Acinetobacter baumannii, Zinc-Regulated Peptidase Maintains Cell Wall Integrity during Immune-Mediated Nutrient Sequestration. Cell Rep. 2019 Feb 2/19/2019; 26(8): 2009-2018.e6. PMID: 30784584, PMCID: PMC6441547, PII: S2211-1247(19)30125-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.089, ISSN: 2211-1247.

Choby JE, Monteith AJ, Himmel LE, Margaritis P, Shirey-Rice JK, Pruijssers A, Jerome RN, Pulley J, Skaar EP. PheWAS uncovers a pathological role of coagulation Factor X during Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2019 Feb 2/19/2019; PMID: 30782860, PII: IAI.00031-19, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00031-19, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Williams JC, Sheldon JR, Imlay HD, Dutter BF, Draelos MM, Skaar EP, Sulikowski GA. Synthesis of the Siderophore Coelichelin and Its Utility as a Probe in the Study of Bacterial Metal Sensing and Response. Org. Lett [print-electronic]. 2019 Feb 2/1/2019; 21(3): 679-82. PMID: 30645132, DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.8b03857, ISSN: 1523-7052.

Maseda D, Zackular JP, Trindade B, Kirk L, Roxas JL, Rogers LM, Washington MK, Du L, Koyama T, Viswanathan VK, Vedantam G, Schloss PD, Crofford LJ, Skaar EP, Aronoff DM. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Alter the Microbiota and Exacerbate Clostridium difficile Colitis while Dysregulating the Inflammatory Response. MBio. 2019 Jan 1/8/2019; 10(1): PMID: 30622186, PMCID: PMC6325247, PII: mBio.02282-18, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02282-18, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Kozlyuk N, Monteith AJ, Garcia V, Damo SM, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ. S100 Proteins in the Innate Immune Response to Pathogens. Methods Mol. Biol. 2019; 1929: 275-90. PMID: 30710280, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9030-6_18, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Palmer LD, Green ER, Sheldon JR, Skaar EP. Assessing Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence and Persistence in a Murine Model of Lung Infection. Methods Mol. Biol. 2019; 1946: 289-305. PMID: 30798564, PMCID: PMC6446551, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9118-1_26, ISSN: 1940-6029.

Knippel RJ, Zackular JP, Moore JL, Celis AI, Weiss A, Washington MK, DuBois JL, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Heme sensing and detoxification by HatRT contributes to pathogenesis during Clostridium difficile infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Dec; 14(12): e1007486. PMID: 30576368, PMCID: PMC6303022, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-18-01839, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007486, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Choby JE, Buechi HB, Farrand AJ, Skaar EP, Barber MF. Molecular Basis for the Evolution of Species-Specific Hemoglobin Capture by Staphylococcus aureus. MBio. 2018 Nov 11/20/2018; 9(6): PMID: 30459189, PMCID: PMC6247092, PII: mBio.01524-18, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01524-18, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Grunenwald CM, Bennett MR, Skaar EP. Nonconventional Therapeutics against Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiol Spectr. 2018 Nov; 6(6): PMID: 30547858, PMCID: PMC6296826, DOI: 10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0047-2018, ISSN: 2165-0497.

Pishchany G, Mevers E, Ndousse-Fetter S, Horvath DJ, Paludo CR, Silva-Junior EA, Koren S, Skaar EP, Clardy J, Kolter R. Amycomicin is a potent and specific antibiotic discovered with a targeted interaction screen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2018 Oct 10/2/2018; 115(40): 10124-9. PMID: 30228116, PMCID: PMC6176635, PII: 1807613115, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807613115, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Ayala OD, Wakeman CA, Pence IJ, Gaddy JA, Slaughter JC, Skaar EP, Mahadevan-Jansen A. Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Reveal Distinct Biochemical Features with Raman Microspectroscopy. ACS Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2018 Aug 8/10/2018; 4(8): 1197-210. PMID: 29845863, DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00029, ISSN: 2373-8227.

Lojek LJ, Farrand AJ, Weiss A, Skaar EP. Fur regulation of Staphylococcus aureus heme oxygenases is required for heme homeostasis. Int. J. Med. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2018 Aug; 308(6): 582-9. PMID: 29409696, PMCID: PMC6070430, PII: S1438-4221(17)30372-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2018.01.009, ISSN: 1618-0607.

Lopez CA, Skaar EP. The Impact of Dietary Transition Metals on Host-Bacterial Interactions. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Jun 6/13/2018; 23(6): 737-48. PMID: 29902439, PMCID: PMC6007885, PII: S1931-3128(18)30262-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.05.008, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Lentz CS, Sheldon JR, Crawford LA, Cooper R, Garland M, Amieva MR, Weerapana E, Skaar EP, Bogyo M. Identification of a S. aureus virulence factor by activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). Nat. Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2018 Jun; 14(6): 609-17. PMID: 29769740, PMCID: PMC6202179, PII: 10.1038/s41589-018-0060-1, DOI: 10.1038/s41589-018-0060-1, ISSN: 1552-4469.

Cassat JE, Moore JL, Wilson KJ, Stark Z, Prentice BM, Van de Plas R, Perry WJ, Zhang Y, Virostko J, Colvin DC, Rose KL, Judd AM, Reyzer ML, Spraggins JM, Grunenwald CM, Gore JC, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Integrated molecular imaging reveals tissue heterogeneity driving host-pathogen interactions. Sci Transl Med. 2018 Mar 3/14/2018; 10(432): PMID: 29540616, PMCID: PMC6005374, PII: 10/432/eaan6361, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan6361, ISSN: 1946-6242.

Zackular JP, Skaar EP. The role of zinc and nutritional immunity in Clostridium difficile infection. Gut Microbes [print-electronic]. 2018; 9(5): 469-76. PMID: 29533126, PMCID: PMC6219639, DOI: 10.1080/19490976.2018.1448354, ISSN: 1949-0984.

Lopez CA, Skaar EP. Crossed Wires: Interspecies Interference Blocks Pathogen Colonization. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Dec 12/13/2017; 22(6): 721-3. PMID: 29241035, PII: S1931-3128(17)30510-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.11.016, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Kinsella RL, Lopez J, Palmer LD, Salinas ND, Skaar EP, Tolia NH, Feldman MF. Defining the interaction of the protease CpaA with its type II secretion chaperone CpaB and its contribution to virulence in Acinetobacter species. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2017 Dec 12/1/2017; 292(48): 19628-38. PMID: 28982978, PMCID: PMC5712607, PII: M117.808394, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M117.808394, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Aron AT, Heffern MC, Lonergan ZR, Vander Wal MN, Blank BR, Spangler B, Zhang Y, Park HM, Stahl A, Renslo AR, Skaar EP, Chang CJ. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of labile iron accumulation in a murine model of Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2017 Nov 11/28/2017; 114(48): 12669-74. PMID: 29138321, PMCID: PMC5715752, PII: 1708747114, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708747114, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Peng H, Zhang Y, Palmer LD, Kehl-Fie TE, Skaar EP, Trinidad JC, Giedroc DP. Hydrogen Sulfide and Reactive Sulfur Species Impact Proteome S-Sulfhydration and Global Virulence Regulation in Staphylococcus aureus. ACS Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct 10/13/2017; 3(10): 744-55. PMID: 28850209, PMCID: PMC5863038, DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00090, ISSN: 2373-8227.

Juttukonda LJ, Berends ETM, Zackular JP, Moore JL, Stier MT, Zhang Y, Schmitz JE, Beavers WN, Wijers CD, Gilston BA, Kehl-Fie TE, Atkinson J, Washington MK, Peebles RS, Chazin WJ, Torres VJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Dietary Manganese Promotes Staphylococcal Infection of the Heart. Cell Host Microbe [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct 10/11/2017; 22(4): 531-542.e8. PMID: 28943329, PMCID: PMC5638708, PII: S1931-3128(17)30342-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.08.009, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Noto MJ, Burns WJ, Beavers WN, Skaar EP. Mechanisms of Pyocyanin Toxicity and Genetic Determinants of Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol [electronic-print]. 2017 Sep 9/1/2017; 199(17): PMID: 28607159, PMCID: PMC5553028, PII: JB.00221-17, DOI: 10.1128/JB.00221-17, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Surdel MC, Horvath DJ, Lojek LJ, Fullen AR, Simpson J, Dutter BF, Salleng KJ, Ford JB, Jenkins JL, Nagarajan R, Teixeira PL, Albertolle M, Georgiev IS, Jansen ED, Sulikowski GA, Lacy DB, Dailey HA, Skaar EP. Antibacterial photosensitization through activation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2017 Aug 8/8/2017; 114(32): E6652-E6659. PMID: 28739897, PMCID: PMC5559000, PII: 1700469114, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700469114, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Peng H, Shen J, Edmonds KA, Luebke JL, Hickey AK, Palmer LD, Chang FJ, Bruce KA, Kehl-Fie TE, Skaar EP, Giedroc DP. Sulfide Homeostasis and Nitroxyl Intersect via Formation of Reactive Sulfur Species in Staphylococcus aureus. MSphere. 2017 May; 2(3): PMID: 28656172, PMCID: PMC5480029, PII: mSphere00082-17, DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00082-17, ISSN: 2379-5042.

Pulley JM, Shirey-Rice JK, Lavieri RR, Jerome RN, Zaleski NM, Aronoff DM, Bastarache L, Niu X, Holroyd KJ, Roden DM, Skaar EP, Niswender CM, Marnett LJ, Lindsley CW, Ekstrom LB, Bentley AR, Bernard GR, Hong CC, Denny JC. Accelerating Precision Drug Development and Drug Repurposing by Leveraging Human Genetics. Assay Drug Dev Technol [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 15(3): 113-9. PMID: 28379727, PMCID: PMC5399743, DOI: 10.1089/adt.2016.772, ISSN: 1557-8127.

Norris JL, Farrow MA, Gutierrez DB, Palmer LD, Muszynski N, Sherrod SD, Pino JC, Allen JL, Spraggins JM, Lubbock AL, Jordan A, Burns W, Poland JC, Romer C, Manier ML, Nei YW, Prentice BM, Rose KL, Hill S, Van de Plas R, Tsui T, Braman NM, Keller MR, Rutherford SA, Lobdell N, Lopez CF, Lacy DB, McLean JA, Wikswo JP, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM. Integrated, High-Throughput, Multiomics Platform Enables Data-Driven Construction of Cellular Responses and Reveals Global Drug Mechanisms of Action. J. Proteome Res [print-electronic]. 2017 Mar 3/3/2017; 16(3): 1364-75. PMID: 28088864, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b01004, ISSN: 1535-3907.

Noto MJ, Becker KW, Boyd KL, Schmidt AM, Skaar EP. RAGE-Mediated Suppression of Interleukin-10 Results in Enhanced Mortality in a Murine Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Sepsis. Infect. Immun [electronic-print]. 2017 Mar; 85(3): PMID: 28052995, PMCID: PMC5328494, PII: IAI.00954-16, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00954-16, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Garcia YM, Barwinska-Sendra A, Tarrant E, Skaar EP, Waldron KJ, Kehl-Fie TE. A Superoxide Dismutase Capable of Functioning with Iron or Manganese Promotes the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Calprotectin and Nutritional Immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Jan; 13(1): e1006125. PMID: 28103306, PMCID: PMC5245786, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-16-02311, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006125, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Palmer LD, Skaar EP. Transition Metals and Virulence in Bacteria. Annu. Rev. Genet [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov 11/23/2016; 50: 67-91. PMID: 27617971, PMCID: PMC5125913, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035146, ISSN: 1545-2948.

Choby JE, Mike LA, Mashruwala AA, Dutter BF, Dunman PM, Sulikowski GA, Boyd JM, Skaar EP. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Uncovers a Link between Virulence Regulation and Metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Chem Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov 11/17/2016; 23(11): 1351-61. PMID: 27773628, PMCID: PMC5117899, PII: S2451-9456(16)30347-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2016.09.012, ISSN: 2451-9448.

Varga MG, Piazuelo MB, Romero-Gallo J, Delgado AG, Suarez G, Whitaker ME, Krishna US, Patel RV, Skaar EP, Wilson KT, Algood HM, Peek RM. TLR9 activation suppresses inflammation in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov 11/1/2016; 311(5): G852-G858. PMID: 27758771, PMCID: PMC5130555, PII: ajpgi.00175.2016, DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00175.2016, ISSN: 1522-1547.

Zackular JP, Moore JL, Jordan AT, Juttukonda LJ, Noto MJ, Nicholson MR, Crews JD, Semler MW, Zhang Y, Ware LB, Washington MK, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Dietary zinc alters the microbiota and decreases resistance to Clostridium difficile infection. Nat. Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov; 22(11): 1330-4. PMID: 27668938, PMCID: PMC5101143, PII: nm.4174, DOI: 10.1038/nm.4174, ISSN: 1546-170X.

Juttukonda LJ, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Acinetobacter baumannii Coordinates Urea Metabolism with Metal Import To Resist Host-Mediated Metal Limitation. MBio. 2016 Sep 9/27/2016; 7(5): PMID: 27677795, PMCID: PMC5050338, PII: mBio.01475-16, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01475-16, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Hendrix AS, Spoonmore TJ, Wilde AD, Putnam NE, Hammer ND, Snyder DJ, Guelcher SA, Skaar EP, Cassat JE. Repurposing the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diflunisal as an Osteoprotective, Antivirulence Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother [electronic-print]. 2016 Sep; 60(9): 5322-30. PMID: 27324764, PMCID: PMC4997817, PII: AAC.00834-16, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00834-16, ISSN: 1098-6596.

Choby JE, Skaar EP. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug 8/28/2016; 428(17): 3408-28. PMID: 27019298, PMCID: PMC5125930, PII: S0022-2836(16)00204-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2016.03.018, ISSN: 1089-8638.

Surdel MC, Dutter BF, Sulikowski GA, Skaar EP. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress. ACS Infect Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug 8/12/2016; 2(8): 572-8. PMID: 27626297, DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.6b00081, ISSN: 2373-8227.

Heilbronner S, Monk IR, Brozyna JR, Heinrichs DE, Skaar EP, Peschel A, Foster TJ. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation. PLoS Genet. 2016 Aug; 12(8): e1006246. PMID: 27575058, PMCID: PMC5004866, PII: PGENETICS-D-16-00437, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006246, ISSN: 1553-7404.

Gilston BA, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ. Binding of transition metals to S100 proteins. Sci China Life Sci [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug; 59(8): 792-801. PMID: 27430886, PMCID: PMC5123432, PII: 10.1007/s11427-016-5088-4, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-016-5088-4, ISSN: 1869-1889.

Beavers WN, Skaar EP. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus. Pathog Dis [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug; 74(6): PMID: 27354296, PMCID: PMC5975594, PII: ftw060, DOI: 10.1093/femspd/ftw060, ISSN: 2049-632X.

Hammer ND, Schurig-Briccio LA, Gerdes SY, Gennis RB, Skaar EP. CtaM Is Required for Menaquinol Oxidase aa3 Function in Staphylococcus aureus. MBio. 2016 Jul 7/12/2016; 7(4): PMID: 27406563, PMCID: PMC4958251, PII: mBio.00823-16, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00823-16, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Wakeman CA, Moore JL, Noto MJ, Zhang Y, Singleton MD, Prentice BM, Gilston BA, Doster RS, Gaddy JA, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. The innate immune protein calprotectin promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interaction. Nat Commun. 2016 Jun 6/15/2016; 7: 11951. PMID: 27301800, PMCID: PMC4912628, PII: ncomms11951, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11951, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Nairn BL, Lonergan ZR, Wang J, Braymer JJ, Zhang Y, Calcutt MW, Lisher JP, Gilston BA, Chazin WJ, de Crécy-Lagard V, Giedroc DP, Skaar EP. The Response of Acinetobacter baumannii to Zinc Starvation. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Jun 6/8/2016; 19(6): 826-36. PMID: 27281572, PMCID: PMC4901392, PII: S1931-3128(16)30203-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.05.007, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Dutter BF, Mike LA, Reid PR, Chong KM, Ramos-Hunter SJ, Skaar EP, Sulikowski GA. Decoupling Activation of Heme Biosynthesis from Anaerobic Toxicity in a Molecule Active in Staphylococcus aureus. ACS Chem. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 May 5/20/2016; 11(5): 1354-61. PMID: 26890615, PMCID: PMC5117894, DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00934, ISSN: 1554-8937.

Streit BR, Kant R, Tokmina-Lukaszewska M, Celis AI, Machovina MM, Skaar EP, Bothner B, DuBois JL. Time-resolved Studies of IsdG Protein Identify Molecular Signposts along the Non-canonical Heme Oxygenase Pathway. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/8/2016; 291(2): 862-71. PMID: 26534961, PMCID: PMC4705404, PII: M115.666560, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.666560, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Clark HL, Jhingran A, Sun Y, Vareechon C, de Jesus Carrion S, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ, Calera JA, Hohl TM, Pearlman E. Zinc and Manganese Chelation by Neutrophil S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin) Limits Extracellular Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Corneal Infection. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan 1/1/2016; 196(1): 336-44. PMID: 26582948, PMCID: PMC4684987, PII: jimmunol.1502037, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1502037, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Harding CM, Kinsella RL, Palmer LD, Skaar EP, Feldman MF. Medically Relevant Acinetobacter Species Require a Type II Secretion System and Specific Membrane-Associated Chaperones for the Export of Multiple Substrates and Full Virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1): e1005391. PMID: 26764912, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-15-02450, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005391, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Wilde AD, Snyder DJ, Putnam NE, Valentino MD, Hammer ND, Lonergan ZR, Hinger SA, Aysanoa EE, Blanchard C, Dunman PM, Wasserman GA, Chen J, Shopsin B, Gilmore MS, Skaar EP, Cassat JE. Bacterial Hypoxic Responses Revealed as Critical Determinants of the Host-Pathogen Outcome by TnSeq Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Invasive Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12): e1005341. PMID: 26684646, PMCID: PMC4684308, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-15-02340, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005341, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Noto MJ, Boyd KL, Burns WJ, Varga MG, Peek RM, Skaar EP. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Contributes to Defense against Acinetobacter baumannii Infection. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct; 83(10): 4134-41. PMID: 26238713, PMCID: PMC4567622, PII: IAI.00410-15, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00410-15, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Rosario-Cruz Z, Chahal HK, Mike LA, Skaar EP, Boyd JM. Bacillithiol has a role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct; 98(2): 218-42. PMID: 26135358, PMCID: PMC4705035, DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13115, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Farrand AJ, Haley KP, Lareau NM, Heilbronner S, McLean JA, Foster T, Skaar EP. An Iron-Regulated Autolysin Remodels the Cell Wall To Facilitate Heme Acquisition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 83(9): 3578-89. PMID: 26123800, PMCID: PMC4534641, PII: IAI.00397-15, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00397-15, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Messad N, Prajsnar TK, Lina G, O'Callaghan D, Foster SJ, Renshaw SA, Skaar EP, Bes M, Dunyach-Remy C, Vandenesch F, Sotto A, Lavigne JP. Existence of a Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated in Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Diabetes [print-electronic]. 2015 Aug; 64(8): 2991-5. PMID: 25901094, PMCID: PMC4512213, PII: db15-0031, DOI: 10.2337/db15-0031, ISSN: 1939-327X.

Zackular JP, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Nutritional Immunity: S100 Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul 7/31/2015; 290(31): 18991-8. PMID: 26055713, PMCID: PMC4521021, PII: R115.645085, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.R115.645085, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Cho H, Jeong DW, Liu Q, Yeo WS, Vogl T, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ, Bae T. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul; 11(7): e1005026. PMID: 26147796, PMCID: PMC4492782, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-14-02960, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005026, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Haley KP, Delgado AG, Piazuelo MB, Mortensen BL, Correa P, Damo SM, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Gaddy JA. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Calgranulin C Participates in Control of Helicobacter pylori Growth and Regulation of Virulence. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul; 83(7): 2944-56. PMID: 25964473, PMCID: PMC4468547, PII: IAI.00544-15, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00544-15, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Juttukonda LJ, Skaar EP. Manganese homeostasis and utilization in pathogenic bacteria. Mol. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Jul; 97(2): 216-28. PMID: 25898914, PMCID: PMC4631260, DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13034, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Skaar EP, Raffatellu M. Metals in infectious diseases and nutritional immunity [editorial]. Metallomics. 2015 Jun; 7(6): 926-8. PMID: 26017093, DOI: 10.1039/c5mt90021b, ISSN: 1756-591X.

Spraggins JM, Rizzo DG, Moore JL, Rose KL, Hammer ND, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun; 26(6): 974-85. PMID: 25904064, PMCID: PMC4442642, DOI: 10.1007/s13361-015-1147-5, ISSN: 1879-1123.

Farrand AJ, Friedman DB, Reniere ML, Ingmer H, Frees D, Skaar EP. Proteomic analyses of iron-responsive, Clp-dependent changes in Staphylococcus aureus. Pathog Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr; 73(3): PMID: 25743475, PMCID: PMC4542840, PII: ftv004, DOI: 10.1093/femspd/ftv004, ISSN: 2049-632X.

Floyd KA, Moore JL, Eberly AR, Good JA, Shaffer CL, Zaver H, Almqvist F, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM, Hadjifrangiskou M. Adhesive fiber stratification in uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms unveils oxygen-mediated control of type 1 pili. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Mar; 11(3): e1004697. PMID: 25738819, PMCID: PMC4349694, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-14-02041, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004697, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Cullen TW, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Trent MS, Algood HM. Helicobacter pylori Resists the Antimicrobial Activity of Calprotectin via Lipid A Modification and Associated Biofilm Formation. MBio. 2015; 6(6): PMID: 26646009, PMCID: PMC4669380, PII: mBio.01349-15, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01349-15, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Becker KW, Skaar EP. Metal limitation and toxicity at the interface between host and pathogen. FEMS Microbiol. Rev [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 38(6): 1235-49. PMID: 25211180, PMCID: PMC4227937, DOI: 10.1111/1574-6976.12087, ISSN: 1574-6976.

Achouiti A, Vogl T, Endeman H, Mortensen BL, Laterre PF, Wittebole X, van Zoelen MA, Zhang Y, Hoogerwerf JJ, Florquin S, Schultz MJ, Grutters JC, Biesma DH, Roth J, Skaar EP, van 't Veer C, de Vos AF, van der Poll T. Myeloid-related protein-8/14 facilitates bacterial growth during pneumococcal pneumonia. Thorax [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 69(11): 1034-42. PMID: 25179663, PII: thoraxjnl-2014-205668, DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205668, ISSN: 1468-3296.

Hammer ND, Cassat JE, Noto MJ, Lojek LJ, Chadha AD, Schmitz JE, Creech CB, Skaar EP. Inter- and intraspecies metabolite exchange promotes virulence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Oct 10/8/2014; 16(4): 531-7. PMID: 25299336, PMCID: PMC4197139, PII: S1931-3128(14)00335-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.09.002, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Gaddy JA, Radin JN, Loh JT, Piazuelo MB, Kehl-Fie TE, Delgado AG, Ilca FT, Peek RM, Cover TL, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Scott Algood HM. The host protein calprotectin modulates the Helicobacter pylori cag type IV secretion system via zinc sequestration. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct; 10(10): e1004450. PMID: 25330071, PMCID: PMC4199781, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-14-01130, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004450, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Lin L, Pantapalangkoor P, Tan B, Bruhn KW, Ho T, Nielsen T, Skaar EP, Zhang Y, Bai R, Wang A, Doherty TM, Spellberg B. Transferrin iron starvation therapy for lethal bacterial and fungal infections. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul 7/15/2014; 210(2): 254-64. PMID: 24446527, PMCID: PMC4092247, PII: jiu049, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu049, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Mortensen BL, Rathi S, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Acinetobacter baumannii response to host-mediated zinc limitation requires the transcriptional regulator Zur. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul; 196(14): 2616-26. PMID: 24816603, PMCID: PMC4097591, PII: JB.01650-14, DOI: 10.1128/JB.01650-14, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Moore JL, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Advanced mass spectrometry technologies for the study of microbial pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 19: 45-51. PMID: 24997399, PMCID: PMC4125470, PII: S1369-5274(14)00072-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.mib.2014.05.023, ISSN: 1879-0364.

Pishchany G, Sheldon JR, Dickson CF, Alam MT, Read TD, Gell DA, Heinrichs DE, Skaar EP. IsdB-dependent hemoglobin binding is required for acquisition of heme by Staphylococcus aureus. J. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun 6/1/2014; 209(11): 1764-72. PMID: 24338348, PMCID: PMC4038968, PII: jit817, DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit817, ISSN: 1537-6613.

Wakeman CA, Stauff DL, Zhang Y, Skaar EP. Differential activation of Staphylococcus aureus heme detoxification machinery by heme analogues. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 196(7): 1335-42. PMID: 24443529, PMCID: PMC3993332, PII: JB.01067-13, DOI: 10.1128/JB.01067-13, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Moore JL, Becker KW, Nicklay JJ, Boyd KL, Skaar EP, Caprioli RM. Imaging mass spectrometry for assessing temporal proteomics: analysis of calprotectin in Acinetobacter baumannii pulmonary infection. Proteomics [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 14(7-8): 820-8. PMID: 23754577, PMCID: PMC3883928, DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201300046, ISSN: 1615-9861.

Mike LA, Choby JE, Brinkman PR, Olive LQ, Dutter BF, Ivan SJ, Gibbs CM, Sulikowski GA, Stauff DL, Skaar EP. Two-component system cross-regulation integrates Bacillus anthracis response to heme and cell envelope stress. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Mar; 10(3): e1004044. PMID: 24675902, PMCID: PMC3968170, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-13-03318, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004044, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Thompson MK, Keithly ME, Goodman MC, Hammer ND, Cook PD, Jagessar KL, Harp J, Skaar EP, Armstrong RN. Structure and function of the genomically encoded fosfomycin resistance enzyme, FosB, from Staphylococcus aureus. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb 2/4/2014; 53(4): 755-65. PMID: 24447055, PMCID: PMC3985756, DOI: 10.1021/bi4015852, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Cassat JE, Skaar EP. Recent advances in experimental models of osteomyelitis [editorial]. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013 Dec; 11(12): 1263-5. PMID: 24215241, DOI: 10.1586/14787210.2013.858600, ISSN: 1744-8336.

Hood MI, Uzhachenko R, Boyd K, Skaar EP, Ivanova AV. Loss of mitochondrial protein Fus1 augments host resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec; 81(12): 4461-9. PMID: 24042119, PMCID: PMC3837987, PII: IAI.00771-13, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00771-13, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Farrand AJ, Reniere ML, Ingmer H, Frees D, Skaar EP. Regulation of host hemoglobin binding by the Staphylococcus aureus Clp proteolytic system. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov; 195(22): 5041-50. PMID: 23995637, PMCID: PMC3811588, PII: JB.00505-13, DOI: 10.1128/JB.00505-13, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Kehl-Fie TE, Zhang Y, Moore JL, Farrand AJ, Hood MI, Rathi S, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. MntABC and MntH contribute to systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection by competing with calprotectin for nutrient manganese. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 81(9): 3395-405. PMID: 23817615, PMCID: PMC3754211, PII: IAI.00420-13, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00420-13, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Lee K, Boyd KL, Parekh DV, Kehl-Fie TE, Baldwin HS, Brakebusch C, Skaar EP, Boothby M, Zent R. Cdc42 promotes host defenses against fatal infection. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 81(8): 2714-23. PMID: 23690402, PMCID: PMC3719566, PII: IAI.01114-12, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01114-12, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Attia AS, Cassat JE, Aranmolate SO, Zimmerman LJ, Boyd KL, Skaar EP. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus abscess proteome identifies antimicrobial host proteins and bacterial stress responses at the host-pathogen interface. Pathog Dis [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul 7/11/2013; PMID: 23847107, PMCID: PMC3877740, DOI: 10.1111/2049-632X.12063, ISSN: 2049-632X.

Cassat JE, Hammer ND, Campbell JP, Benson MA, Perrien DS, Mrak LN, Smeltzer MS, Torres VJ, Skaar EP. A secreted bacterial protease tailors the Staphylococcus aureus virulence repertoire to modulate bone remodeling during osteomyelitis. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Jun 6/12/2013; 13(6): 759-72. PMID: 23768499, PMCID: PMC3721972, PII: S1931-3128(13)00185-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2013.05.003, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Cassat JE, Skaar EP. Iron in infection and immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 May 5/15/2013; 13(5): 509-19. PMID: 23684303, PMCID: PMC3676888, PII: S1931-3128(13)00152-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2013.04.010, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Mike LA, Dutter BF, Stauff DL, Moore JL, Vitko NP, Aranmolate O, Kehl-Fie TE, Sullivan S, Reid PR, DuBois JL, Richardson AR, Caprioli RM, Sulikowski GA, Skaar EP. Activation of heme biosynthesis by a small molecule that is toxic to fermenting Staphylococcus aureus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2013 May 5/14/2013; 110(20): 8206-11. PMID: 23630262, PMCID: PMC3657828, PII: 1303674110, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1303674110, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Damo SM, Kehl-Fie TE, Sugitani N, Holt ME, Rathi S, Murphy WJ, Zhang Y, Betz C, Hench L, Fritz G, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ. Molecular basis for manganese sequestration by calprotectin and roles in the innate immune response to invading bacterial pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/5/2013; 110(10): 3841-6. PMID: 23431180, PMCID: PMC3593839, PII: 1220341110, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1220341110, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Hood MI, Becker KW, Roux CM, Dunman PM, Skaar EP. Genetic determinants of intrinsic colistin tolerance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2013 Feb; 81(2): 542-51. PMID: 23230287, PMCID: PMC3553813, PII: IAI.00704-12, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00704-12, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Mortensen BL, Skaar EP. The contribution of nutrient metal acquisition and metabolism to Acinetobacter baumannii survival within the host. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013; 3: 95. PMID: 24377089, PMCID: PMC3859900, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00095, ISSN: 2235-2988.

Hammer ND, Reniere ML, Cassat JE, Zhang Y, Hirsch AO, Indriati Hood M, Skaar EP. Two heme-dependent terminal oxidases power Staphylococcus aureus organ-specific colonization of the vertebrate host. MBio. 2013; 4(4): PMID: 23900169, PMCID: PMC3735196, PII: mBio.00241-13, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00241-13, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Pishchany G, Haley KP, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus aureus growth using human hemoglobin as an iron source. J Vis Exp. 2013; (72): PMID: 23426144, PMCID: PMC3600743, PII: 50072, DOI: 10.3791/50072, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Wakeman CA, Hammer ND, Stauff DL, Attia AS, Anzaldi LL, Dikalov SI, Calcutt MW, Skaar EP. Menaquinone biosynthesis potentiates haem toxicity in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 86(6): 1376-92. PMID: 23043465, PMCID: PMC3524387, DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12063, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Mortensen BL, Skaar EP. Host-microbe interactions that shape the pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Cell. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Sep; 14(9): 1336-44. PMID: 22640368, PMCID: PMC3781221, DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01817.x, ISSN: 1462-5822.

Hood MI, Skaar EP. Nutritional immunity: transition metals at the pathogen-host interface. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2012 Aug; 10(8): 525-37. PMID: 22796883, PMCID: PMC3875331, PII: nrmicro2836, DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2836, ISSN: 1740-1534.

Attia AS, Schroeder KA, Seeley EH, Wilson KJ, Hammer ND, Colvin DC, Manier ML, Nicklay JJ, Rose KL, Gore JC, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Monitoring the inflammatory response to infection through the integration of MALDI IMS and MRI. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Jun 6/14/2012; 11(6): 664-73. PMID: 22704626, PMCID: PMC3377982, PII: S1931-3128(12)00165-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2012.04.018, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Damo S, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP, Kehl-Fie TE. Inhibition of bacterial superoxide defense: a new front in the struggle between host and pathogen. Virulence [print-electronic]. 2012 May 5/1/2012; 3(3): 325-8. PMID: 22546907, PMCID: PMC3442845, PII: 19635, DOI: 10.4161/viru.19635, ISSN: 2150-5608.

Wakeman CA, Skaar EP. Metalloregulation of Gram-positive pathogen physiology. Curr. Opin. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Apr; 15(2): 169-74. PMID: 22155062, PMCID: PMC3306535, PII: S1369-5274(11)00207-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.mib.2011.11.008, ISSN: 1879-0364.

Liu JZ, Jellbauer S, Poe AJ, Ton V, Pesciaroli M, Kehl-Fie TE, Restrepo NA, Hosking MP, Edwards RA, Battistoni A, Pasquali P, Lane TE, Chazin WJ, Vogl T, Roth J, Skaar EP, Raffatellu M. Zinc sequestration by the neutrophil protein calprotectin enhances Salmonella growth in the inflamed gut. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Mar 3/15/2012; 11(3): 227-39. PMID: 22423963, PMCID: PMC3308348, PII: S1931-3128(12)00059-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2012.01.017, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Haley KP, Skaar EP. A battle for iron: host sequestration and Staphylococcus aureus acquisition. Microbes Infect [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 14(3): 217-27. PMID: 22123296, PMCID: PMC3785375, PII: S1286-4579(11)00279-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2011.11.001, ISSN: 1769-714X.

Cassat JE, Skaar EP. Metal ion acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus: overcoming nutritional immunity. Semin Immunopathol [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 34(2): 215-35. PMID: 22048835, PMCID: PMC3796439, DOI: 10.1007/s00281-011-0294-4, ISSN: 1863-2300.

Hammer ND, Skaar EP. The impact of metal sequestration on Staphylococcus aureus metabolism. Curr. Opin. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb; 15(1): 10-4. PMID: 22153710, PMCID: PMC3265625, PII: S1369-5274(11)00187-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.mib.2011.11.004, ISSN: 1879-0364.

Pishchany G, Skaar EP. Taste for blood: hemoglobin as a nutrient source for pathogens. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2012; 8(3): e1002535. PMID: 22412370, PMCID: PMC3297580, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-11-02596, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002535, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Hood MI, Mortensen BL, Moore JL, Zhang Y, Kehl-Fie TE, Sugitani N, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii zinc acquisition system that facilitates resistance to calprotectin-mediated zinc sequestration. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2012; 8(12): e1003068. PMID: 23236280, PMCID: PMC3516566, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-12-01629, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003068, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Krishna Kumar K, Jacques DA, Pishchany G, Caradoc-Davies T, Spirig T, Malmirchegini GR, Langley DB, Dickson CF, Mackay JP, Clubb RT, Skaar EP, Guss JM, Gell DA. Structural basis for hemoglobin capture by Staphylococcus aureus cell-surface protein, IsdH. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2011 Nov 11/4/2011; 286(44): 38439-47. PMID: 21917915, PMCID: PMC3207429, PII: M111.287300, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.287300, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Anzaldi LL, Skaar EP. The evolution of a superbug: how Staphylococcus aureus overcomes its unique susceptibility to polyamines. Mol. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 82(1): 1-3. PMID: 21883524, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07808.x, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Haley KP, Janson EM, Heilbronner S, Foster TJ, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus lugdunensis IsdG liberates iron from host heme. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2011 Sep; 193(18): 4749-57. PMID: 21764939, PMCID: PMC3165669, PII: JB.00436-11, DOI: 10.1128/JB.00436-11, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Kehl-Fie TE, Chitayat S, Hood MI, Damo S, Restrepo N, Garcia C, Munro KA, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Nutrient metal sequestration by calprotectin inhibits bacterial superoxide defense, enhancing neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 Aug 8/18/2011; 10(2): 158-64. PMID: 21843872, PMCID: PMC3157011, PII: S1931-3128(11)00220-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2011.07.004, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Reniere ML, Haley KP, Skaar EP. The flexible loop of Staphylococcus aureus IsdG is required for its degradation in the absence of heme. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2011 Aug 8/9/2011; 50(31): 6730-7. PMID: 21728357, PMCID: PMC3149779, DOI: 10.1021/bi200999q, ISSN: 1520-4995.

Grossoehme N, Kehl-Fie TE, Ma Z, Adams KW, Cowart DM, Scott RA, Skaar EP, Giedroc DP. Control of copper resistance and inorganic sulfur metabolism by paralogous regulators in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr 4/15/2011; 286(15): 13522-31. PMID: 21339296, PMCID: PMC3075698, PII: M111.220012, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.220012, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Hammer ND, Skaar EP. Molecular mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus iron acquisition. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 2011; 65: 129-47. PMID: 21639791, PMCID: PMC3807827, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-micro-090110-102851, ISSN: 1545-3251.

Olson PD, Kuechenmeister LJ, Anderson KL, Daily S, Beenken KE, Roux CM, Reniere ML, Lewis TL, Weiss WJ, Pulse M, Nguyen P, Simecka JW, Morrison JM, Sayood K, Asojo OA, Smeltzer MS, Skaar EP, Dunman PM. Small molecule inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus RnpA alter cellular mRNA turnover, exhibit antimicrobial activity, and attenuate pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2011; 7(2): e1001287. PMID: 21347352, PMCID: PMC3037362, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001287, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Pishchany G, McCoy AL, Torres VJ, Krause JC, Crowe JE, Fabry ME, Skaar EP. Specificity for human hemoglobin enhances Staphylococcus aureus infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Dec 12/16/2010; 8(6): 544-50. PMID: 21147468, PMCID: PMC3032424, PII: S1931-3128(10)00355-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2010.11.002, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Anzaldi LL, Skaar EP. Overcoming the heme paradox: heme toxicity and tolerance in bacterial pathogens. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2010 Dec; 78(12): 4977-89. PMID: 20679437, PMCID: PMC2981329, PII: IAI.00613-10, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00613-10, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Jacobs AC, Hood I, Boyd KL, Olson PD, Morrison JM, Carson S, Sayood K, Iwen PC, Skaar EP, Dunman PM. Inactivation of phospholipase D diminishes Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2010 May; 78(5): 1952-62. PMID: 20194595, PMCID: PMC2863507, PII: IAI.00889-09, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00889-09, ISSN: 1098-5522.

House DL, Chon CH, Creech CB, Skaar EP, Li D. Miniature on-chip detection of unpurified methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DNA using real-time PCR. J. Biotechnol [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr 4/1/2010; 146(3): 93-9. PMID: 20149828, PII: S0168-1656(09)00587-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2009.12.013, ISSN: 1873-4863.

Torres VJ, Attia AS, Mason WJ, Hood MI, Corbin BD, Beasley FC, Anderson KL, Stauff DL, McDonald WH, Zimmerman LJ, Friedman DB, Heinrichs DE, Dunman PM, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus aureus fur regulates the expression of virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 78(4): 1618-28. PMID: 20100857, PMCID: PMC2849423, PII: IAI.01423-09, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01423-09, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Kehl-Fie TE, Skaar EP. Nutritional immunity beyond iron: a role for manganese and zinc. Curr Opin Chem Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 14(2): 218-24. PMID: 20015678, PMCID: PMC2847644, PII: S1367-5931(09)00184-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.11.008, ISSN: 1879-0402.

Attia AS, Benson MA, Stauff DL, Torres VJ, Skaar EP. Membrane damage elicits an immunomodulatory program in Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Mar; 6(3): e1000802. PMID: 20300601, PMCID: PMC2837406, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000802, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Reniere ML, Ukpabi GN, Harry SR, Stec DF, Krull R, Wright DW, Bachmann BO, Murphy ME, Skaar EP. The IsdG-family of haem oxygenases degrades haem to a novel chromophore. Mol. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar; 75(6): 1529-38. PMID: 20180905, PMCID: PMC3800195, PII: MMI7076, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07076.x, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Hood MI, Jacobs AC, Sayood K, Dunman PM, Skaar EP. Acinetobacter baumannii increases tolerance to antibiotics in response to monovalent cations. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar; 54(3): 1029-41. PMID: 20028819, PMCID: PMC2825970, PII: AAC.00963-09, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00963-09, ISSN: 1098-6596.

Skaar EP. The battle for iron between bacterial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6(8): e1000949. PMID: 20711357, PMCID: PMC2920840, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000949, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Pishchany G, Dickey SE, Skaar EP. Subcellular localization of the Staphylococcus aureus heme iron transport components IsdA and IsdB. Infect. Immun [print-electronic]. 2009 Jul; 77(7): 2624-34. PMID: 19398548, PMCID: PMC2708553, PII: IAI.01531-08, DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01531-08, ISSN: 1098-5522.

Skaar EP. A precious metal heist. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 5/8/2009; 5(5): 422-4. PMID: 19454345, PII: S1931-3128(09)00146-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2009.05.005, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Stauff DL, Skaar EP. Bacillus anthracis HssRS signalling to HrtAB regulates haem resistance during infection. Mol. Microbiol. 2009 May; 72(3): 763-78. PMID: 19400785, PMCID: PMC2891670, PII: MMI6684, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06684.x, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Mason WJ, Skaar EP. Assessing the contribution of heme-iron acquisition to Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia using computed tomography. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(8): e6668. PMID: 19688098, PMCID: PMC2723934, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006668, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Stauff DL, Skaar EP. The heme sensor system of Staphylococcus aureus. Contrib Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2009; 16: 120-35. PMID: 19494582, PII: 000219376, DOI: 10.1159/000219376, ISSN: 1420-9519.

Stauff DL, Skaar, EP. The heme sensor system of Staphylococcus aureus. Contrib Microbiol. 2009; 16: 120-35.

Lee WC, Reniere ML, Skaar EP, Murphy ME. Ruffling of metalloporphyrins bound to IsdG and IsdI, two heme-degrading enzymes in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/7/2008; 283(45): 30957-63. PMID: 18713745, PMCID: PMC2576546, PII: M709486200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M709486200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Reniere ML, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus aureus haem oxygenases are differentially regulated by iron and haem. Mol. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep; 69(5): 1304-15. PMID: 18643935, PMCID: PMC2597461, PII: MMI6363, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06363.x, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Stauff DL, Bagaley D, Torres VJ, Joyce R, Anderson KL, Kuechenmeister L, Dunman PM, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus aureus HrtA is an ATPase required for protection against heme toxicity and prevention of a transcriptional heme stress response. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2008 May; 190(10): 3588-96. PMID: 18326576, PMCID: PMC2395006, PII: JB.01921-07, DOI: 10.1128/JB.01921-07, ISSN: 1098-5530.

Corbin BD, Seeley EH, Raab A, Feldmann J, Miller MR, Torres VJ, Anderson KL, Dattilo BM, Dunman PM, Gerads R, Caprioli RM, Nacken W, Chazin WJ, Skaar EP. Metal chelation and inhibition of bacterial growth in tissue abscesses. Science. 2008 Feb 2/15/2008; 319(5865): 962-5. PMID: 18276893, PII: 319/5865/962, DOI: 10.1126/science.1152449, ISSN: 1095-9203.

Palazzolo-Ballance AM, Reniere ML, Braughton KR, Sturdevant DE, Otto M, Kreiswirth BN, Skaar EP, DeLeo FR. Neutrophil microbicides induce a pathogen survival response in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Immunol. 2008 Jan 1/1/2008; 180(1): 500-9. PMID: 18097052, PII: 180/1/500, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Stauff DL, Torres VJ, Skaar EP. Signaling and DNA-binding activities of the Staphylococcus aureus HssR-HssS two-component system required for heme sensing. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep 9/7/2007; 282(36): 26111-21. PMID: 17635909, PII: M703797200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M703797200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Reniere ML, Torres VJ, Skaar EP. Intracellular metalloporphyrin metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus. Biometals [print-electronic]. 2007 Jun; 20(3-4): 333-45. PMID: 17387580, DOI: 10.1007/s10534-006-9032-0, ISSN: 0966-0844.

Torres VJ, Stauff DL, Pishchany G, Bezbradica JS, Gordy LE, Iturregui J, Anderson KL, Dunman PM, Joyce S, Skaar EP. A Staphylococcus aureus regulatory system that responds to host heme and modulates virulence. Cell Host Microbe. 2007 Apr 4/19/2007; 1(2): 109-19. PMID: 18005689, PMCID: PMC2083280, PII: S1931-3128(07)00039-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.03.001, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Torres, V.J., Stauff, D.L., Pishchany, G., Bezbradica, J.S., Gordy, L.E., Iturregui, J., Anderson, K.L, Dunman, P.M., Joyce, S., Skaar, E.P.. A Staphylococcus aureus regulatory system that responds to host heme and modulates virulence. Cell Host and Microbe. 2007; ((1)): 109-19.

Torres VJ, Pishchany G, Humayun M, Schneewind O, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus aureus IsdB is a hemoglobin receptor required for heme iron utilization. J. Bacteriol [print-electronic]. 2006 Dec; 188(24): 8421-9. PMID: 17041042, PMCID: PMC1698231, PII: JB.01335-06, DOI: 10.1128/JB.01335-06, ISSN: 0021-9193.

Friedman DB, Stauff DL, Pishchany G, Whitwell CW, Torres VJ, Skaar EP. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Aug; 2(8): e87. PMID: 16933993, PMCID: PMC1557832, PII: 06-PLPA-RA-0116R2, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020087, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Skaar EP, Gaspar AH, Schneewind O. Bacillus anthracis IsdG, a heme-degrading monooxygenase. J. Bacteriol. 2006 Feb; 188(3): 1071-80. PMID: 16428411, PMCID: PMC1347327, PII: 188/3/1071, DOI: 10.1128/JB.188.3.1071-1080.2006, ISSN: 0021-9193.

Skaar EP, Lecuyer B, Lenich AG, Lazio MP, Perkins-Balding D, Seifert HS, Karls AC. Analysis of the Piv recombinase-related gene family of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 2005 Feb; 187(4): 1276-86. PMID: 15687191, PMCID: PMC545610, PII: 187/4/1276, DOI: 10.1128/JB.187.4.1276-1286.2005, ISSN: 0021-9193.

Wu R, Skaar EP, Zhang R, Joachimiak G, Gornicki P, Schneewind O, Joachimiak A. Staphylococcus aureus IsdG and IsdI, heme-degrading enzymes with structural similarity to monooxygenases. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2005 Jan 1/28/2005; 280(4): 2840-6. PMID: 15520015, PMCID: PMC2792019, PII: M409526200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M409526200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Skaar EP, Humayun M, Bae T, DeBord KL, Schneewind O. Iron-source preference of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Science. 2004 Sep 9/10/2004; 305(5690): 1626-8. PMID: 15361626, PII: 305/5690/1626, DOI: 10.1126/science.1099930, ISSN: 1095-9203.

Skaar EP, Schneewind O. Iron-regulated surface determinants (Isd) of Staphylococcus aureus: stealing iron from heme. Microbes Infect. 2004 Apr; 6(4): 390-7. PMID: 15101396, ISSN: 1286-4579.

Skaar EP, Gaspar AH, Schneewind O. IsdG and IsdI, heme-degrading enzymes in the cytoplasm of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Jan 1/2/2004; 279(1): 436-43. PMID: 14570922, PII: M307952200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M307952200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Kline KA, Sechman EV, Skaar EP, Seifert HS. Recombination, repair and replication in the pathogenic Neisseriae: the 3 R's of molecular genetics of two human-specific bacterial pathogens. Mol. Microbiol. 2003 Oct; 50(1): 3-13. PMID: 14507359, PII: 3679, ISSN: 0950-382X.

Mazmanian SK, Skaar EP, Gaspar AH, Humayun M, Gornicki P, Jelenska J, Joachmiak A, Missiakas DM, Schneewind O. Passage of heme-iron across the envelope of Staphylococcus aureus. Science. 2003 Feb 2/7/2003; 299(5608): 906-9. PMID: 12574635, PII: 299/5608/906, DOI: 10.1126/science.1081147, ISSN: 1095-9203.

Skaar EP, Tobiason DM, Quick J, Judd RC, Weissbach H, Etienne F, Brot N, Seifert HS. The outer membrane localization of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MsrA/B is involved in survival against reactive oxygen species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2002 Jul 7/23/2002; 99(15): 10108-13. PMID: 12096194, PMCID: PMC126632, PII: 152334799, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.152334799, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Skaar EP, Seifert HS. The misidentification of bacterial genes as human cDNAs: was the human D-1 tumor antigen gene acquired from bacteria?. Genomics. 2002 May; 79(5): 625-7. PMID: 11991711, PII: S0888754302967637, DOI: 10.1006/geno.2002.6763, ISSN: 0888-7543.

Skaar EP, Lazio MP, Seifert HS. Roles of the recJ and recN genes in homologous recombination and DNA repair pathways of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 2002 Feb; 184(4): 919-27. PMID: 11807051, PMCID: PMC134828, ISSN: 0021-9193.

Hickman JW, Barber RD, Skaar EP, Donohue TJ. Link between the membrane-bound pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and glutathione-dependent processes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J. Bacteriol. 2002 Jan; 184(2): 400-9. PMID: 11751816, PMCID: PMC139586, ISSN: 0021-9193.

Available Postdoctoral Position Details
Posted: 8/16/2012
A position is available to study the interface between Staphylococcus aureus and the host.