Junzhong Xu, Ph.D.

Associate Professor


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Faculty Appointments
Associate Professor of Radiology & Radiological Sciences Associate Professor of Physics & AstronomyAssociate Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Ph.D., Physics , Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeM.S., Physics , Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeB.S., University of Science & Technology of China, Beijing, China
Office Address
Medical Center North, AAA3113
1161 21st Avenue South
Nashville, TN 37232
Research Description
Junzhong Xu, Ph.D., is a tenured Associate Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and secondary Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Physics and Astronomy at Vanderbilt University. He is the Director of Cancer Imaging Research at Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science. His current research projects are focused on the development, validation, optimization, and evaluation of advanced quantitative MRI methods in various applications such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The specific projects include 1) the development and validation of MRI cell size imaging for mapping biological microstructure in cancer or neurodegenerative diseases; 2) the assessment of MR cell size imaging to better characterize tumor status and monitor tumor early treatment response to anti-cancer therapy; and 3) applications of advanced MRI methods to improve the diagnosis and treatment response of neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis.

Section: Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science

VUMC email: junzhong.xu@vumc.org
Cui J, Zhao Y, Sun C, Xu J, Zu Z. Evaluation of contributors to amide proton transfer-weighted imaging and nuclear Overhauser enhancement-weighted imaging contrast in tumors at a high magnetic field. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2023 Aug; 90(2): 596-614. PMID: 37093984, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.29675, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Hardy BM, Zhu Y, Harkins KD, Dhakal B, Martin JB, Xie J, Xu J, Does MD, Anderson AW, Gore JC. Experimental demonstration of diffusion limitations on resolution and SNR in MR microscopy. J Magn Reson [print-electronic]. 2023 Jul; 352: 107479. PMID: 37285709, PII: S1090-7807(23)00114-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmr.2023.107479, ISSN: 1096-0856.

Xu J, Xie J, Semmineh NB, Devan SP, Jiang X, Gore JC. Diffusion time dependency of extracellular diffusion. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2023 Jun; 89(6): 2432-40. PMID: 36740894, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.29594, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Jiang X, McKinley ET, Xie J, Gore JC, Xu J. Detection of Treatment Response in Triple-Negative Breast Tumors to Paclitaxel Using MRI Cell Size Imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2023 May 5/23/2023; PMID: 37218596, DOI: 10.1002/jmri.28774, ISSN: 1522-2586.

Devan SP, Jiang X, Kang H, Luo G, Xie J, Zu Z, Stokes AM, Gore JC, McKnight CD, Kirschner AN, Xu J. Towards differentiation of brain tumor from radiation necrosis using multi-parametric MRI: Preliminary results at 4.7 T using rodent models. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2022 Dec; 94: 144-50. PMID: 36209946, PMCID: PMC10167709, PII: S0730-725X(22)00173-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2022.10.002, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Jiang X, Devan SP, Xie J, Gore JC, Xu J. Improving MR cell size imaging by inclusion of transcytolemmal water exchange. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2022 Dec; 35(12): e4799. PMID: 35794795, PMCID: PMC10124991, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.4799, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Devan SP, Jiang X, Luo G, Xie J, Quirk JD, Engelbach JA, Harmsen H, McKinley ET, Cui J, Zu Z, Attia A, Garbow JR, Gore JC, McKnight CD, Kirschner AN, Xu J. Selective Cell Size MRI Differentiates Brain Tumors from Radiation Necrosis. Cancer Res. 2022 Oct 10/4/2022; 82(19): 3603-13. PMID: 35877201, PMCID: PMC9532360, PII: 707206, DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-2929, ISSN: 1538-7445.

Zhao Y, Zu Z, Xu J, Gore JC, Does MD, Li J, Gochberg DF. Mapping pH using stimulated echoes formed via chemical exchange. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2022 Oct; 92: 100-7. PMID: 35764217, PII: S0730-725X(22)00100-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2022.06.006, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Khattab MH, Sherry AD, Devan SP, Luo G, Chaballout BH, Jean-Baptiste S, Xu J, Bick S, Petrie WM, Cmelak AJ. Noninvasive Capsulotomy for Refractory Depression by Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys [print-electronic]. 2022 Aug 8/1/2022; 113(5): 960-6. PMID: 35595157, PII: S0360-3016(22)00403-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.04.042, ISSN: 1879-355X.

Holland MD, Morales A, Simmons S, Smith B, Misko SR, Jiang X, Hormuth DA, Christenson C, Koomullil RP, Morgan DE, Li Y, Xu J, Yankeelov TE, Kim H. Disposable point-of-care portable perfusion phantom for quantitative DCE-MRI. Med Phys [print-electronic]. 2022 Jan; 49(1): 271-81. PMID: 34802148, DOI: 10.1002/mp.15372, ISSN: 2473-4209.

Clarke MA, Archer D, Yoon K, Oguz I, Smith SA, Xu J, Cutter G, Bagnato F. White matter tracts that overlap with the thalamus and the putamen are protected against multiple sclerosis pathology. Mult Scler Relat Disord [print-electronic]. 2022 Jan; 57: 103430. PMID: 34922252, PII: S2211-0348(21)00696-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2021.103430, ISSN: 2211-0356.

Devan SP, Luo G, Jiang X, Xie J, Dean D, Johnson LS, Morales-Paliza M, Harmsen H, Xu J, Kirschner AN. Rodent Model of Brain Radionecrosis Using Clinical LINAC-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Adv Radiat Oncol. 2022; 7(6): 101014. PMID: 36060637, PMCID: PMC9436710, PII: S2452-1094(22)00120-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.adro.2022.101014, ISSN: 2452-1094.

Yoon K, Archer DB, Clarke MA, Smith SA, Oguz I, Cutter G, Xu J, Bagnato F. Transcallosal and Corticospinal White Matter Disease and Its Association With Motor Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis. Front Neurol. 2022; 13: 811315. PMID: 35785345, PMCID: PMC9240189, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2022.811315, ISSN: 1664-2295.

Chen A, Wen S, Lakhani DA, Gao S, Yoon K, Smith SA, Dortch R, Xu J, Bagnato F. Assessing brain injury topographically using MR neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging [print-electronic]. 2021 Sep; 31(5): 1003-13. PMID: 34033187, PMCID: PMC8440411, DOI: 10.1111/jon.12876, ISSN: 1552-6569.

Clarke MA, Lakhani DA, Wen S, Gao S, Smith SA, Dortch R, Xu J, Bagnato F. Perilesional neurodegenerative injury in multiple sclerosis: Relation to focal lesions and impact on disability. Mult Scler Relat Disord [print-electronic]. 2021 Apr; 49: 102738. PMID: 33609957, PMCID: PMC8381285, PII: S2211-0348(21)00004-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2021.102738, ISSN: 2211-0356.

Jiang X, Li H, Devan SP, Gore JC, Xu J. MR cell size imaging with temporal diffusion spectroscopy. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2021 Apr; 77: 109-23. PMID: 33338562, PMCID: PMC7878439, PII: S0730-725X(20)30658-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2020.12.010, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Harkins KD, Beaulieu C, Xu J, Gore JC, Does MD. A simple estimate of axon size with diffusion MRI. Neuroimage [print-electronic]. 2021 Feb 2/15/2021; 227: 117619. PMID: 33301942, PMCID: PMC7949481, PII: S1053-8119(20)31104-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117619, ISSN: 1095-9572.

Xu J. Probing neural tissues at small scales: Recent progress of oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) neuroimaging in humans. J Neurosci Methods [print-electronic]. 2021 Feb 2/1/2021; 349: 109024. PMID: 33333089, PII: S0165-0270(20)30447-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.109024, ISSN: 1872-678X.

Xu J, Jiang X, Devan SP, Arlinghaus LR, McKinley ET, Xie J, Zu Z, Wang Q, Chakravarthy AB, Wang Y, Gore JC. MRI-cytometry: Mapping nonparametric cell size distributions using diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2021 Feb; 85(2): 748-61. PMID: 32936478, PMCID: PMC7722100, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.28454, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Devan SP, Jiang X, Bagnato F, Xu J. Optimization and numerical evaluation of multi-compartment diffusion MRI using the spherical mean technique for practical multiple sclerosis imaging. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2020 Dec; 74: 56-63. PMID: 32898649, PMCID: PMC7669580, PII: S0730-725X(20)30117-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2020.09.002, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Jiang X, Xu J, Gore JC. Mapping hepatocyte size in vivo using temporal diffusion spectroscopy MRI. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2020 Nov; 84(5): 2671-83. PMID: 32333469, PMCID: PMC7402009, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.28299, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Zu Z, Lin EC, Louie EA, Xu J, Li H, Xie J, Lankford CL, Chekmenev EY, Swanson SD, Does MD, Gore JC, Gochberg DF. Relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement sensitivity to membrane Cho phospholipids. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2020 Oct; 84(4): 1961-76. PMID: 32243662, PMCID: PMC8238412, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.28258, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Jiang X, Dudzinski S, Beckermann KE, Young K, McKinley E, J McIntyre O, Rathmell JC, Xu J, Gore JC. MRI of tumor T cell infiltration in response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. J Immunother Cancer. 2020 Jun; 8(1): PMID: 32581044, PMCID: PMC7312343, PII: jitc-2019-000328, DOI: 10.1136/jitc-2019-000328, ISSN: 2051-1426.

Xu J, Jiang X, Li H, Arlinghaus LR, McKinley ET, Devan SP, Hardy BM, Xie J, Kang H, Chakravarthy AB, Gore JC. Magnetic resonance imaging of mean cell size in human breast tumors. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2020 Jun; 83(6): 2002-14. PMID: 31765494, PMCID: PMC7047520, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.28056, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Cronin MJ, Xu J, Bagnato F, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Dortch RD. Rapid whole-brain quantitative magnetization transfer imaging using 3D selective inversion recovery sequences. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2020 May; 68: 66-74. PMID: 32004710, PMCID: PMC8609909, PII: S0730-725X(19)30535-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2020.01.014, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Lakhani DA, Schilling KG, Xu J, Bagnato F. Advanced Multicompartment Diffusion MRI Models and Their Application in Multiple Sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol [print-electronic]. 2020 May; 41(5): 751-7. PMID: 32354707, PMCID: PMC7228182, PII: ajnr.A6484, DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A6484, ISSN: 1936-959X.

Bagnato F, Franco G, Ye F, Fan R, Commiskey P, Smith SA, Xu J, Dortch R. Selective inversion recovery quantitative magnetization transfer imaging: Toward a 3 T clinical application in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler [print-electronic]. 2020 Apr; 26(4): 457-67. PMID: 30907234, PMCID: PMC7528886, DOI: 10.1177/1352458519833018, ISSN: 1477-0970.

Hormuth DA, Sorace AG, Virostko J, Abramson RG, Bhujwalla ZM, Enriquez-Navas P, Gillies R, Hazle JD, Mason RP, Quarles CC, Weis JA, Whisenant JG, Xu J, Yankeelov TE. Translating preclinical MRI methods to clinical oncology. J Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2019 Nov; 50(5): 1377-92. PMID: 30925001, PMCID: PMC6766430, DOI: 10.1002/jmri.26731, ISSN: 1522-2586.

Bagnato F, Franco G, Li H, Kaden E, Ye F, Fan R, Chen A, Alexander DC, Smith SA, Dortch R, Xu J. Probing axons using multi-compartmental diffusion in multiple sclerosis. Ann Clin Transl Neurol [print-electronic]. 2019 Sep; 6(9): 1595-605. PMID: 31407532, PMCID: PMC6764633, DOI: 10.1002/acn3.50836, ISSN: 2328-9503.

Jiang X, McKinley ET, Xie J, Li H, Xu J, Gore JC. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of treatment-induced apoptosis. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 7/2/2019; 9(1): 9540. PMID: 31266982, PMCID: PMC6606573, PII: 10.1038/s41598-019-45864-y, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-45864-y, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Jiang X, Xu J, Gore JC. Quantitative temporal diffusion spectroscopy as an early imaging biomarker of radiation therapeutic response in gliomas: A preclinical proof of concept. Adv Radiat Oncol. 2019 Apr; 4(2): 367-76. PMID: 31011683, PMCID: PMC6460331, PII: S2452-1094(18)30236-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.adro.2018.11.003, ISSN: 2452-1094.

Zu Z, Jiang X, Xu J, Gore JC. Spin-lock imaging of 3-o-methyl-D glucose (3oMG) in brain tumors. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2018 Sep; 80(3): 1110-7. PMID: 29424459, PMCID: PMC5980688, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.27128, ISSN: 1522-2594.

By S, Xu J, Box BA, Bagnato FR, Smith SA. Multi-compartmental diffusion characterization of the human cervical spinal cord in vivo using the spherical mean technique. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2018 Apr; 31(4): e3894. PMID: 29388719, PMCID: PMC5854548, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3894, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Gao Y, Schilling KG, Stepniewska I, Xu J, Landman BA, Dawant BM, Anderson AW. Tests of clustering thalamic nuclei based on various dMRI models in the squirrel monkey brain. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2018 Mar; 10578: PMID: 30467451, PMCID: PMC6241534, DOI: 10.1117/12.2293879, ISSN: 0277-786X.

Zhang XY, Wang F, Xu J, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Zu Z. Increased CEST specificity for amide and fast-exchanging amine protons using exchange-dependent relaxation rate. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2018 Feb; 31(2): PMID: 29193448, PMCID: PMC5773365, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3863, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Zhang XY, Xie J, Wang F, Lin EC, Xu J, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Zu Z. Assignment of the molecular origins of CEST signals at 2¿ppm in rat brain. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Sep; 78(3): 881-7. PMID: 28653349, PMCID: PMC5561473, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26802, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Wang F, Takahashi K, Li H, Zu Z, Li K, Xu J, Harris RC, Takahashi T, Gore JC. Assessment of unilateral ureter obstruction with multi-parametric MRI. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2017 Jul 7/24/2017; PMID: 28736875, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26849, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Zhang XY, Wang F, Li H, Xu J, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Zu Z. CEST imaging of fast exchanging amine pools with corrections for competing effects at 9.4 T. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2017 Jul; 30(7): PMID: 28272785, PMCID: PMC5490838, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3715, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Zhang XY, Wang F, Li H, Xu J, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Zu Z. Accuracy in the quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer effects. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2017 Jul; 30(7): PMID: 28272761, PMCID: PMC5490367, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3716, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Zu Z, Li H, Xu J, Zhang XY, Zaiss M, Li K, Does MD, Gore JC, Gochberg DF. Measurement of APT using a combined CERT-AREX approach with varying duty cycles. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2017 May 5/17/2017; 42: 22-31. PMID: 28526431, PII: S0730-725X(17)30096-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2017.05.001, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Gore JC, Zu Z, Wang P, Li H, Xu J, Dortch R, Gochberg DF. "Molecular" MR imaging at high fields. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2017 May; 38: 95-100. PMID: 27939250, PII: S0730-725X(16)30245-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2016.12.008, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Xu J, Li K, Smith RA, Waterton JC, Zhao P, Ding Z, Does MD, Manning HC, Gore JC. A comparative assessment of preclinical chemotherapeutic response of tumors using quantitative non-Gaussian diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 37: 195-202. PMID: 27919785, PMCID: PMC5316364, PII: S0730-725X(16)30239-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2016.12.002, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Tian X, Li H, Jiang X, Xie J, Gore JC, Xu J. Evaluation and comparison of diffusion MR methods for measuring apparent transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant. J. Magn. Reson [print-electronic]. 2017 Feb; 275: 29-37. PMID: 27960105, PMCID: PMC5266627, PII: S1090-7807(16)30253-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmr.2016.11.018, ISSN: 1096-0856.

By S, Xu J, Box BA, Bagnato FR, Smith SA. Application and evaluation of NODDI in the cervical spinal cord of multiple sclerosis patients. Neuroimage Clin. 2017; 15: 333-42. PMID: 28560158, PMCID: PMC5443965, PII: S2213-1582(17)30115-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.05.010, ISSN: 2213-1582.

Zhang XY, Wang F, Afzal A, Xu J, Gore JC, Gochberg DF, Zu Z. A new NOE-mediated MT signal at around -1.6ppm for detecting ischemic stroke in rat brain. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct; 34(8): 1100-6. PMID: 27211260, PMCID: PMC4993652, PII: S0730-725X(16)30048-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2016.05.002, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Zhang XY, Wang F, Jin T, Xu J, Xie J, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Zu Z. MR imaging of a novel NOE-mediated magnetization transfer with water in rat brain at 9.4¿T. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/8/2016; PMID: 27604612, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26396, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Jiang X, Li H, Xie J, McKinley ET, Zhao P, Gore JC, Xu J. In vivo imaging of cancer cell size and cellularity using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug 8/6/2016; PMID: 27495144, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26356, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Li H, Jiang X, Xie J, Gore JC, Xu J. Impact of transcytolemmal water exchange on estimates of tissue microstructural properties derived from diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun 6/25/2016; PMID: 27342260, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26309, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Jiang X, Li H, Zhao P, Xie J, Khabele D, Xu J, Gore JC. Early Detection of Treatment-Induced Mitotic Arrest Using Temporal Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasia. 2016 Jun; 18(6): 387-97. PMID: 27292027, PMCID: PMC4909704, PII: S1476-5586(16)30019-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.neo.2016.04.006, ISSN: 1476-5586.

Xu J, Li H, Li K, Harkins KD, Jiang X, Xie J, Kang H, Dortch RD, Anderson AW, Does MD. Fast and simplified mapping of mean axon diameter using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr; 29(4): 400-10. PMID: 27077155, PMCID: PMC4832578, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Li H, Jiang X, Wang F, Xu J, Gore JC. Structural information revealed by the dispersion of ADC with frequency. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 33(9): 1083-90. PMID: 26117695, PMCID: PMC4593726, PII: S0730-725X(15)00154-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2015.06.009, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Li H, Li K, Zhang XY, Jiang X, Zu Z, Zaiss M, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Xu J. R1 correction in amide proton transfer imaging: indication of the influence of transcytolemmal water exchange on CEST measurements. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/14/2015; PMID: 26466161, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3428, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Li K, Li H, Zhang XY, Stokes AM, Jiang X, Kang H, Quarles CC, Zu Z, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Xu J. Influence of water compartmentation and heterogeneous relaxation on quantitative magnetization transfer imaging in rodent brain tumors. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep 9/16/2015; PMID: 26375875, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25893, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Semmineh NB, Xu J, Skinner JT, Xie J, Li H, Ayers G, Quarles CC. Assessing tumor cytoarchitecture using multiecho DSC-MRI derived measures of the transverse relaxivity at tracer equilibrium (TRATE). Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 74(3): 772-84. PMID: 25227668, PMCID: PMC4362846, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25435, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Li H, Jiang X, Xie J, McIntyre JO, Gore JC, Xu J. Time-dependent influence of cell membrane permeability on MR diffusion measurements. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Jun 6/11/2015; PMID: 26096552, PMCID: PMC4676747, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25724, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Harkins KD, Xu J, Dula AN, Li K, Valentine WM, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Does MD. The microstructural correlates of t1 in white matter. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr 4/28/2015; PMID: 25920491, PMCID: PMC4624612, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25709, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Jiang X, Li H, Xie J, Zhao P, Gore JC, Xu J. Quantification of cell size using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2015 Apr 4/4/2015; PMID: 25845851, PMCID: PMC4592783, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25684, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Zaiss M, Zu Z, Xu J, Schuenke P, Gochberg DF, Gore JC, Ladd ME, Bachert P. A combined analytical solution for chemical exchange saturation transfer and semi-solid magnetization transfer. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2015 Feb; 28(2): 217-30. PMID: 25504828, PMCID: PMC4297271, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3237, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Li H, Zu Z, Zaiss M, Khan IS, Singer RJ, Gochberg DF, Bachert P, Gore JC, Xu J. Imaging of amide proton transfer and nuclear Overhauser enhancement in ischemic stroke with corrections for competing effects. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2015 Feb; 28(2): 200-9. PMID: 25483870, PMCID: PMC4303585, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3243, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Xu J, Li H, Harkins KD, Jiang X, Xie J, Kang H, Does MD, Gore JC. Mapping mean axon diameter and axonal volume fraction by MRI using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. Neuroimage [print-electronic]. 2014 Dec; 103: 10-9. PMID: 25225002, PMCID: PMC4312203, PII: S1053-8119(14)00748-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.006, ISSN: 1095-9572.

Zu Z, Spear J, Li H, Xu J, Gore JC. Measurement of regional cerebral glucose uptake by magnetic resonance spin-lock imaging. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2014 Nov; 32(9): 1078-84. PMID: 24960367, PMCID: PMC4171348, PII: S0730-725X(14)00187-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2014.06.002, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Zu Z, Xu J, Li H, Chekmenev EY, Quarles CC, Does MD, Gore JC, Gochberg DF. Imaging amide proton transfer and nuclear overhauser enhancement using chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT). Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2014 Aug; 72(2): 471-6. PMID: 24302497, PMCID: PMC4401079, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.24953, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Li H, Gore JC, Xu J. Fast and robust measurement of microstructural dimensions using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. J. Magn. Reson [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 242: 4-9. PMID: 24583517, PMCID: PMC4008665, PII: S1090-7807(14)00045-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmr.2014.02.007, ISSN: 1096-0856.

Xu J, Zaiss M, Zu Z, Li H, Xie J, Gochberg DF, Bachert P, Gore JC. On the origins of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast in tumors at 9.4¿T. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr; 27(4): 406-16. PMID: 24474497, PMCID: PMC3972041, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3075, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Zaiss M, Xu J, Goerke S, Khan IS, Singer RJ, Gore JC, Gochberg DF, Bachert P. Inverse Z-spectrum analysis for spillover-, MT-, and T1 -corrected steady-state pulsed CEST-MRI--application to pH-weighted MRI of acute stroke. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 27(3): 240-52. PMID: 24395553, PMCID: PMC4520220, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3054, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Xu J, Li K, Zu Z, Li X, Gochberg DF, Gore JC. Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging of rodent glioma using selective inversion recovery. NMR Biomed [print-electronic]. 2014 Mar; 27(3): 253-60. PMID: 24338993, PMCID: PMC3947425, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.3058, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Semmineh NB, Xu J, Boxerman JL, Delaney GW, Cleary PW, Gore JC, Quarles CC. An efficient computational approach to characterize DSC-MRI signals arising from three-dimensional heterogeneous tissue structures. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e84764. PMID: 24416281, PMCID: PMC3885618, PII: PONE-D-13-29969, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084764, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Zu Z, Janve VA, Xu J, Does MD, Gore JC, Gochberg DF. A new method for detecting exchanging amide protons using chemical exchange rotation transfer. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/1/2013; 69(3): 637-47. PMID: 22505325, PMCID: PMC3625661, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.24284, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Xu J, Li K, Smith RA, Waterton JC, Zhao P, Chen H, Does MD, Manning HC, Gore JC. Characterizing tumor response to chemotherapy at various length scales using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(7): e41714. PMID: 22911846, PMCID: PMC3404000, PII: PONE-D-12-09797, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041714, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Xu J, Xie J, Jourquin J, Colvin DC, Does MD, Quaranta V, Gore JC. Influence of cell cycle phase on apparent diffusion coefficient in synchronized cells detected using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 65(4): 920-6. PMID: 21413058, PMCID: PMC3433804, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22704, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Xu J, Does MD, Gore JC. Dependence of temporal diffusion spectra on microstructural properties of biological tissues. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 29(3): 380-90. PMID: 21129880, PMCID: PMC3058152, PII: S0730-725X(10)00320-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2010.10.002, ISSN: 1873-5894.

Colvin DC, Jourquin J, Xu J, Does MD, Estrada L, Gore JC. Effects of intracellular organelles on the apparent diffusion coefficient of water molecules in cultured human embryonic kidney cells. Magn Reson Med [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar; 65(3): 796-801. PMID: 21337411, PMCID: PMC3285501, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22666, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Gore JC, Xu J, Colvin DC, Yankeelov TE, Parsons EC, Does MD. Characterization of tissue structure at varying length scales using temporal diffusion spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 2010 Aug; 23(7): 745-56. PMID: 20677208, PMCID: PMC3285511, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.1531, ISSN: 1099-1492.

Li K, Zu Z, Xu J, Janve VA, Gore JC, Does MD, Gochberg DF. Optimized inversion recovery sequences for quantitative T1 and magnetization transfer imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Aug; 64(2): 491-500. PMID: 20665793, PMCID: PMC2943213, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22440, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Xu J, Does MD, Gore JC. Quantitative characterization of tissue microstructure with temporal diffusion spectroscopy. J. Magn. Reson [print-electronic]. 2009 Oct; 200(2): 189-97. PMID: 19616979, PMCID: PMC2758625, PII: S1090-7807(09)00189-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmr.2009.06.022, ISSN: 1096-0856.

Xu J, Does MD, Gore JC. Sensitivity of MR diffusion measurements to variations in intracellular structure: effects of nuclear size. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Apr; 61(4): 828-33. PMID: 19205020, PMCID: PMC2749035, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21793, ISSN: 1522-2594.

Xu J, Does MD, Gore JC. Numerical study of water diffusion in biological tissues using an improved finite difference method. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Apr 4/7/2007; 52(7): N111-26. PMID: 17374905, PMCID: PMC2634837, PII: S0031-9155(07)33948-1, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/52/7/N01, ISSN: 0031-9155.