Christopher R. Aiken, Ph.D.

Faculty Appointments
Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology Cornelius Vanderbilt Chair in Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
Ph.D., Biochemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IllinoisB.S., Chemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California
Office Address
A-5301 MCN
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
1161 21st Ave. S.
Nashville, TN 37232-2363
Research Description
The focus of the Aiken lab is to understand the molecular events governing HIV replication in order to develop novel antiviral therapies. We use the tools of biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology to study virus-host cell interactions. We also collaborate with biochemists, biphysicists, structural biologists and other virologists to understand the structure and function of the viral capsid. We are particularly interested in interactions between virus and host cell proteins. Current projects include:
1. HIV-1 capsid structure and function
2. Role of host cell proteins in HIV-1 infection
3. Mechanism of HIV-1 maturation
4. Structure and function of the cytoplasmic domain of gp41
Research Keywords
Biochemistry and molecular biology of HIV infection Function of the HIV-1 capsid Virus-host protein interactions HIV-1 maturation Antiviral mechanisms Virology
Siddiqui MA, Saito A, Halambage UD, Ferhadian D, Fischer DK, Francis AC, Melikyan GB, Ambrose Z, Aiken C, Yamashita M. A Novel Phenotype Links HIV-1 Capsid Stability to cGAS-Mediated DNA Sensing. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2019 Aug 8/15/2019; 93(16): PMID: 31167922, PII: JVI.00706-19, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00706-19, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Anderson-Daniels J, Singh P.K., Sowd GA, Li W, Engelman AN, Aiken C. Dominant negative MA-CA fusion protein is incorporated into HIV-1 cores and inhibits nuclear entry of viral preintegration complexes. J. Virol. 2019 Aug 8/14/2019; DOI: doi:10.1128/JVI.01118-19.

Peng W, Shi J, Márquez CL, Lau D, Walsh J, Faysal KMR, Byeon CH, Byeon IL, Aiken C, Böcking T. Functional analysis of the secondary HIV-1 capsid binding site in the host protein cyclophilin A. Retrovirology. 2019 Apr 4/4/2019; 16(1): 10. PMID: 30947724, PMCID: PMC6449974, PII: 10.1186/s12977-019-0471-4, DOI: 10.1186/s12977-019-0471-4, ISSN: 1742-4690.

Balasubramaniam M, Zhou J, Addai A, Martinez P, Pandhare J, Aiken C, Dash C. PF74 Inhibits HIV-1 Integration by Altering the Composition of the Preintegration Complex. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2019 Mar 3/15/2019; 93(6): PMID: 30567984, PMCID: PMC6401427, PII: JVI.01741-18, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01741-18, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Rankovic S, Ramalho R, Aiken C, Rousso I. PF74 Reinforces the HIV-1 Capsid To Impair Reverse Transcription-Induced Uncoating. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2018 Oct 10/15/2018; 92(20): PMID: 30089694, PMCID: PMC6158434, PII: JVI.00845-18, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00845-18, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Carnes SK, Zhou J, Aiken C. HIV-1 Engages a Dynein-Dynactin-BICD2 Complex for Infection and Transport to the Nucleus. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2018 Oct 10/15/2018; 92(20): PMID: 30068656, PMCID: PMC6158414, PII: JVI.00358-18, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00358-18, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Carnes SK, Sheehan JH, Aiken C. Inhibitors of the HIV-1 capsid, a target of opportunity. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2018 Jul; 13(4): 359-65. PMID: 29782334, PMCID: PMC6075716, DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000472, ISSN: 1746-6318.

Wang M, Quinn CM, Perilla JR, Zhang H, Shirra R, Hou G, Byeon IJ, Suiter CL, Ablan S, Urano E, Nitz TJ, Aiken C, Freed EO, Zhang P, Schulten K, Gronenborn AM, Polenova T. Quenching protein dynamics interferes with HIV capsid maturation. Nat Commun. 2017 Nov 11/24/2017; 8(1): 1779. PMID: 29176596, PMCID: PMC5701193, PII: 10.1038/s41467-017-01856-y, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01856-y, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Rankovic S, Varadarajan J, Ramalho R, Aiken C, Rousso I. Reverse Transcription Mechanically Initiates HIV-1 Capsid Disassembly. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2017 Jun 6/15/2017; 91(12): PMID: 28381579, PII: JVI.00289-17, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00289-17, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Wang W, Zhou J, Halambage UD, Jurado KA, Jamin AV, Wang Y, Engelman AN, Aiken C. Inhibition of HIV-1 Maturation via Small-Molecule Targeting of the Amino-Terminal Domain in the Viral Capsid Protein. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2017 May 5/1/2017; 91(9): PMID: 28202766, PMCID: PMC5391466, PII: JVI.02155-16, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02155-16, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Burse M, Shi J, Aiken C. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5a inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5a binding to the viral capsid. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(8): e0182298. PMID: 28767697, PMCID: PMC5540582, PII: PONE-D-17-21029, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182298, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Ning J, Erdemci-Tandogan G, Yufenyuy EL, Wagner J, Himes BA, Zhao G, Aiken C, Zandi R, Zhang P. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway. Nat Commun. 2016 Dec 12/13/2016; 7: 13689. PMID: 27958264, PMCID: PMC5159922, PII: ncomms13689, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13689, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Matei E, Basu R, Furey W, Shi J, Calnan C, Aiken C, Gronenborn AM. Structure and Glycan Binding of a New Cyanovirin-N Homolog. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/2/2016; 291(36): 18967-76. PMID: 27402833, PMCID: PMC5009269, PII: M116.740415, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M116.740415, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Saito A, Ferhadian D, Sowd GA, Serrao E, Shi J, Halambage UD, Teng S, Soto J, Siddiqui MA, Engelman AN, Aiken C, Yamashita M. Roles of Capsid-Interacting Host Factors in Multimodal Inhibition of HIV-1 by PF74. J. Virol [electronic-print]. 2016 Jun 6/15/2016; 90(12): 5808-23. PMID: 27076642, PMCID: PMC4886767, PII: JVI.03116-15, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03116-15, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Francis AC, Marin M, Shi J, Aiken C, Melikyan GB. Time-Resolved Imaging of Single HIV-1 Uncoating In Vitro and in Living Cells. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun; 12(6): e1005709. PMID: 27322072, PMCID: PMC4913920, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-16-00478, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005709, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Ramalho R, Rankovic S, Zhou J, Aiken C, Rousso I. Analysis of the mechanical properties of wild type and hyperstable mutants of the HIV-1 capsid. Retrovirology. 2016 Mar 3/15/2016; 13: 17. PMID: 26979152, PMCID: PMC4793510, PII: 10.1186/s12977-016-0250-4, DOI: 10.1186/s12977-016-0250-4, ISSN: 1742-4690.

Liu C, Perilla JR, Ning J, Lu M, Hou G, Ramalho R, Himes BA, Zhao G, Bedwell GJ, Byeon IJ, Ahn J, Gronenborn AM, Prevelige PE, Rousso I, Aiken C, Polenova T, Schulten K, Zhang P. Cyclophilin A stabilizes the HIV-1 capsid through a novel non-canonical binding site. Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 3/4/2016; 7: 10714. PMID: 26940118, PMCID: PMC4785225, PII: ncomms10714, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10714, ISSN: 2041-1723.

Lu M, Hou G, Zhang H, Suiter CL, Ahn J, Byeon IJ, Perilla JR, Langmead CJ, Hung I, Gor'kov PL, Gan Z, Brey W, Aiken C, Zhang P, Schulten K, Gronenborn AM, Polenova T. Dynamic allostery governs cyclophilin A-HIV capsid interplay. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov 11/24/2015; 112(47): 14617-22. PMID: 26553990, PMCID: PMC4664340, PII: 1516920112, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1516920112, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Desai TM, Marin M, Sood C, Shi J, Nawaz F, Aiken C, Melikyan GB. Fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr dissociates from HIV-1 core after viral fusion and rapidly enters the cell nucleus. Retrovirology. 2015 Oct 10/29/2015; 12: 88. PMID: 26511606, PMCID: PMC4625717, PII: 10.1186/s12977-015-0215-z, DOI: 10.1186/s12977-015-0215-z, ISSN: 1742-4690.

Aiken C. HIV: Antiviral action countered by Nef. Nature [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/8/2015; 526(7572): 202-3. PMID: 26416750, PII: nature15637, DOI: 10.1038/nature15637, ISSN: 1476-4687.

Zhou J, Price AJ, Halambage UD, James LC, Aiken C. HIV-1 Resistance to the Capsid-Targeting Inhibitor PF74 Results in Altered Dependence on Host Factors Required for Virus Nuclear Entry. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 89(17): 9068-79. PMID: 26109731, PMCID: PMC4524096, PII: JVI.00340-15, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00340-15, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Halambage UD, Wong JP, Melancon BJ, Lindsley CW, Aiken C. Microplate-based assay for identifying small molecules that bind a specific intersubunit interface within the assembled HIV-1 capsid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 59(9): 5190-5. PMID: 26077250, PMCID: PMC4538492, PII: AAC.00646-15, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00646-15, ISSN: 1098-6596.

Shi J, Zhou J, Halambage UD, Shah VB, Burse MJ, Wu H, Blair WS, Butler SL, Aiken C. Compensatory substitutions in the HIV-1 capsid reduce the fitness cost associated with resistance to a capsid-targeting small-molecule inhibitor. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 89(1): 208-19. PMID: 25320302, PMCID: PMC4301104, PII: JVI.01411-14, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01411-14, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Fribourgh JL, Nguyen HC, Matreyek KA, Alvarez FJ, Summers BJ, Dewdney TG, Aiken C, Zhang P, Engelman A, Xiong Y. Structural insight into HIV-1 restriction by MxB. Cell Host Microbe [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov 11/12/2014; 16(5): 627-38. PMID: 25312384, PMCID: PMC4252739, PII: S1931-3128(14)00354-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.09.021, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Price AJ, Jacques DA, McEwan WA, Fletcher AJ, Essig S, Chin JW, Halambage UD, Aiken C, James LC. Host cofactors and pharmacologic ligands share an essential interface in HIV-1 capsid that is lost upon disassembly. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct; 10(10): e1004459. PMID: 25356722, PMCID: PMC4214760, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-14-01242, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004459, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Ambrose Z, Aiken C. HIV-1 uncoating: connection to nuclear entry and regulation by host proteins. Virology [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 454-455: 371-9. PMID: 24559861, PMCID: PMC3988234, PII: S0042-6822(14)00048-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.02.004, ISSN: 1096-0341.

Henning MS, Dubose BN, Burse MJ, Aiken C, Yamashita M. In vivo functions of CPSF6 for HIV-1 as revealed by HIV-1 capsid evolution in HLA-B27-positive subjects. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2014 Jan; 10(1): e1003868. PMID: 24415937, PMCID: PMC3887095, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-13-00853, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003868, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Shah VB, Aiken C. Gene expression analysis of a panel of cell lines that differentially restrict HIV-1 CA mutants infection in a cyclophilin a-dependent manner. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e92724. PMID: 24663101, PMCID: PMC3963944, PII: PONE-D-13-51577, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092724, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Shah VB, Aiken C. Cell Fractionation and Quantitative Analysis of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription in Target Cells. Bio Protoc. 2013 Oct 10/20/2013; 3(20): PMID: 27547785, PMCID: PMC4990143, ISSN: 2331-8325.

Shi J, Friedman DB, Aiken C. Retrovirus restriction by TRIM5 proteins requires recognition of only a small fraction of viral capsid subunits. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 87(16): 9271-8. PMID: 23785198, PMCID: PMC3754041, PII: JVI.00713-13, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00713-13, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Yu Z, Dobro MJ, Woodward CL, Levandovsky A, Danielson CM, Sandrin V, Shi J, Aiken C, Zandi R, Hope TJ, Jensen GJ. Unclosed HIV-1 capsids suggest a curled sheet model of assembly. 2013.

Zhao G, Perilla JR, Yufenyuy EL, Meng X, Chen B, Ning Y, Ahn J, Gronenborn AM, Schulten K, Aiken C, Zhang P. Mature HIV-1 capsid structure by cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics. 2013.

Shah VB, Shi J, Hout DR, Oztop I, Krishnan L, Ahn J, Shotwell MS, Engelman A, Aiken C. The host proteins transportin SR2/TNPO3 and cyclophilin A exert opposing effects on HIV-1 uncoating. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 87(1): 422-32. PMID: 23097435, PMCID: PMC3536424, PII: JVI.07177-11, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.07177-11, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Yufenyuy EL, Aiken C. The NTD-CTD intersubunit interface plays a critical role in assembly and stabilization of the HIV-1 capsid. Retrovirology. 2013; 10: 29. PMID: 23497318, PMCID: PMC3623829, PII: 1742-4690-10-29, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-29, ISSN: 1742-4690.

Yang H, Ji X, Zhao G, Ning J, Zhao Q, Aiken C, Gronenborn AM, Zhang P, Xiong Y. Structural insight into HIV-1 capsid recognition by rhesus TRIM5??. 2012.

Yang R, Shi J, Byeon IJ, Ahn J, Sheehan JH, Meiler J, Gronenborn AM, Aiken C. Second-site suppressors of HIV-1 capsid mutations: restoration of intracellular activities without correction of intrinsic capsid stability defects. Retrovirology. 2012; 9: 30. PMID: 22515365, PMCID: PMC3351742, PII: 1742-4690-9-30, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-9-30, ISSN: 1742-4690.

Joyner AS, Willis JR, Crowe JE, Aiken C. Maturation-induced cloaking of neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 particles. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2011 Sep; 7(9): e1002234. PMID: 21931551, PMCID: PMC3169560, PII: PPATHOGENS-D-11-00125, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002234, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Zhao G, Ke D, Vu T, Ahn J, Shah VB, Yang R, Aiken C, Charlton LM, Gronenborn AM, Zhang P. Rhesus TRIM5a disrupts the HIV-1 capsid at the inter-hexamer interfaces. PLoS Pathog [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar; 7(3): e1002009. PMID: 21455494, PMCID: PMC3063768, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002009, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Du S, Betts L, Yang R, Shi H, Concel J, Ahn J, Aiken C, Zhang P, Yeh JI. Structure of the HIV-1 full-length capsid protein in a conformationally trapped unassembled state induced by small-molecule binding. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Feb 2/25/2011; 406(3): 371-86. PMID: 21146540, PMCID: PMC3194004, PII: S0022-2836(10)01257-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.11.027, ISSN: 1089-8638.

Shi J, Zhou J, Shah VB, Aiken C, Whitby K. Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by virus capsid destabilization. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan; 85(1): 542-9. PMID: 20962083, PMCID: PMC3014163, PII: JVI.01406-10, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01406-10, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Shah VB, Aiken C. In vitro uncoating of HIV-1 cores. J Vis Exp. 2011; (57): PMID: 22105356, PMCID: PMC3308611, PII: 3384, DOI: 10.3791/3384, ISSN: 1940-087X.

Joyner AS, Willis J, Crowe Jr. JE, Aiken C. Maturation-Induced Cloaking of Neutralization Epitopes on HIV-1 Particles. PLoS Pathog. 2011; 9: e1002234.

Black LR, Aiken C. TRIM5alpha disrupts the structure of assembled HIV-1 capsid complexes in vitro. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2010 Jul; 84(13): 6564-9. PMID: 20410272, PMCID: PMC2903270, PII: JVI.00210-10, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00210-10, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Shah VB, Aiken C. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog. Viruses [print-electronic]. 2010 May; 2(5): 1190-4. PMID: 21994675, PMCID: PMC3187605, PII: viruses-02-01190, DOI: 10.3390/v2051190, ISSN: 1999-4915.

Matei E, Zheng A, Furey W, Rose J, Aiken C, Gronenborn AM. Anti-HIV activity of defective cyanovirin-N mutants is restored by dimerization. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr 4/23/2010; 285(17): 13057-65. PMID: 20147291, PMCID: PMC2857066, PII: M109.094938, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.094938, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Byeon IJ, Meng X, Jung J, Zhao G, Yang R, Ahn J, Shi J, Concel J, Aiken C, Zhang P, Gronenborn AM. Structural convergence between Cryo-EM and NMR reveals intersubunit interactions critical for HIV-1 capsid function. Cell. 2009 Nov 11/13/2009; 139(4): 780-90. PMID: 19914170, PMCID: PMC2782912, PII: S0092-8674(09)01298-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.010, ISSN: 1097-4172.

Aiken C. Cell-free assays for HIV-1 uncoating. Methods Mol. Biol. 2009; 485: 41-53. PMID: 19020817, PMCID: PMC3842014, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-170-3_4, ISSN: 1064-3745.

Qi M, Yang R, Aiken C. Cyclophilin A-dependent restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid mutants for infection of nondividing cells. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 82(24): 12001-8. PMID: 18829762, PMCID: PMC2593355, PII: JVI.01518-08, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01518-08, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Langelier CR, Sandrin V, Eckert DM, Christensen DE, Chandrasekaran V, Alam SL, Aiken C, Olsen JC, Kar AK, Sodroski JG, Sundquist WI. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant TRIM5alpha protein that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2008 Dec; 82(23): 11682-94. PMID: 18799573, PMCID: PMC2583683, PII: JVI.01562-08, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01562-08, ISSN: 1098-5514.

Rold CJ, Aiken C. Proteasomal degradation of TRIM5alpha during retrovirus restriction. PLoS Pathog. 2008 May; 4(5): e1000074. PMID: 18497858, PMCID: PMC2374908, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000074, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Qi M, Aiken C. Nef enhances HIV-1 infectivity via association with the virus assembly complex. Virology [print-electronic]. 2008 Apr 4/10/2008; 373(2): 287-97. PMID: 18191978, PMCID: PMC2440657, PII: S0042-6822(07)00807-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2007.12.001, ISSN: 0042-6822.

Song C, Aiken C. Analysis of human cell heterokaryons demonstrates that target cell restriction of cyclosporine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants is genetically dominant. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov; 81(21): 11946-56. PMID: 17715216, PMCID: PMC2168785, PII: JVI.00620-07, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00620-07, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Schneidewind A, Brockman MA, Yang R, Adam RI, Li B, Le Gall S, Rinaldo CR, Craggs SL, Allgaier RL, Power KA, Kuntzen T, Tung CS, LaBute MX, Mueller SM, Harrer T, McMichael AJ, Goulder PJ, Aiken C, Brander C, Kelleher AD, Allen TM. Escape from the dominant HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in Gag is associated with a dramatic reduction in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov; 81(22): 12382-93. PMID: 17804494, PMCID: PMC2169010, PII: JVI.01543-07, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01543-07, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Jiang J, Aiken C. Maturation-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle fusion requires a carboxyl-terminal region of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 81(18): 9999-10008. PMID: 17609279, PMCID: PMC2045384, PII: JVI.00592-07, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00592-07, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Yang R, Aiken C. A mutation in alpha helix 3 of CA renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cyclosporin A resistant and dependent: rescue by a second-site substitution in a distal region of CA. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2007 Apr; 81(8): 3749-56. PMID: 17267487, PMCID: PMC1866112, PII: JVI.02634-06, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02634-06, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Qi M, Aiken C. Selective restriction of Nef-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by a proteasome-dependent mechanism. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb; 81(3): 1534-6. PMID: 17108041, PMCID: PMC1797497, PII: JVI.02099-06, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02099-06, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Pion M, Arrighi JF, Jiang J, Lundquist CA, Hartley O, Aiken C, Piguet V. Analysis of HIV-1-X4 fusion with immature dendritic cells identifies a specific restriction that is independent of CXCR4 levels. J. Invest. Dermatol [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb; 127(2): 319-23. PMID: 16917492, PII: 5700518, DOI: 10.1038/sj.jid.5700518, ISSN: 1523-1747.

Zhou J, Chen CH, Aiken C. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to the small molecule maturation inhibitor 3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)-betulinic acid is conferred by a variety of single amino acid substitutions at the CA-SP1 cleavage site in Gag. J. Virol [print-electronic]. 2006 Dec; 80(24): 12095-101. PMID: 17035324, PMCID: PMC1676313, PII: JVI.01626-06, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01626-06, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Shi J, Aiken C. Saturation of TRIM5 alpha-mediated restriction of HIV-1 infection depends on the stability of the incoming viral capsid. Virology [print-electronic]. 2006 Jul 7/5/2006; 350(2): 493-500. PMID: 16624363, PII: S0042-6822(06)00177-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.03.013, ISSN: 0042-6822.

Aiken C. Viral and cellular factors that regulate HIV-1 uncoating. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2006 May; 1(3): 194-9. PMID: 19372808, PII: 01222929-200605000-00003, DOI: 10.1097/01.COH.0000221591.11294.c1, ISSN: 1746-6318.

Dismuke DJ, Aiken C. Evidence for a functional link between uncoating of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core and nuclear import of the viral preintegration complex. J. Virol. 2006 Apr; 80(8): 3712-20. PMID: 16571788, PMCID: PMC1440469, PII: 80/8/3712, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.80.8.3712-3720.2006, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Jiang J, Aiken C. Maturation of the viral core enhances the fusion of HIV-1 particles with primary human T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Virology [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar 3/15/2006; 346(2): 460-8. PMID: 16375941, PII: S0042-6822(05)00755-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2005.11.008, ISSN: 0042-6822.

Davis MR, Jiang J, Zhou J, Freed EO, Aiken C. A mutation in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein destabilizes the interaction of the envelope protein subunits gp120 and gp41. J. Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(5): 2405-17. PMID: 16474147, PMCID: PMC1395406, PII: 80/5/2405, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.80.5.2405-2417.2006, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Zhou J, Huang L, Hachey DL, Chen CH, Aiken C. Inhibition of HIV-1 maturation via drug association with the viral Gag protein in immature HIV-1 particles. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2005 Dec 12/23/2005; 280(51): 42149-55. PMID: 16251182, PII: M508951200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M508951200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

VanCompernolle SE, Taylor RJ, Oswald-Richter K, Jiang J, Youree BE, Bowie JH, Tyler MJ, Conlon JM, Wade D, Aiken C, Dermody TS, KewalRamani VN, Rollins-Smith LA, Unutmaz D. Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection and transfer of virus from dendritic cells to T cells. J. Virol. 2005 Sep; 79(18): 11598-606. PMID: 16140737, PMCID: PMC1212620, PII: 79/18/11598, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.18.11598-11606.2005, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Aiken C, Chen CH. Betulinic acid derivatives as HIV-1 antivirals. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Jan; 11(1): 31-6. PMID: 15649820, PII: S1471-4914(04)00268-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2004.11.001, ISSN: 1471-4914.

Forshey BM, Shi J, Aiken C. Structural requirements for recognition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core during host restriction in owl monkey cells. J. Virol. 2005 Jan; 79(2): 869-75. PMID: 15613315, PMCID: PMC538572, PII: 79/2/869, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.2.869-875.2005, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Lundquist CA, Zhou J, Aiken C. Nef stimulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary T cells by enhancing virion-associated gp120 levels: coreceptor-dependent requirement for Nef in viral replication. J. Virol. 2004 Jun; 78(12): 6287-96. PMID: 15163722, PMCID: PMC416500, PII: 78/12/6287, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.78.12.6287-6296.2004, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Wyma DJ, Jiang J, Shi J, Zhou J, Lineberger JE, Miller MD, Aiken C. Coupling of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 fusion to virion maturation: a novel role of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail. J. Virol. 2004 Apr; 78(7): 3429-35. PMID: 15016865, PMCID: PMC371074, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Zhou J, Chen CH, Aiken C. The sequence of the CA-SP1 junction accounts for the differential sensitivity of HIV-1 and SIV to the small molecule maturation inhibitor 3-O-{3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl}-betulinic acid. Retrovirology. 2004; 1: 15. PMID: 15225375, PMCID: PMC479704, PII: 1742-4690-1-15, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-1-15, ISSN: 1742-4690.

Zhou J, Yuan X, Dismuke D, Forshey BM, Lundquist C, Lee KH, Aiken C, Chen CH. Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by specific targeting of the final step of virion maturation. J. Virol. 2004 Jan; 78(2): 922-9. PMID: 14694123, PMCID: PMC368845, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Huang, L. , Yuan, X., Aiken, C., and Chen, C. H.. Bifunctional anti-HIV-1 small molecules with two novel mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2004; 48: 663-5.

Ganser, B.K., von Schwedler, U.K., Stray, K.M., Aiken, C., and Sundquist, W.I.. Assembly Properties of the HIV-1 CA Protein. J. Virol. 2004; 78: 2545-52.

Tobiume M, Lineberger JE, Lundquist CA, Miller MD, Aiken C. Nef does not affect the efficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 fusion with target cells. J. Virol. 2003 Oct; 77(19): 10645-50. PMID: 12970449, PMCID: PMC228506, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Forshey BM, Aiken C. Disassembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cores in vitro reveals association of Nef with the subviral ribonucleoprotein complex. J. Virol. 2003 Apr; 77(7): 4409-14. PMID: 12634398, PMCID: PMC150647, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Forshey BM, von Schwedler U, Sundquist WI, Aiken C. Formation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core of optimal stability is crucial for viral replication. J. Virol. 2002 Jun; 76(11): 5667-77. PMID: 11991995, PMCID: PMC137032, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Lundquist CA, Tobiume M, Zhou J, Unutmaz D, Aiken C. Nef-mediated downregulation of CD4 enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary T lymphocytes. J. Virol. 2002 May; 76(9): 4625-33. PMID: 11932428, PMCID: PMC155097, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Zhou J, Aiken C. Nef enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity resulting from intervirion fusion: evidence supporting a role for Nef at the virion envelope. J. Virol. 2001 Jul; 75(13): 5851-9. PMID: 11390586, PMCID: PMC114300, DOI: 10.1128/JVI.75.13.5851-5859.2001, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Chazal, N., Singer, G., Aiken, C., Hammarskjold, M.L., and Rekosh, D. HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with envelope proteins that fuse at low pH no longer require Nef for optimal infectivity. J. Virol. 2001; 75: 4014-8.

Wyma DJ, Kotov A, Aiken C. Evidence for a stable interaction of gp41 with Pr55(Gag) in immature human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles. J. Virol. 2000 Oct; 74(20): 9381-7. PMID: 11000206, PMCID: PMC112366, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Kotov A, Zhou J, Flicker P, Aiken C. Association of Nef with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core. J. Virol. 1999 Oct; 73(10): 8824-30. PMID: 10482638, PMCID: PMC112905, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Aiken C. Mechanistic independence of Nef and cyclophilin A enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity. Virology. 1998 Aug 8/15/1998; 248(1): 139-47. PMID: 9705263, PMCID: PMC3937310, PII: S0042-6822(98)99254-6, DOI: 10.1006/viro.1998.9254, ISSN: 0042-6822.

Aiken C. Pseudotyping human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus targets HIV-1 entry to an endocytic pathway and suppresses both the requirement for Nef and the sensitivity to cyclosporin A. J. Virol. 1997 Aug; 71(8): 5871-7. PMID: 9223476, PMCID: PMC191842, ISSN: 0022-538X.

Foti, M., Carpentier, J.L., Aiken, C., Trono, D., Lew, D. P., Krause, K. H. Second-messenger regulation of receptor association with clathrin-coated pits: a novel and selective mechanism in the control of CD4 endocytosis. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 1997; 8: 1377-89.

Mangasarian, A., Foti, M., Aiken, C., Chin, D., Carpentier, J.-L., and Trono, D. The HIV-1 Nef Protein Acts as a Connector with Sorting Pathways in the Golgi and at the Plasma Membrane. Immunity. 1997; 6: 67-77.

Aiken, C., Krause, L., Chen, Y.-L., and Trono, D. Mutational analysis of HIV-1 Nef: identification of two mutants that are temperature- sensitive for CD4 downregulation. Virology. 1996; 217: 293-300.

Aiken, C., and Trono, D. Nef stimulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA synthesis. J. Virol. 1995; 69: 5048-56.

Gallay, P., Swingler, S., Aiken, C., and Trono, D. HIV-1 Infection of Non-dividing Cells: C-terminal Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Viral Matrix Protein is a Key Regulator. Cell. 1995; 80: 379-88.

Koval, V., Jault, F. M., Pal, P. G., Moreno, T. N., Aiken, C., Trono, D.,Spector, S. A., and Spector, D. H. Differential Effects of Human Cytomegalovirus on Integrated and Unintegrated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sequences. J. Virol. 1995; 69: 1645-51.

Aiken, C., Konner, J., Landau, N. R., Lenburg, M. E., and Trono, D. Nef Induces CD4 Endocytosis: Requirement for a Critical Dileucine Motif in the Membrane-Proximal CD4 Cytoplasmic Domain. Cell. 1994; 76: 853-64.

Von Schwedler, U., Song, J., Aiken, C., and Trono, D. Vif is crucial for HIV-1 proviral DNA synthesis in infected cells. J. Virol. 1993; 67: 4945-55.

Aiken, C. and Gumport, R.I. Base Analogues and Their Use in Studying Protein-DNA Interactions. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 208: 433-57.

Aiken, C.R., Fisher, E.W., and Gumport, R.I. The Specific Binding, Bending and Unwinding of DNA by RsrI Endonuclease, and Isoschizomer of EcoRI. J. Biol. Chem. 1991; 266: 19063-9.

Aiken, C.R., McLaughlin, L.W., and Gumport, R.I. The Highly Homologous Isoschizomers RsrI Endonuclease and EcoRI Endonuclease Do Not Recognize Their Target Sequence Identically. J. Biol. Chem. 1991; 266: 19070-8.

Aiken, C. and Gumport, R.I. Restriction endonuclease RsrI from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an isoschizomer of EcoRI: purification and properties. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988; 16: 7901-16.

Kaszubska, W., Aiken, C.R., and Gumport, R.I. RsrI restriction-modification enzymes from Rhodobacter spaeroides. Gene. 1988; 74: 83-4.