C. William Wester, M.D.


Faculty Appointments
Professor of Medicine
M.P.H., Quantitative Methods, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MassachusettsM.D., Dartmouth College, Hanover, New HampshireB.A., Biology & Economics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine
Office Address
A-2322 MCN
1161 21st Avenue S.,
Nashville, TN 2582
Research Description
The goal of my research includes long-term HIV complications with a focus on HIV-associated kidney disease and implementation science in resource-limited settings of the world
Research Keywords
Implementation science, sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS, HIV-associated kidney disease, Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
Fritz CQ, Blevins M, Lindegren ML, Wools-Kaloutsian K, Musick BS, Cornell M, Goodwin K, Addison D, Dusingize JC, Messou E, Poda A, Duda SN, McGowan CC, Law MG, Moore RD, Freeman A, Nash D, Wester CW. Comprehensiveness of HIV care provided at global HIV treatment sites in the IeDEA consortium: 2009 and 2014. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017 Jan 1/6/2017; 20(1): 1-14. PMID: 28364561, PMCID: PMC5463912, DOI: 10.7448/IAS.20.1.20933, ISSN: 1758-2652.

Audet CM, Chire YM, Vaz LM, Bechtel R, Carlson-Bremer D, Wester CW, Amico KR, Gonzaléz-Calvo L. Barriers to Male Involvement in Antenatal Care in Rural Mozambique. Qual Health Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct; 26(12): 1721-31. PMID: 25854615, PMCID: PMC4598282, PII: 1049732315580302, DOI: 10.1177/1049732315580302, ISSN: 1049-7323.

Audet CM, Blevins M, Chire YM, Aliyu MH, Vaz LM, Antonio E, Alvim F, Bechtel R, Wester CW, Vermund SH. Engagement of Men in Antenatal Care Services: Increased HIV Testing and Treatment Uptake in a Community Participatory Action Program in Mozambique. AIDS Behav. 2016 Sep; 20(9): 2090-100. PMID: 26906021, PMCID: PMC4995150, PII: 10.1007/s10461-016-1341-x, DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1341-x, ISSN: 1573-3254.

Boehmer A, Audet CM, Blevins M, Gebi UI, Wester CW, Vermund SH, Aliyu MH. Patient and Provider Satisfaction With a Comprehensive Strategy to Improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Services in Rural Nigeria. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2016 Aug 8/1/2016; 72 Suppl 2: S117-23. PMID: 27355498, PMCID: PMC5113240, PII: 00126334-201608011-00004, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001058, ISSN: 1944-7884.

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Audet CM, Kalish M, Gebi UI, Onwujekwe O, Lindegren ML, Shepherd BE, Wester CW, Vermund SH. Integrated prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services, antiretroviral therapy initiation, and maternal and infant retention in care in rural north-central Nigeria: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet HIV [print-electronic]. 2016 May; 3(5): e202-11. PMID: 27126487, PMCID: PMC4852280, PII: S2352-3018(16)00018-7, DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)00018-7, ISSN: 2352-3018.

Koethe JR, Jenkins CA, Lau B, Shepherd BE, Justice AC, Tate JP, Buchacz K, Napravnik S, Mayor AM, Horberg MA, Blashill AJ, Willig A, Wester CW, Silverberg MJ, Gill J, Thorne JE, Klein M, Eron JJ, Kitahata MM, Sterling TR, Moore RD, . Rising Obesity Prevalence and Weight Gain Among Adults Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in the United States and Canada. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan; 32(1): 50-8. PMID: 26352511, PMCID: PMC4692122, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2015.0147, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Charles MK, Lindegren ML, Wester CW, Blevins M, Sterling TR, Dung NT, Dusingize JC, Avit-Edi D, Durier N, Castelnuovo B, Nakigozi G, Cortes CP, Ballif M, Fenner L, . Implementation of Tuberculosis Intensive Case Finding, Isoniazid Preventive Therapy, and Infection Control ("Three I's") and HIV-Tuberculosis Service Integration in Lower Income Countries. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11(4): e0153243. PMID: 27073928, PMCID: PMC4830552, PII: PONE-D-15-34991, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153243, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Megazzini KM, Parrish DD, Audet CM, Chan N, Odoh C, Gebi UI, Muhammad MY, Shepherd BE, Wester CW, Vermund SH. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men. Int Health [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 7(6): 405-11. PMID: 26012740, PMCID: PMC4654753, PII: ihv032, DOI: 10.1093/inthealth/ihv032, ISSN: 1876-3405.

da Silva M, Blevins M, Wester CW, Manjolo J, José E, Gonzalez LC, Shepherd BE, Moon TD, Vaz LM. Patient loss to follow-up before antiretroviral therapy initiation in rural Mozambique. AIDS Behav. 2015 Apr; 19(4): 666-78. PMID: 25096897, DOI: 10.1007/s10461-014-0874-0, ISSN: 1573-3254.

Abraham AG, Althoff KN, Jing Y, Estrella MM, Kitahata MM, Wester CW, Bosch RJ, Crane H, Eron J, Gill MJ, Horberg MA, Justice AC, Klein M, Mayor AM, Moore RD, Palella FJ, Parikh CR, Silverberg MJ, Golub ET, Jacobson LP, Napravnik S, Lucas GM, . End-stage renal disease among HIV-infected adults in North America. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2015 Mar 3/15/2015; 60(6): 941-9. PMID: 25409471, PMCID: PMC4357817, PII: ciu919, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu919, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Edwards LJ, Moisés A, Nzaramba M, Cassimo A, Silva L, Mauricio J, Wester CW, Vermund SH, Moon TD. Implementation of a health management mentoring program: year-1 evaluation of its impact on health system strengthening in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2015 Mar 3/12/2015; 4(6): 353-61. PMID: 26029894, PMCID: PMC4450730, DOI: 10.15171/ijhpm.2015.58, ISSN: 2322-5939.

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Arinze F, Megazzini KM, Bussell S, Dunlap J, Odoh C, Gebi UI, Muhammad MY, Shepherd BE, Audet CM, Vermund SH, Wester CW. Enrolment trends in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural north-central Nigeria: improved care indices, but declining quality of clinical data over time. Pathog Glob Health. 2015 Mar; 109(2): 75-83. PMID: 25822098, PMCID: PMC4571821, DOI: 10.1179/2047773215Y.0000000007, ISSN: 2047-7732.

Paulin HN, Blevins M, Koethe JR, Hinton N, Vaz LM, Vergara AE, Mukolo A, Ndatimana E, Moon TD, Vermund SH, Wester CW. HIV testing service awareness and service uptake among female heads of household in rural Mozambique: results from a province-wide survey. BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 2/12/2015; 15: 132. PMID: 25881182, PMCID: PMC4339241, PII: 10.1186/s12889-015-1388-z, DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1388-z, ISSN: 1471-2458.

Koethe JR, Jenkins CA, Turner M, Bebawy S, Shepherd BE, Wester CW, Sterling TR. Body mass index and the risk of incident noncommunicable diseases after starting antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 16(1): 67-72. PMID: 25230709, PMCID: PMC4268383, DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12178, ISSN: 1468-1293.

Moon TD, Jequicene T, Blevins M, José E, Lankford JR, Wester CW, Fuchs MC, Vermund SH. Mobile clinics for antiretroviral therapy in rural Mozambique. Bull. World Health Organ [print-electronic]. 2014 Sep 9/1/2014; 92(9): 680-4. PMID: 25378759, PMCID: PMC4208568, PII: BLT.13.129478, DOI: 10.2471/BLT.13.129478, ISSN: 1564-0604.

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Megazzini KM, Audet CM, Dunlap J, Sodangi IS, Gebi UI, Shepherd BE, Wester CW, Vermund SH. Correlates of suboptimal entry into early infant diagnosis in rural north central Nigeria. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2014 Sep 9/1/2014; 67(1): e19-26. PMID: 24853310, PMCID: PMC4134378, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000215, ISSN: 1944-7884.

Dunlap J, Foderingham N, Bussell S, Wester CW, Audet CM, Aliyu MH. Male involvement for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: A brief review of initiatives in East, West, and Central Africa. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2014 Jun; 11(2): 109-18. PMID: 24633806, PMCID: PMC4371528, DOI: 10.1007/s11904-014-0200-5, ISSN: 1548-3576.

Parrish DD, Blevins M, Megazzini KM, Shepherd BE, Mohammed MY, Wester CW, Vermund SH, Aliyu MH. Haemoglobin recovery among HIV-1 infected patients on zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy and other regimens in north-central Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 25(5): 355-9. PMID: 24104694, PMCID: PMC4385388, PII: 0956462413506887, DOI: 10.1177/0956462413506887, ISSN: 1758-1052.

Cohen JJ, Blevins M, Mapenzi A, Reppart L, Reppart J, Mainthia R, Wester CW. Overcoming the perceived barriers to health care access among single mothers in coastal Kenya. Int J Public Health [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb; 59(1): 189-96. PMID: 24057600, DOI: 10.1007/s00038-013-0511-0, ISSN: 1661-8564.

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Parrish DD, Megazzini KM, Gebi UI, Muhammad MY, Ahmed ML, Hassan A, Shepherd BE, Vermund SH, Wester CW. Risk factors for delayed initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in rural north central Nigeria. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2014 Feb 2/1/2014; 65(2): e41-9. PMID: 23727981, PMCID: PMC3818360, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31829ceaec, ISSN: 1944-7884.

Duda SN, Farr AM, Lindegren ML, Blevins M, Wester CW, Wools-Kaloustian K, Ekouevi DK, Egger M, Hemingway-Foday J, Cooper DA, Moore RD, McGowan CC, Nash D, . Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014; 17: 19045. PMID: 25516092, PMCID: PMC4268491, PII: 19045, ISSN: 1758-2652.

Moon TD, Ossemane EB, Green AF, Ndatimana E, José E, Buehler CP, Wester CW, Vermund SH, Olupona O. Antiretroviral therapy program expansion in Zambézia Province, Mozambique: geospatial mapping of community-based and health facility data for integrated health planning. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(10): e109653. PMID: 25329169, PMCID: PMC4201452, PII: PONE-D-14-22703, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109653, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Audet C, Shepherd BE, Hassan A, Onwujekwe O, Gebi UI, Kalish M, Lindegren ML, Vermund SH, Wester CW. Optimizing PMTCT service delivery in rural North-Central Nigeria: protocol and design for a cluster randomized study. Contemp Clin Trials [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep; 36(1): 187-97. PMID: 23816493, PMCID: PMC3786261, PII: S1551-7144(13)00105-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.cct.2013.06.013, ISSN: 1559-2030.

McDonald B, Moyo S, Gabaitiri L, Gaseitsiwe S, Bussmann H, Koethe JR, Musonda R, Makhema J, Novitsky V, Marlink RG, Wester CW, Essex M. Persistently elevated serum interleukin-6 predicts mortality among adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Botswana: results from a clinical trial. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul; 29(7): 993-9. PMID: 23590237, PMCID: PMC3685692, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2012.0309, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Sinxadi PZ, Dave JA, Samuels DC, Heckmann JM, Maartens G, Levitt NS, Wester CW, Haas DW, Hulgan T. Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected Black South Africans: a pilot study. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul; 29(7): 1031-9. PMID: 23428049, PMCID: PMC3685683, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2012.0373, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Koethe JR, Bian A, Shintani AK, Wester CW, Erdem H, Hulgan T. An association between adiposity and serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1a and soluble CD14 in HIV-infected adults: results from a cross-sectional study. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) [print-electronic]. 2013; 18(5): 729-33. PMID: 23748193, PMCID: PMC3923367, DOI: 10.3851/IMP2645, ISSN: 2040-2058.

Wester CW, Stitelman OM, deGruttola V, Bussmann H, Marlink RG, van der Laan MJ. Effect modification by sex and baseline CD4+ cell count among adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Botswana: results from a clinical trial. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses [print-electronic]. 2012 Sep; 28(9): 981-8. PMID: 22309114, PMCID: PMC3423643, DOI: 10.1089/AID.2011.0349, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Wester CW, Eden SK, Shepherd BE, Bussmann H, Novitsky V, Samuels DC, Hendrickson SL, Winkler CA, O'Brien SJ, Essex M, D'Aquila RT, DeGruttola V, Marlink RG. Risk factors for symptomatic hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana: results from a clinical trial. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug; 28(8): 759-65. PMID: 22540188, PMCID: PMC3399551, DOI: 10.1089/AID.2011.0303, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Stephens LL, Bachhuber MA, Seloilwe E, Gungqisa N, Mmelesi M, Bussmann H, Marlink RG, Wester CW. HIV-Related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among educated young adults in Botswana. J AIDS HIV Res. 2012 Jun 6/1/2012; 4(6): 159-64. PMID: 23275859, PMCID: PMC3530163, DOI: 10.5897/JAHR11.062, ISSN: 2141-2359.

Spinner MA, Paulin HN, Wester CW. Duodenal histoplasmosis presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an AIDS patient. Case Rep Gastrointest Med [print-electronic]. 2012; 2012: 515872. PMID: 23091745, PMCID: PMC3471405, DOI: 10.1155/2012/515872, ISSN: 2090-6536.

Parrish DD, Blevins M, Stinnette SE, Rebeiro PF, Shepherd BE, Sterling TR, McGowan CC, Wester CW. Virologic, immunologic and clinical responses in foreign-born versus US-born HIV-1 infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy: an observational cohort study. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(12): e52336. PMID: 23284994, PMCID: PMC3526482, PII: PONE-D-12-30873, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052336, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Moyo S, Bussmann H, Mangwendeza P, Dusara P, Gaolathe T, Mine M, Musonda R, van Widenfelt E, Novitsky V, Makhema J, Marlink RG, Essex M, Wester CW. Validation of A Point-of-Care Lactate Device For Screening At-Risk Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy In Botswana. J Antivir Antiretrovir [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 3(4): 45-8. PMID: 23087782, PMCID: PMC3475318, ISSN: 1948-5964.

Haas DW, Kuritzkes DR, Ritchie MD, Amur S, Gage BF, Maartens G, Masys D, Fellay J, Phillips E, Ribaudo HJ, Freedberg KA, Petropoulos C, Manolio TA, Gulick RM, Haubrich R, Kim P, Dehlinger M, Abebe R, Telenti A, . Pharmacogenomics of HIV therapy: summary of a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. HIV Clin Trials. 2011 Sep; 12(5): 277-85. PMID: 22180526, PMCID: PMC3322423, PII: H4HV83200516XH08, DOI: 10.1310/hct1205-277, ISSN: 1528-4336.

Wester CW, Koethe JR, Shepherd BE, Stinnette SE, Rebeiro PF, Kipp AM, Hong H, Bussmann H, Gaolathe T, McGowan CC, Sterling TR, Marlink RG. Non-AIDS-defining events among HIV-1-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in resource-replete versus resource-limited urban setting. AIDS. 2011 Jul 7/31/2011; 25(12): 1471-9. PMID: 21572309, PMCID: PMC3188442, DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328347f9d4, ISSN: 1473-5571.

Bussmann H, de la Hoz Gomez F, Roels TH, Wester CW, Bodika SM, Moyo S, Taffa N, Anderson MG, Mine M, Bile EC, Yang C, Mphoyakgosi K, Lehotzky EA, Mlotshwa B, Mmelesi M, Seipone K, Makhema MJ, Marlink RG, Novitsky V, Essex M. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: lessons learned from the HIVDR-Threshold Survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 27(4): 365-72. PMID: 21034246, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2009.0299, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Koethe JR, Blevins M, Nyirenda C, Kabagambe EK, Shepherd BE, Wester CW, Zulu I, Chiasera JM, Mulenga LB, Mwango A, Heimburger DC. Nutrition and inflammation serum biomarkers are associated with 12-week mortality among malnourished adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Zambia. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011; 14: 19. PMID: 21477359, PMCID: PMC3094357, PII: 1758-2652-14-19, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-14-19, ISSN: 1758-2652.

Stitelman OM, Wester CW, De Gruttola V, van der Laan MJ. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation of effect modification parameters in survival analysis. Int J Biostat. 2011; 7(1): 19. PMID: 21556287, PMCID: PMC3083138, DOI: 10.2202/1557-4679.1307, ISSN: 1557-4679.

Koethe JR, Limbada MI, Giganti MJ, Nyirenda CK, Mulenga L, Wester CW, Chi BH, Stringer JS. Early immunologic response and subsequent survival among malnourished adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Urban Zambia. AIDS. 2010 Aug 8/24/2010; 24(13): 2117-21. PMID: 20543657, PMCID: PMC2919155, DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833b784a, ISSN: 1473-5571.

Do NT, Phiri K, Bussmann H, Gaolathe T, Marlink RG, Wester CW. Psychosocial factors affecting medication adherence among HIV-1 infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Botswana. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2010 Jun; 26(6): 685-91. PMID: 20518649, PMCID: PMC4056458, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2009.0222, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Novitsky V, Wang R, Bussmann H, Lockman S, Baum M, Shapiro R, Thior I, Wester C, Wester CW, Ogwu A, Asmelash A, Musonda R, Campa A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Mine M, Moffat C, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Marlink R, Gilbert P, Seage GR, DeGruttola V, Essex M. HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals maintaining high viral load as potential targets for the "test-and-treat" approach to reduce HIV transmission. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(4): e10148. PMID: 20405044, PMCID: PMC2853582, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010148, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Wester CW, Thomas AM, Bussmann H, Moyo S, Makhema JM, Gaolathe T, Novitsky V, Essex M, deGruttola V, Marlink RG. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor outcomes among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana. AIDS. 2010 Jan; 24 Suppl 1: S27-36. PMID: 20023437, PMCID: PMC3087813, PII: 00002030-201001001-00004, DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000366080.91192.55, ISSN: 1473-5571.

Wester CW, Bussmann H, Koethe J, Moffat C, Vermund S, Essex M, Marlink RG. Adult combination antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from Botswana and future challenges. HIV Ther. 2009 Sep 9/1/2009; 3(5): 501-26. PMID: 20161344, PMCID: PMC2774911, ISSN: 1758-4310.

Bussmann H, Wester CW, Thomas A, Novitsky V, Okezie R, Muzenda T, Gaolathe T, Ndwapi N, Mawoko N, Widenfelt E, Moyo S, Musonda R, Mine M, Makhema J, Moffat H, Essex M, Degruttola V, Marlink RG. Response to zidovudine/didanosine-containing combination antiretroviral therapy among HIV-1 subtype C-infected adults in Botswana: two-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2009 May 5/1/2009; 51(1): 37-46. PMID: 19282782, PMCID: PMC3066172, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819ff102, ISSN: 1525-4135.

Shipton LK, Wester CW, Stock S, Ndwapi N, Gaolathe T, Thior I, Avalos A, Moffat HJ, Mboya JJ, Widenfelt E, Essex M, Hughes MD, Shapiro RL. Safety and efficacy of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral treatment in adults treated for TB-HIV co-infection in Botswana. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2009 Mar; 13(3): 360-6. PMID: 19275797, PMCID: PMC2696339, ISSN: 1027-3719.

Mujugira A, Wester CW, Kim S, Bussmann H, Gaolathe T. Patients with advanced HIV type 1 infection initiating antiretroviral therapy in Botswana: treatment response and mortality. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2009 Feb; 25(2): 127-33. PMID: 19239353, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2008.0172, ISSN: 1931-8405.

Bussmann H, Wester CW, Ndwapi N, Grundmann N, Gaolathe T, Puvimanasinghe J, Avalos A, Mine M, Seipone K, Essex M, Degruttola V, Marlink RG. Five-year outcomes of initial patients treated in Botswana's National Antiretroviral Treatment Program. AIDS. 2008 Nov 11/12/2008; 22(17): 2303-11. PMID: 18981769, PMCID: PMC2853026, PII: 00002030-200811120-00009, DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283129db0, ISSN: 1473-5571.

Bussmann C, Rotz P, Ndwapi N, Baxter D, Bussmann H, Wester CW, Ncube P, Avalos A, Mine M, Mabe E, Burns P, Cardiello P, Makhema J, Marlink R. Strengthening healthcare capacity through a responsive, country-specific, training standard: the KITSO AIDS training program's support of Botswana's national antiretroviral therapy rollout. Open AIDS J [print-electronic]. 2008; 2: 10-6. PMID: 18923699, PMCID: PMC2556202, DOI: 10.2174/1874613600802010010, ISSN: 1874-6136.

Wester CW, Okezie OA, Thomas AM, Bussmann H, Moyo S, Muzenda T, Makhema J, van Widenfelt E, Musonda R, Novitsky V, Gaolathe T, Ndwapi N, Essex M, Kuritzkes DR, DeGruttola V, Marlink RG. Higher-than-expected rates of lactic acidosis among highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated women in Botswana: preliminary results from a large randomized clinical trial. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2007 Nov 11/1/2007; 46(3): 318-22. PMID: 18090299, PII: 00126334-200711010-00010, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181568e3f, ISSN: 1525-4135.

Novitsky V, Wester CW, DeGruttola V, Bussmann H, Gaseitsiwe S, Thomas A, Moyo S, Musonda R, Van Widenfelt E, Marlink RG, Essex M. The reverse transcriptase 67N 70R 215Y genotype is the predominant TAM pathway associated with virologic failure among HIV type 1C-infected adults treated with ZDV/ddI-containing HAART in southern Africa. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2007 Jul; 23(7): 868-78. PMID: 17678469, DOI: 10.1089/aid.2006.0298, ISSN: 0889-2229.

Bussmann H, Wester CW, Wester CN, Lekoko B, Okezie O, Thomas AM, DeGruttola SM, Makhema J, Essex M, Marlink RG. Pregnancy rates and birth outcomes among women on efavirenz-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2007 Jul 7/1/2007; 45(3): 269-73. PMID: 17450102, DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318050d683, ISSN: 1525-4135.

Wester CW, Bussmann H, Moyo S, Avalos A, Gaolathe T, Ndwapi N, Essex M, MacGregor RR, Marlink RG. Serological evidence of HIV-associated infection among HIV-1-infected adults in Botswana. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2006 Dec 12/15/2006; 43(12): 1612-5. PMID: 17109297, PII: CID39228, DOI: 10.1086/508865, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Bussmann H, Wester CW, Ndwapi N, Vanderwarker C, Gaolathe T, Tirelo G, Avalos A, Moffat H, Marlink RG. Hybrid data capture for monitoring patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban Botswana. Bull. World Health Organ [print-electronic]. 2006 Feb; 84(2): 127-31. PMID: 16501730, PMCID: PMC2626532, PII: S0042-96862006000200013, DOI: /S0042-96862006000200013, ISSN: 0042-9686.

Wester CW, Kim S, Bussmann H, Avalos A, Ndwapi N, Peter TF, Gaolathe T, Mujugira A, Busang L, Vanderwarker C, Cardiello P, Johnson O, Thior I, Mazonde P, Moffat H, Essex M, Marlink R. Initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1C-infected adults in a public sector treatment program in Botswana. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2005 Nov 11/1/2005; 40(3): 336-43. PMID: 16249709, PII: 00126334-200511010-00014, ISSN: 1525-4135.

Wester CW, Bussmann H, Avalos A, Ndwapi N, Gaolathe T, Cardiello P, Bussmann C, Moffat H, Mazonde P, Marlink RG. Establishment of a public antiretroviral treatment clinic for adults in urban Botswana: lessons learned. Clin. Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2005 Apr 4/1/2005; 40(7): 1041-4. PMID: 15824998, PII: CID34839, DOI: 10.1086/428352, ISSN: 1537-6591.

Bussmann H, Wester CW, Masupu KV, Peter T, Gaolekwe SM, Kim S, Reich AM, Ahn S, Wu Y, Thior I, Essex M, Marlink R. Low CD4+ T-lymphocyte values in human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults in Botswana. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2004 Sep; 11(5): 930-5. PMID: 15358655, PMCID: PMC515279, PII: 11/5/930, DOI: 10.1128/CDLI.11.5.930-935.2004, ISSN: 1071-412X.

Wester CW, Durairaj L, Evans AT, Schwartz DN, Husain S, Martinez E. Antibiotic resistance: a survey of physician perceptions. Arch. Intern. Med. 2002 Oct 10/28/2002; 162(19): 2210-6. PMID: 12390064, PII: ioi10747, ISSN: 0003-9926.

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