Frederic T. Billings, IV, M.D.

Associate Professor
Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Anesthesiology Associate Professor of Medicine
M.S.C.I., Clinical Investigation , Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeM.D., Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LouisianaB.S., Chemistry, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia
Office Address
1211 21st Ave. S, Suite 526
Nashville, TN 37212
O'Neal JB, Billings FT, Liu X, Shotwell MS, Liang Y, Shah AS, Ehrenfeld JM, Wanderer JP, Shaw AD. Effect of Preoperative Beta-Blocker Use on Outcomes Following Cardiac Surgery. Am. J. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2017 Jul 7/24/2017; PMID: 28826895, PII: S0002-9149(17)31176-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.07.012, ISSN: 1879-1913.

O'Neal JB, Billings FT, Liu X, Shotwell MS, Liang Y, Shah AS, Ehrenfeld JM, Wanderer JP, Shaw AD. Risk factors for delirium after cardiac surgery: a historical cohort study outlining the influence of cardiopulmonary bypass. Can J Anaesth [print-electronic]. 2017 Jul 7/17/2017; PMID: 28718100, PII: 10.1007/s12630-017-0938-5, DOI: 10.1007/s12630-017-0938-5, ISSN: 1496-8975.

Lopez MG, Pretorius M, Shotwell MS, Deegan R, Eagle SS, Bennett JM, Sileshi B, Liang Y, Gelfand BJ, Kingeter AJ, Siegrist KK, Lombard FW, Richburg TM, Fornero DA, Shaw AD, Hernandez A, Billings FT. The Risk of Oxygen during Cardiac Surgery (ROCS) trial: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial. Trials. 2017 Jun 6/26/2017; 18(1): 295. PMID: 28651648, PMCID: PMC5485572, PII: 10.1186/s13063-017-2021-5, DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-2021-5, ISSN: 1745-6215.

Smith LE, Smith DK, Blume JD, Siew ED, Billings FT. Latent variable modeling improves AKI risk factor identification and AKI prediction compared to traditional methods. BMC Nephrol. 2017 Feb 2/8/2017; 18(1): 55. PMID: 28178929, PMCID: PMC5299779, PII: 10.1186/s12882-017-0465-1, DOI: 10.1186/s12882-017-0465-1, ISSN: 1471-2369.

Lopez MG, Pandharipande P, Morse J, Shotwell MS, Milne GL, Pretorius M, Shaw AD, Roberts LJ, Billings FT. Intraoperative cerebral oxygenation, oxidative injury, and delirium following cardiac surgery. Free Radic. Biol. Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb; 103: 192-8. PMID: 28039082, PMCID: PMC5258679, PII: S0891-5849(16)31140-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.12.039, ISSN: 1873-4596.

Billings FT, Jiang Y, Shaw AD. Renal Oxygen Flux during Cardiopulmonary Bypass; Tubular Damage to Preserve Glomerular Filtration-What's a Kidney to Do?. Anesthesiology. 2017 Feb; 126(2): 199-201. PMID: 27906704, PMCID: PMC5243182, DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001462, ISSN: 1528-1175.

Price CC, Garvan C, Hizel LP, Lopez MG, Billings FT. Delayed Recall and Working Memory MMSE Domains Predict Delirium following Cardiac Surgery. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2017; 59(3): 1027-35. PMID: 28697572, PMCID: PMC5544543, PII: JAD170380, DOI: 10.3233/JAD-170380, ISSN: 1875-8908.

Shuey MM, Billings FT, Wei S, Milne GL, Nian H, Yu C, Brown NJ. Association of gain-of-function EPHX2 polymorphism Lys55Arg with acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(5): e0175292. PMID: 28552948, PMCID: PMC5446112, PII: PONE-D-16-43816, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175292, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Billings FT, Brown NJ. Statins to Reduce Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery--Reply [letter]. JAMA. 2016 Jul 7/19/2016; 316(3): 349-50. PMID: 27434456, PII: 2533499, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.6148, ISSN: 1538-3598.

O'Neal JB, Shaw AD, Billings FT. Acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery: current understanding and future directions. Crit Care. 2016 Jul 7/4/2016; 20(1): 187. PMID: 27373799, PMCID: PMC4931708, PII: 10.1186/s13054-016-1352-z, DOI: 10.1186/s13054-016-1352-z, ISSN: 1466-609X.

Gamboa JL, Billings FT, Bojanowski MT, Gilliam LA, Yu C, Roshanravan B, Roberts LJ, Himmelfarb J, Ikizler TA, Brown NJ. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease. Physiol Rep. 2016 May; 4(9): PMID: 27162261, PMCID: PMC4873632, PII: 4/9/e12780, DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12780, ISSN: 2051-817X.

Billings FT, Hendricks PA, Schildcrout JS, Shi Y, Petracek MR, Byrne JG, Brown NJ. High-Dose Perioperative Atorvastatin and Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Mar 3/1/2016; 315(9): 877-88. PMID: 26906014, PMCID: PMC4843765, PII: 2492851, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.0548, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Yeung CK, Billings FT, Claessens AJ, Roshanravan B, Linke L, Sundell MB, Ahmad S, Shao B, Shen DD, Ikizler TA, Himmelfarb J. Coenzyme Q10 dose-escalation study in hemodialysis patients: safety, tolerability, and effect on oxidative stress. BMC Nephrol. 2015 Nov 11/3/2015; 16: 183. PMID: 26531095, PMCID: PMC4630830, PII: 10.1186/s12882-015-0178-2, DOI: 10.1186/s12882-015-0178-2, ISSN: 1471-2369.

Billings FT, Petracek MR, Roberts LJ, Pretorius M. Perioperative intravenous acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized clinical trial. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(2): e0117625. PMID: 25705899, PMCID: PMC4338200, PII: PONE-D-14-39063, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117625, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Devin JK, Pretorius M, Nian H, Yu C, Billings FT, Brown NJ. Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibition and the vascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and brain natriuretic peptide in the human forearm. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Aug 8/26/2014; 3(4): PMID: 25158865, PMCID: PMC4310400, PII: jah3617, DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001075, ISSN: 2047-9980.

Devin JK, Pretorius M, Nian H, Yu C, Billings FT, Brown NJ. Substance P increases sympathetic activity during combined angiotensin-converting enzyme and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition. Hypertension [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 63(5): 951-7. PMID: 24516103, PMCID: PMC3984385, PII: HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02767, DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02767, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Burjek NE, Wagner CE, Hollenbeck RD, Wang L, Yu C, McPherson JA, Billings FT. Early bispectral index and sedation requirements during therapeutic hypothermia predict neurologic recovery following cardiac arrest. Crit. Care Med. 2014 May; 42(5): 1204-12. PMID: 24365859, PMCID: PMC3989405, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000126, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Billings FT, Yu C, Byrne JG, Petracek MR, Pretorius M. Heme Oxygenase-1 and Acute Kidney Injury following Cardiac Surgery. Cardiorenal Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 4(1): 12-21. PMID: 24847330, PMCID: PMC4024967, PII: crm-0004-0012, DOI: 10.1159/000357871, ISSN: 1664-3828.

Billings FT, Shaw AD. Clinical trial endpoints in acute kidney injury. Nephron Clin Pract [print-electronic]. 2014; 127(1-4): 89-93. PMID: 25343828, PMCID: PMC4480222, PII: 000363725, DOI: 10.1159/000363725, ISSN: 1660-2110.

Maltais S, Costello WT, Billings FT, Bick JS, Byrne JG, Ahmad RM, Wagner CE. Episodic monoplane transesophageal echocardiography impacts postoperative management of the cardiac surgery patient. J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 2013 Aug; 27(4): 665-9. PMID: 23849522, PII: S1053-0770(13)00090-6, DOI: 10.1053/j.jvca.2013.02.012, ISSN: 1532-8422.

Pretorius M, Murray KT, Yu C, Byrne JG, Billings FT, Petracek MR, Greelish JP, Hoff SJ, Ball SK, Mishra V, Body SC, Brown NJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or mineralocorticoid receptor blockade do not affect prevalence of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Crit. Care Med. 2012 Oct; 40(10): 2805-12. PMID: 22824930, PMCID: PMC3588582, DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825b8be2, ISSN: 1530-0293.

Billings FT, Pretorius M, Schildcrout JS, Mercaldo ND, Byrne JG, Ikizler TA, Brown NJ. Obesity and oxidative stress predict AKI after cardiac surgery. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol [print-electronic]. 2012 Jul; 23(7): 1221-8. PMID: 22626819, PMCID: PMC3380645, PII: ASN.2011090940, DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2011090940, ISSN: 1533-3450.

Billings FT, Balaguer JM, C Y, Wright P, Petracek MR, Byrne JG, Brown NJ, Pretorius M. Comparative effects of angiotensin receptor blockade and ACE inhibition on the fibrinolytic and inflammatory responses to cardiopulmonary bypass. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 Jun; 91(6): 1065-73. PMID: 22549281, PMCID: PMC3822756, PII: clpt2011356, DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.356, ISSN: 1532-6535.

Fleming GA, Billings FT, Klein TM, Bichell DP, Christian KG, Pretorius M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition alters the inflammatory and fibrinolytic response to cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep; 12(5): 532-8. PMID: 20975611, PMCID: PMC3690292, DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181fe3925, ISSN: 1529-7535.

Billings FT, Ball SK, Roberts LJ, Pretorius M. Postoperative acute kidney injury is associated with hemoglobinemia and an enhanced oxidative stress response. Free Radic. Biol. Med [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun 6/1/2011; 50(11): 1480-7. PMID: 21334433, PMCID: PMC3090463, PII: S0891-5849(11)00101-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.02.011, ISSN: 1873-4596.

Billings FT, Pretorius M, Siew ED, Yu C, Brown NJ. Early postoperative statin therapy is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 2010 Dec; 24(6): 913-20. PMID: 20599398, PMCID: PMC2992577, PII: S1053-0770(10)00121-7, DOI: 10.1053/j.jvca.2010.03.024, ISSN: 1532-8422.

Billings FT, Kodali SK, Shanewise JS. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: anesthetic considerations. Anesth. Analg. 2009 May; 108(5): 1453-62. PMID: 19372319, PII: 108/5/1453, DOI: 10.1213/ane.0b013e31819b07ce, ISSN: 1526-7598.

Billings FT, Chen SW, Kim M, Park SW, Song JH, Wang S, Herman J, D'Agati V, Lee HT. Alpha2-Adrenergic agonists protect against radiocontrast-induced nephropathy in mice. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep; 295(3): F741-8. PMID: 18579700, PII: 90244.2008, DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.90244.2008, ISSN: 1931-857X.

Lee HT, Kim M, Kim M, Kim N, Billings FT, D'Agati VD, Emala CW. Isoflurane protects against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury and modulates leukocyte infiltration in mice. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol [print-electronic]. 2007 Sep; 293(3): F713-22. PMID: 17596528, PII: 00161.2007, DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00161.2007, ISSN: 1931-857X.