H. Scott Baldwin, M.D.


Faculty Appointments
Professor of Pediatrics Professor of Cell and Developmental BiologyKatrina Overall McDonald Chair in Pediatrics
M.D., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VirginiaB.A., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
Office Address
9435-A MRB IV-Langford
2213 Garland Ave
Nashville, TN 37232-0493
Research Description
My research efforts have concentrated on delineating the molecular basis of vascular development in the mammalian embryo as an approach to understanding the etiology of congenital heart diseases. My laborotory efforts are based on the hypothesis that the developing vasculature provides important patterning information that directs subsequent cardiac and pulmonary morphogenetic events. We have focused our investigation on two areas: 1) the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, particularly PECAM-1 in regulating vascular ontogeny and 2) the role of NFATc-1, in specification of endocardial development during early organogenesis. PECAM-1/CD31 is the earliest endothelial specific adhesion molecule expressed in the developing embryo. In addition, it is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced isoforms which demonstrate dramatically different adhesion profiles. We are using in vitro cell culture, in situ whole mouse embryo culture, and transgenic approaches to define the specific role of PECAM-1 and its alternatively spliced isoforms in embryonic vascular ontogeny. To facilitate these studies, the laboratory has developed techniques for adenoviral mediated, tissue specific gene delivery in situ and in utero, during critical stages of cardiovascular development. Most recently, we have identified restricted expression of PECAM-1 to the inner cell mass of the pre-implantation embryo defining the first ICM specific cell adhesion molecule and suggesting a role for PECAM-1 in maintaining stem cell pluripotency. To this end, we have begun characterization of both the ICM and endothelial specific regulatory regions of PECAM-1. In addition, the laboratory has begun analysis of the first endocardial specific transcription factor identified to date, Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFATc1) and has demonstrated that it is required for normal aortic and pulmonary valve formation utilizing null mutations in the mouse. Strategies aimed at defining the "upstream" and "downstream" mechanisms by which NFATc regulates semilunar valve formation include chimeric analysis by ES cell blastocyst complementation, representational display with microarray screening, as well as quantitative anatomical and physiological assessment using high resolution ultrasound and MRI microscopy. Finally, we are developing strategies for endothelial specific gene mutations using the Cre-Lox system and defining inducible endothelial specific promoters to allow temporal a spatial gene manipulation throughout the vascular system. We are particularly interested in delineating the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase, Tie1, in pulmonary vascular development. We have documented that there is a burst of Tie1 expression in the pulmonary vasculature that is associated with rapid lung maturation in the neonatal period and are using whole lung bud culture and postnatal analysis to furhther determine the role Tie1 plays in pulmonary vascular maturation.
Research Keywords
Delineating the molecular basis of vascular development in the mammalian embryo as an approach to understanding the etiology of congenital heart diseases.
Misfeldt AM, Boyle SC, Tompkins KL, Bautch VL, Labosky PA, Baldwin HS. Endocardial cells are a distinct endothelial lineage derived from Flk1+ multipotent cardiovascular progenitors. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep 9/1/2009; 333(1): 78-89. PMID: 19576203, PII: S0012-1606(09)01003-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.06.033, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Langworthy M, Zhou B, de Caestecker M, Moeckel G, Baldwin HS. NFATc1 identifies a population of proximal tubule cell progenitors. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2009 Feb; 20(2): 311-21. PMID: 19118153, PMCID: PMC2637056, PII: ASN.2008010094, DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2008010094, ISSN: 1533-3450.

Qu X, Jia H, Garrity DM, Tompkins K, Batts L, Appel B, Zhong TP, Baldwin HS. Ndrg4 is required for normal myocyte proliferation during early cardiac development in zebrafish. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 May 5/15/2008; 317(2): 486-96. PMID: 18407257, PMCID: PMC2800102, PII: S0012-1606(08)00169-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.02.044, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Boyle S, Misfeldt A, Chandler KJ, Deal KK, Southard-Smith EM, Mortlock DP, Baldwin HS, de Caestecker M. Fate mapping using Cited1-CreERT2 mice demonstrates that the cap mesenchyme contains self-renewing progenitor cells and gives rise exclusively to nephronic epithelia. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jan 1/1/2008; 313(1): 234-45. PMID: 18061157, PMCID: PMC2699557, PII: S0012-1606(07)01457-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.10.014, ISSN: 1095-564X.

Menheniott TR, Woodfine K, Schulz R, Wood AJ, Monk D, Giraud AS, Baldwin HS, Moore GE, Oakey RJ. Genomic imprinting of Dopa decarboxylase in heart and reciprocal allelic expression with neighboring Grb10. Mol. Cell. Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jan; 28(1): 386-96. PMID: 17967881, PMCID: PMC2223316, PII: MCB.00862-07, DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00862-07, ISSN: 1098-5549.

Song L, Fässler R, Mishina Y, Jiao K, Baldwin HS. Essential functions of Alk3 during AV cushion morphogenesis in mouse embryonic hearts. Dev. Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Jan 1/1/2007; 301(1): 276-86. PMID: 16959237, PII: S0012-1606(06)01073-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.08.004, ISSN: 0012-1606.

Brissova M, Shostak A, Shiota M, Wiebe PO, Poffenberger G, Kantz J, Chen Z, Carr C, Jerome WG, Chen J, Baldwin HS, Nicholson W, Bader DM, Jetton T, Gannon M, Powers AC. Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor--a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function. Diabetes. 2006 Nov; 55(11): 2974-85. PMID: 17065333, PII: 55/11/2974, DOI: 10.2337/db06-0690, ISSN: 0012-1797.

Jiao K, Langworthy M, Batts L, Brown CB, Moses HL, Baldwin HS. Tgfbeta signaling is required for atrioventricular cushion mesenchyme remodeling during in vivo cardiac development. Development [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov; 133(22): 4585-93. PMID: 17050629, PII: dev.02597, DOI: 10.1242/dev.02597, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Liske MR, Greeley CS, Law DJ, Reich JD, Morrow WR, Baldwin HS, Graham TP, Strauss AW, Kavanaugh-McHugh AL, Walsh WF, . Report of the Tennessee Task Force on Screening Newborn Infants for Critical Congenital Heart Disease. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct; 118(4): e1250-6. PMID: 17015513, PII: 118/4/e1250, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-3061, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Chen JW, Zhou B, Yu QC, Shin SJ, Jiao K, Schneider MD, Baldwin HS, Bergelson JM. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor results in hyperplasia of the embryonic left ventricle and abnormalities of sinuatrial valves. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2006 Apr 4/14/2006; 98(7): 923-30. PMID: 16543498, PII: 01.RES.0000218041.41932.e3, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000218041.41932.e3, ISSN: 1524-4571.

DeLisser HM, Helmke BP, Cao G, Egan PM, Taichman D, Fehrenbach M, Zaman A, Cui Z, Mohan GS, Baldwin HS, Davies PF, Savani RC. Loss of PECAM-1 function impairs alveolarization. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar 3/31/2006; 281(13): 8724-31. PMID: 16377626, PII: M511798200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M511798200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Brown CB, Baldwin HS. Neural crest contribution to the cardiovascular system. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2006; 589: 134-54. PMID: 17076279, DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-46954-6_8, ISSN: 0065-2598.

Allen HD, Bricker JT, Freed MD, Hurwitz RA, McQuinn TC, Schieken RM, Strong WB, Zahka KG, Sanders SP, Colan SD, Cordes TM, Donofrio MT, Ensing GJ, Geva T, Kimball TR, Sahn DJ, Silverman NH, Sklansky MS, Weinberg PM, Beekman RH, Hellenbrand WE, Lloyd TR, Lock JE, Mullins CE, Rome JJ, Teitel DF, Vetter VL, Silka MJ, Van Hare GF, Walsh EP, Kulik T, Giglia TM, Kocis KC, Mahoney LT, Schwartz SM, Wernovsky G, Wessel DL, Murphy DJ, Foster E, Benson DW, Baldwin HS, Mahoney LT, McQuinn TC, , , . ACC/AHA/AAP recommendations for training in pediatric cardiology. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2005 Dec; 116(6): 1574-96. PMID: 16210422, PII: peds.2005-2097, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-2097.

Graham TP, Beekman RH, Allen HD, Bricker JT, Freed MD, Hurwitz RA, McQuinn TC, Schieken RM, Strong WB, Zahka KG, Sanders SP, Colan SD, Cordes TM, Donofrio MT, Ensing GJ, Geva T, Kimball TR, Sahn DJ, Silverman NH, Sklansky MS, Weinberg PM, Hellenbrand WE, Lloyd TR, Lock JE, Mullins CE, Romes JJ, Teitel DF, Vetter VL, Silka MJ, Van Hare GF, Walsh EP, Kulik T, Giglia TM, Kocis KC, Mahoney LT, Schwartz SM, Wernovsky G, Wessel DL, Murphy D, Foster E, Benson DW, Baldwin HS, Hirshfeld JW, Kugler JD, Moskowitz WB, Creager MA, Lorell BH, Merli G, Rodgers GP, Rutherford JD, Tracy CM, Weitz HH, , , , . ACCF/AHA/AAP recommendations for training in pediatric cardiology. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians Task Force on Clinical Competence (ACC/AHA/AAP Writing Committee to Develop Training Recommendations for Pediatric Cardiology). Circulation. 2005 Oct 10/18/2005; 112(16): 2555-80. PMID: 16230506, PII: 112/16/2555, DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.170308.

Benson DW, Baldwin HS, Mahoney LT, McQuinn TC, , , . ACCF/AHA/AAP recommendations for training in pediatric cardiology. Task force 7: training guidelines for research in pediatric cardiology. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2005 Oct 10/4/2005; 46(7): 1401-3. PMID: 16198871, PII: S0735-1097(05)01648-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.07.021.

Frank DB, Abtahi A, Yamaguchi DJ, Manning S, Shyr Y, Pozzi A, Baldwin HS, Johnson JE, de Caestecker MP. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes pulmonary vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2005 Sep 9/2/2005; 97(5): 496-504. PMID: 16100039, PII: 01.RES.0000181152.65534.07, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000181152.65534.07, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Briegel KJ, Baldwin HS, Epstein JA, Joyner AL. Congenital heart disease reminiscent of partial trisomy 2p syndrome in mice transgenic for the transcription factor Lbh. Development [print-electronic]. 2005 Jul; 132(14): 3305-16. PMID: 15958514, PII: dev.01887, DOI: 10.1242/dev.01887, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Zhou B, Wu B, Tompkins KL, Boyer KL, Grindley JC, Baldwin HS. Characterization of Nfatc1 regulation identifies an enhancer required for gene expression that is specific to pro-valve endocardial cells in the developing heart. Development [print-electronic]. 2005 Mar; 132(5): 1137-46. PMID: 15689382, PII: dev.01640, DOI: 10.1242/dev.01640, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Phoon CK, Ji RP, Aristizábal O, Worrad DM, Zhou B, Baldwin HS, Turnbull DH. Embryonic heart failure in NFATc1-/- mice: novel mechanistic insights from in utero ultrasound biomicroscopy. Circ. Res [print-electronic]. 2004 Jul 7/9/2004; 95(1): 92-9. PMID: 15166096, PII: 01.RES.0000133681.99617.28, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000133681.99617.28, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Baldwin HS. Only our patients know for sure [editorial]. Circ. Res. 2004 Jun 6/11/2004; 94(11): 1401-2. PMID: 15192033, PII: 94/11/1401, DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000133233.38341.17, ISSN: 1524-4571.

Maschhoff KL, Anziano PQ, Ward P, Baldwin HS. Conservation of Sox4 gene structure and expression during chicken embryogenesis. Gene. 2003 Nov 11/27/2003; 320: 23-30. PMID: 14597385, PII: S0378111903008242, ISSN: 0378-1119.

Jiao K, Kulessa H, Tompkins K, Zhou Y, Batts L, Baldwin HS, Hogan BL. An essential role of Bmp4 in the atrioventricular septation of the mouse heart. Genes Dev [print-electronic]. 2003 Oct 10/1/2003; 17(19): 2362-7. PMID: 12975322, PMCID: PMC218073, PII: 1124803, DOI: 10.1101/gad.1124803, ISSN: 0890-9369.

Ismat FA, Baldwin HS, Karl TR, Weinberg PM. Coronary anatomy in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Int. J. Cardiol. 2002 Dec; 86(2-3): 207-16. PMID: 12419558, PII: S016752730200325X, ISSN: 0167-5273.

Dees E, Baldwin HS. New frontiers in molecular pediatric cardiology. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2002 Oct; 14(5): 627-33. PMID: 12352259, ISSN: 1040-8703.

Loomes KM, Taichman DB, Glover CL, Williams PT, Markowitz JE, Piccoli DA, Baldwin HS, Oakey RJ. Characterization of Notch receptor expression in the developing mammalian heart and liver. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2002 Oct 10/1/2002; 112(2): 181-9. PMID: 12244553, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.10592, ISSN: 0148-7299.

Taichman DB, Loomes KM, Schachtner SK, Guttentag S, Vu C, Williams P, Oakey RJ, Baldwin HS. Notch1 and Jagged1 expression by the developing pulmonary vasculature. Dev. Dyn. 2002 Oct; 225(2): 166-75. PMID: 12242716, DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.10146, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Zhou B, Cron RQ, Wu B, Genin A, Wang Z, Liu S, Robson P, Baldwin HS. Regulation of the murine Nfatc1 gene by NFATc2. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Mar 3/22/2002; 277(12): 10704-11. PMID: 11786533, PII: M107068200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M107068200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Jones PL, Chapados R, Baldwin HS, Raff GW, Vitvitsky EV, Spray TL, Gaynor JW. Altered hemodynamics controls matrix metalloproteinase activity and tenascin-C expression in neonatal pig lung. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2002 Jan; 282(1): L26-35. PMID: 11741812, DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00171.2001, ISSN: 1040-0605.

Robson P, Stein P, Zhou B, Schultz RM, Baldwin HS. Inner cell mass-specific expression of a cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1/CD31) in the mouse blastocyst. Dev. Biol. 2001 Jun 6/15/2001; 234(2): 317-29. PMID: 11397002, PII: S0012-1606(01)90274-X, DOI: 10.1006/dbio.2001.0274, ISSN: 0012-1606.

Badran S, Schachtner SK, Baldwin HS, Rome JJ. Optimization of adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer to pulmonary arteries in newborn swine. Hum. Gene Ther. 2000 May 5/20/2000; 11(8): 1113-21. PMID: 10834614, DOI: 10.1089/10430340050015176, ISSN: 1043-0342.

Maschhoff KL, Baldwin HS. Molecular determinants of neural crest migration. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2000; 97(4): 280-8. PMID: 11376439, PII: 10.1002/1096-8628(200024)97:4<280::AID-AJMG1278>3.0.CO;2-N, ISSN: 0148-7299.

Mickanin CS, Baldwin HS. The application of adenoviral vectors in the study of mammalian cardiovascular development. Methods Mol. Biol. 2000; 135: 537-43. PMID: 10791348, ISSN: 1064-3745.

Loomes KM, Underkoffler LA, Morabito J, Gottlieb S, Piccoli DA, Spinner NB, Baldwin HS, Oakey RJ. The expression of Jagged1 in the developing mammalian heart correlates with cardiovascular disease in Alagille syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet. 1999 Dec; 8(13): 2443-9. PMID: 10556292, PII: ddc274, ISSN: 0964-6906.

Baldwin HS. Advances in understanding the molecular regulation of cardiac development. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 1999 Oct; 11(5): 413-8. PMID: 10555593, ISSN: 1040-8703.

Dandolu BR, Baldwin HS, Norwood WI, Jacobs ML. Tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous coronary artery: double outflow technique. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1999 Apr; 67(4): 1178-80. PMID: 10320283, PII: S0003-4975(99)00115-0, ISSN: 0003-4975.

Baldwin HS, Artman M. Recent advances in cardiovascular development: promise for the future. Cardiovasc. Res. 1998 Dec; 40(3): 456-68. PMID: 10070486, PII: S0008636398002776, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Leconte I, Fox JC, Baldwin HS, Buck CA, Swain JL. Adenoviral-mediated expression of antisense RNA to fibroblast growth factors disrupts murine vascular development. Dev. Dyn. 1998 Dec; 213(4): 421-30. PMID: 9853963, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199812)213:4<421::AID-AJA7>3.0.CO;2-B, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199812)213:4<421::AID-AJA7>3.0.CO;2-B, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Piedboeuf B, Gamache M, Frenette J, Horowitz S, Baldwin HS, Petrov P. Increased endothelial cell expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 during hyperoxic lung injury. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 1998 Oct; 19(4): 543-53. PMID: 9761750, DOI: 10.1165/ajrcmb.19.4.2349, ISSN: 1044-1549.

Srinivasan S, Baldwin HS, Aristizabal O, Kwee L, Labow M, Artman M, Turnbull DH. Noninvasive, in utero imaging of mouse embryonic heart development with 40-MHz echocardiography. Circulation. 1998 Sep 9/1/1998; 98(9): 912-8. PMID: 9738647, ISSN: 0009-7322.

Ranger AM, Grusby MJ, Hodge MR, Gravallese EM, de la Brousse FC, Hoey T, Mickanin C, Baldwin HS, Glimcher LH. The transcription factor NF-ATc is essential for cardiac valve formation. Nature. 1998 Mar 3/12/1998; 392(6672): 186-90. PMID: 9515964, DOI: 10.1038/32426, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Baldwin HS, Mickanin C, Buck C. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer during initial organogenesis in the mammalian embryo is promoter-dependent and tissue-specific. Gene Ther. 1997 Nov; 4(11): 1142-9. PMID: 9425436, DOI: 10.1038/sj.gt.3300525, ISSN: 0969-7128.

George EL, Baldwin HS, Hynes RO. Fibronectins are essential for heart and blood vessel morphogenesis but are dispensable for initial specification of precursor cells. Blood. 1997 Oct 10/15/1997; 90(8): 3073-81. PMID: 9376588, ISSN: 0006-4971.

Terry RW, Kwee L, Baldwin HS, Labow MA. Cre-mediated generation of a VCAM-1 null allele in transgenic mice. Transgenic Res. 1997 Sep; 6(5): 349-56. PMID: 9322371, ISSN: 0962-8819.

Galili N, Baldwin HS, Lund J, Reeves R, Gong W, Wang Z, Roe BA, Emanuel BS, Nayak S, Mickanin C, Budarf MI, Buck CA. A region of mouse chromosome 16 is syntenic to the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial syndrome minimal critical region. Genome Res. 1997 Apr; 7(4): 399. PMID: 9110179, ISSN: 1088-9051.

Galili N, Baldwin HS, Lund J, Reeves R, Gong W, Wang Z, Roe BA, Emanuel BS, Nayak S, Mickanin C, Budarf ML, Buck CA. A region of mouse chromosome 16 is syntenic to the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial syndrome minimal critical region. Genome Res. 1997 Jan; 7(1): 17-26. PMID: 9037598, ISSN: 1088-9051.

Rongish BJ, Hinchman G, Doty MK, Baldwin HS, Tomanek RJ. Relationship of the extracellular matrix to coronary neovascularization during development. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 1996 Oct; 28(10): 2203-15. PMID: 8930815, PII: S0022-2828(96)90212-6, DOI: 10.1006/jmcc.1996.0212, ISSN: 0022-2828.

Buck CA, Edelman JM, Buck CE, Kennedy G, Baldwin HS. Expression patterns of adhesion receptors in the developing mouse lung: functional implications. Cell Adhes. Commun. 1996 Aug; 4(2): 69-87. PMID: 8937744, ISSN: 1061-5385.

Baldwin HS. Early embryonic vascular development. Cardiovasc. Res. 1996 Feb; 31 Spec No: E34-45. PMID: 8681344, PII: 0008636395002154, ISSN: 0008-6363.

Baldwin HS. What's new in cardiology!. Pediatr Rev. 1995 Dec; 16(12): 443-7. PMID: 8559701, ISSN: 0191-9601.

Suzuki HR, Solursh M, Baldwin HS. Relationship between fibronectin expression during gastrulation and heart formation in the rat embryo. Dev. Dyn. 1995 Nov; 204(3): 259-77. PMID: 8573718, DOI: 10.1002/aja.1002040305, ISSN: 1058-8388.

Yan HC, Baldwin HS, Sun J, Buck CA, Albelda SM, DeLisser HM. Alternative splicing of a specific cytoplasmic exon alters the binding characteristics of murine platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). J. Biol. Chem. 1995 Oct 10/6/1995; 270(40): 23672-80. PMID: 7559536, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Fogel MA, Donofrio MT, Baldwin HS, Weinberg PM. Effect of persistent left superior vena cava on hemodynamic calculations. Am. J. Cardiol. 1995 Jul 7/15/1995; 76(3): 204-7. PMID: 7611167, PII: S0002914999800654, ISSN: 0002-9149.

Turnbull DH, Bloomfield TS, Baldwin HS, Foster FS, Joyner AL. Ultrasound backscatter microscope analysis of early mouse embryonic brain development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995 Mar 3/14/1995; 92(6): 2239-43. PMID: 7892254, PMCID: PMC42459, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Kwee L, Baldwin HS, Shen HM, Stewart CL, Buck C, Buck CA, Labow MA. Defective development of the embryonic and extraembryonic circulatory systems in vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) deficient mice. Development. 1995 Feb; 121(2): 489-503. PMID: 7539357, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Baldwin HS, Shen HM, Yan HC, DeLisser HM, Chung A, Mickanin C, Trask T, Kirschbaum NE, Newman PJ, Albelda SM. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31): alternatively spliced, functionally distinct isoforms expressed during mammalian cardiovascular development. Development. 1994 Sep; 120(9): 2539-53. PMID: 7956830, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Baldwin HS, Lloyd TR, Solursh M. Hyaluronate degradation affects ventricular function of the early postlooped embryonic rat heart in situ. Circ. Res. 1994 Feb; 74(2): 244-52. PMID: 8293563, ISSN: 0009-7330.

Piali L, Albelda SM, Baldwin HS, Hammel P, Gisler RH, Imhof BA. Murine platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)/CD31 modulates beta 2 integrins on lymphokine-activated killer cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 1993 Oct; 23(10): 2464-71. PMID: 8405046, DOI: 10.1002/eji.1830231013, ISSN: 0014-2980.

Buck CA, Baldwin HS, DeLisser H, Mickanin C, Shen HM, Kennedy G, Chen A, Edelman JM, Albelda SM. Cell adhesion receptors and early mammalian heart development: an overview. C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie. 1993 Sep; 316(9): 838-59. PMID: 8076214, ISSN: 0764-4469.

Bogen SA, Baldwin HS, Watkins SC, Albelda SM, Abbas AK. Association of murine CD31 with transmigrating lymphocytes following antigenic stimulation. Am. J. Pathol. 1992 Oct; 141(4): 843-54. PMID: 1415479, PMCID: PMC1886651, ISSN: 0002-9440.

Baldwin HS, Jensen KL, Solursh M. Myogenic cytodifferentiation of the precardiac mesoderm in the rat. Differentiation. 1991 Aug; 47(3): 163-72. PMID: 1959714, ISSN: 0301-4681.

Lloyd TR, Baldwin HS. Emulation of conduction system functions in the hearts of early mammalian embryos. Pediatr. Res. 1990 Nov; 28(5): 425-8. PMID: 2255564, DOI: 10.1203/00006450-199011000-00001, ISSN: 0031-3998.

Baldwin HS, Solursh M. Degradation of hyaluronic acid does not prevent looping of the mammalian heart in situ. Dev. Biol. 1989 Dec; 136(2): 555-9. PMID: 2583377, PII: 0012-1606(89)90281-9, ISSN: 0012-1606.