Leslie J. Crofford, M.D.



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Faculty Appointments
Professor of Medicine Wilson Family Chair in MedicineProfessor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
M.D., University of Tennessee Center for Health Science, Memphis, TennesseeB.A., Chemistry , Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
Office Address
T-3113 MCN
1161 21st Ave S.
Nashville, TN 37232-2681
Research Description
Inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, is a systemic disease causing pain, fatigue, disability, and early mortality. Clinical expression of systemic autoimmune inflammatory arthritis is associated with activation of innate and acquired immune systems. In addition to the local effects of synovitis, systemic effects include skeletal muscle dysfunction likely mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Our research focuses on the role of prostaglandins and other lipid mediators in mediating innate immune functions and the transition from innate to acquired immunity.

We also are involved with the intersection of inflammation and pain in patients with rheumatic diseases.

Finally, we have focused on the systemic effects of inflammatory arthritis on skeletal muscle function.
Research Keywords
Innate and acquired immunity in inflammatory arthritis
Clinical Research Keywords
Arthritis, myositis, scleroderma, fibromyalgia, pain, inflammation
Casey C, Chung CP, Crofford LJ, Barnado A. Rheumatologists' perception of systemic lupus erythematosus quality indicators: significant interest and perceived barriers. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov 11/22/2016; PMID: 27878408, PII: 10.1007/s10067-016-3487-3, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-016-3487-3, ISSN: 1434-9949.

Nyhoff LE, Crofford LJ, Kendall PL. How will Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors affect rheumatoid arthritis? [letter]. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2016 Oct 10/16/2016; PMID: 27748073, DOI: 10.1002/art.39957, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Doss J, Mo H, Carroll RJ, Crofford LJ, Denny JC. Phenome-Wide Association Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subgroups Identifies Association between Seronegative Disease and Fibromyalgia. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2016 Sep 9/2/2016; PMID: 27589350, DOI: 10.1002/art.39851, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Merriwether EN, Rakel BA, Zimmerman MB, Dailey DL, Vance CG, Darghosian L, Golchha M, Geasland KM, Chimenti R, Crofford LJ, Sluka KA. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Instruments in Women with Fibromyalgia. Pain Med [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug 8/24/2016; PMID: 27561310, PII: pnw187, DOI: 10.1093/pm/pnw187, ISSN: 1526-4637.

Salt E, Wiggins AT, Rayens MK, Morris BJ, Mannino D, Hoellein A, Donegan RP, Crofford LJ. Moderating effects of immunosuppressive medications and risk factors for post-operative joint infection following total joint arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Semin. Arthritis Rheum [print-electronic]. 2016 Aug 8/24/2016; PMID: 27692433, PII: S0049-0172(16)30207-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.08.011, ISSN: 1532-866X.

Barnado A, Casey C, Carroll RJ, Wheless L, Denny JC, Crofford LJ. Developing Electronic Health Record Algorithms that Accurately Identify Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) [print-electronic]. 2016 Jul 7/7/2016; PMID: 27390187, DOI: 10.1002/acr.22989, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Munters LA, Loell I, Ossipova E, Raouf J, Dastmalchi M, Lindroos E, Chen YW, Esbjörnsson M, Korotkova M, Alexanderson H, Nagaraju K, Crofford LJ, Jakobsson PJ, Lundberg IE. Endurance Exercise Improves Molecular Pathways of Aerobic Metabolism in Patients With Myositis. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 2016 Jul; 68(7): 1738-50. PMID: 26867141, DOI: 10.1002/art.39624, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Godfrey KM, Herbert M, Strachan E, Mostoufi S, Crofford LJ, Buchwald D, Poeschla B, Succop A, Afari N. Dexamethasone-suppressed Salivary Cortisol and Pain Sensitivity in Female Twins. Clin J Pain [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun 6/7/2016; PMID: 27275736, DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000398, ISSN: 1536-5409.

Dolan JM, Weinberg JB, O'Brien E, Abashian A, Procario MC, Aronoff DM, Crofford LJ, Peters-Golden M, Ward L, Mancuso P. Increased Lethality and Defective Pulmonary Clearance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Knockout Mice. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/8/2016; ajplung.00220.2015. PMID: 27059285, PII: ajplung.00220.2015, DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00220.2015, ISSN: 1522-1504.

Leverenz D, Zaha O, Crofford LJ, Chung CP. Causes of creatine kinase levels greater than 1000 IU/L in patients referred to rheumatology. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2016 Apr 4/4/2016; PMID: 27041384, PII: 10.1007/s10067-016-3242-9, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-016-3242-9, ISSN: 1434-9949.

Crofford LJ, Nyhoff LE, Sheehan JH, Kendall PL. The role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in autoimmunity and implications for therapy. Expert Rev Clin Immunol [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/4/2016; 1-11. PMID: 26864273, DOI: 10.1586/1744666X.2016.1152888, ISSN: 1744-8409.

Nyhoff LE, Barron B, Johnson EM, Bonami RH, Maseda D, Fensterheim BA, Han W, Blackwell TS, Crofford LJ, Kendall PL. Bruton's tyrosine kinase deficiency inhibits autoimmune arthritis but fails to block immune complex-mediated inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar 3/4/2016; PMID: 26945549, DOI: 10.1002/art.39657, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Salt E, Wiggins AT, Rayens MK, Huaman MA, Mannino D, Schwieterman P, Merkley SA, Jones AR, Crofford LJ. Risk Factors for Targeted Fungal and Mycobacterial Infections in Patients Taking Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 2016 Mar; 68(3): 597-603. PMID: 26474379, DOI: 10.1002/art.39468, ISSN: 2326-5205.

Schmelzer AC, Salt E, Wiggins A, Crofford LJ, Bush H, Mannino DM. Role of Stress and Smoking as Modifiable Risk Factors for Nonpersistent and Persistent Back Pain in Women. Clin J Pain. 2016 Mar; 32(3): 232-7. PMID: 25882868, DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000245, ISSN: 1536-5409.

Barnado A, Crofford LJ, Oates JC. At the Bedside: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as targets for biomarkers and therapies in autoimmune diseases. J. Leukoc. Biol [print-electronic]. 2016 Feb; 99(2): 265-78. PMID: 26658004, PII: jlb.5BT0615-234R, DOI: 10.1189/jlb.5BT0615-234R, ISSN: 1938-3673.

Lee CM, Gupta S, Wang J, Johnson EM, Crofford LJ, Marshall JC, Kapoor M, Hu J. Epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor-1 acts as a negative regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Cell Biosci. 2016; 6: 43. PMID: 27313839, PMCID: PMC4910355, PII: 105, DOI: 10.1186/s13578-016-0105-7, ISSN: 2045-3701.

Simmons LA, Yang NY, Wu Q, Bush HM, Crofford LJ. Public and Personal Depression Stigma in a Rural American Female Sample. Arch Psychiatr Nurs [print-electronic]. 2015 Dec; 29(6): 407-12. PMID: 26577555, PII: S0883-9417(15)00137-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.apnu.2015.06.015, ISSN: 1532-8228.

Hanaoka BY, Cleary LC, Long DE, Srinivas A, Jenkins KA, Bush HM, Starnes CP, Rutledge M, Duan J, Fan Q, Fraser N, Crofford LJ. Physical impairment in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies is associated with the American College of Rheumatology functional status measure. Clin. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2015 Nov; 34(11): 1929-37. PMID: 25388646, PII: 10.1007/s10067-014-2821-x, DOI: 10.1007/s10067-014-2821-x, ISSN: 1434-9949.

Cleary LC, Crofford LJ, Long D, Charnigo R, Clasey J, Beaman F, Jenkins KA, Fraser N, Srinivas A, Dhaon N, Hanaoka BY. Does computed tomography-based muscle density predict muscle function and health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies?. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015 Jul; 67(7): 1031-40. PMID: 25623494, DOI: 10.1002/acr.22557, ISSN: 2151-4658.

Salt E, Rayens MK, Kerr AM, Alikhan M, Crofford LJ. Examining rheumatoid arthritis patients' trust in their provider over time: the effects of demographic factors and accessing sources of information. Orthop Nurs. 2015 May; 34(3): 159-65. PMID: 25989126, PII: 00006416-201505000-00010, DOI: 10.1097/NOR.0000000000000145, ISSN: 1542-538X.

Eisenlohr-Moul TA, Crofford LJ, Howard TW, Yepes JF, Carlson CR, de Leeuw R. Parasympathetic reactivity in fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder: associations with sleep problems, symptom severity, and functional impairment. J Pain [print-electronic]. 2015 Mar; 16(3): 247-57. PMID: 25542636, PMCID: PMC4352401, PII: S1526-5900(14)01086-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2014.12.005, ISSN: 1528-8447.

Crofford LJ. Psychological aspects of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2015 Feb; 29(1): 147-55. PMID: 26267008, PII: S1521-6942(15)00034-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.berh.2015.04.027, ISSN: 1532-1770.

Noehren B, Dailey DL, Rakel BA, Vance CG, Zimmerman MB, Crofford LJ, Sluka KA. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain, function, and quality of life in fibromyalgia: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 95(1): 129-40. PMID: 25212518, PMCID: PMC4295083, PII: ptj.20140218, DOI: 10.2522/ptj.20140218, ISSN: 1538-6724.

Dailey DL, Frey Law LA, Vance CG, Rakel BA, Merriwether EN, Darghosian L, Golchha M, Geasland KM, Spitz R, Crofford LJ, Sluka KA. Perceived function and physical performance are associated with pain and fatigue in women with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2015; 18(1): 68. PMID: 26979999, PMCID: PMC4793621, PII: 10.1186/s13075-016-0954-9, DOI: 10.1186/s13075-016-0954-9, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Crofford LJ. Chronic Pain: Where the Body Meets the Brain. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 2015; 126: 167-83. PMID: 26330672, PMCID: PMC4530716, ISSN: 0065-7778.

Simmons LA, Wu Q, Yang N, Bush HM, Crofford LJ. Sources of health information among rural women in Western Kentucky. Public Health Nurs [print-electronic]. 2015 Jan; 32(1): 3-14. PMID: 24905745, DOI: 10.1111/phn.12134, ISSN: 1525-1446.

Alemo Munters L, Alexanderson H, Crofford LJ, Lundberg IE. New insights into the benefits of exercise for muscle health in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2014 Jul; 16(7): 429. PMID: 24879535, PMCID: PMC4133148, DOI: 10.1007/s11926-014-0429-4, ISSN: 1534-6307.

Maseda D, Bonami RH, Crofford LJ. Regulation of B lymphocytes and plasma cells by innate immune mechanisms and stromal cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 10(6): 747-62. PMID: 24734886, DOI: 10.1586/1744666X.2014.907744, ISSN: 1744-8409.

Maseda D, Bonami RH, Crofford LJ. Regulation of B lymphocytes and plasma cells by innate immune mechanisms and stromal cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jun; 10(6): 747-62. PMID: 24734886, DOI: 10.1586/1744666X.2014.907744, ISSN: 1744-8409.

Godfrey KM, Strachan E, Dansie E, Crofford LJ, Buchwald D, Goldberg J, Poeschla B, Succop A, Noonan C, Afari N. Salivary cortisol and cold pain sensitivity in female twins. Ann Behav Med. 2014 Apr; 47(2): 180-8. PMID: 23955075, PMCID: PMC3926904, DOI: 10.1007/s12160-013-9532-4, ISSN: 1532-4796.

Liu Z, Cappola AR, Crofford LJ, Guo W. Modeling Bivariate Longitudinal Hormone Profiles by Hierarchical State Space Models. J Am Stat Assoc. 2014 Jan 1/1/2014; 109(505): 108-18. PMID: 24729646, PMCID: PMC3979568, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.2013.830071, ISSN: 0162-1459.

Kojima F, Frolov A, Matnani R, Woodward JG, Crofford LJ. Reduced T cell-dependent humoral immune response in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 null mice is mediated by nonhematopoietic cells. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2013 Nov 11/15/2013; 191(10): 4979-88. PMID: 24127557, PII: jimmunol.1301942, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301942, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Frolov A, Yang L, Dong H, Hammock BD, Crofford LJ. Anti-inflammatory properties of prostaglandin E2: deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 exacerbates non-immune inflammatory arthritis in mice. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 89(5): 351-8. PMID: 24055573, PMCID: PMC3897272, PII: S0952-3278(13)00160-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2013.08.003, ISSN: 1532-2823.

Mason KL, Rogers LM, Soares EM, Bani-Hashemi T, Erb Downward J, Agnew D, Peters-Golden M, Weinberg JB, Crofford LJ, Aronoff DM. Intrauterine group A streptococcal infections are exacerbated by prostaglandin E2. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/1/2013; 191(5): 2457-65. PMID: 23913961, PMCID: PMC3750066, PII: jimmunol.1300786, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300786, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Frolov A, Dong H, Jiang M, Yang L, Cook EC, Matnani R, Hammock BD, Crofford LJ. Niemann-pick type C2 deficiency in human fibroblasts confers robust and selective activation of prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug 8/16/2013; 288(33): 23696-703. PMID: 23814065, PMCID: PMC3745317, PII: M112.445916, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.445916, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Brogden NK, Banks SL, Crofford LJ, Stinchcomb AL. Diclofenac enables unprecedented week-long microneedle-enhanced delivery of a skin impermeable medication in humans. Pharm. Res [print-electronic]. 2013 Aug; 30(8): 1947-55. PMID: 23761054, PMCID: PMC3773937, DOI: 10.1007/s11095-013-1036-1, ISSN: 1573-904X.

Brogden NK, Ghosh P, Hardi L, Crofford LJ, Stinchcomb AL. Development of in vivo impedance spectroscopy techniques for measurement of micropore formation following microneedle insertion. J Pharm Sci [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 102(6): 1948-56. PMID: 23589356, PMCID: PMC3678392, DOI: 10.1002/jps.23544, ISSN: 1520-6017.

Salt E, Crofford LJ, Studts JL, Lightfoot R, Hall LA. Development of a quality of patient-health care provider communication scale from the perspective of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic Illn [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 9(2): 103-15. PMID: 22822176, PII: 1742395312455440, DOI: 10.1177/1742395312455440, ISSN: 1745-9206.

Hung EW, Mayes MD, Sharif R, Assassi S, Machicao VI, Hosing C, St Clair EW, Furst DE, Khanna D, Forman S, Mineishi S, Phillips K, Seibold JR, Bredeson C, Csuka ME, Nash RA, Wener MH, Simms R, Ballen K, Leclercq S, Storek J, Goldmuntz E, Welch B, Keyes-Elstein L, Castina S, Crofford LJ, Mcsweeney P, Sullivan KM. Gastric antral vascular ectasia and its clinical correlates in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis in the SCOT trial. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 40(4): 455-60. PMID: 23418384, PMCID: PMC3652008, PII: jrheum.121087, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.121087, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Painter JT, Crofford LJ, Talbert J. Geographic variation of chronic opioid use in fibromyalgia. Clin Ther [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar; 35(3): 303-11. PMID: 23485077, PMCID: PMC4346177, PII: S0149-2918(13)00059-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.02.003, ISSN: 1879-114X.

Painter JT, Crofford LJ. Chronic opioid use in fibromyalgia syndrome: a clinical review. J Clin Rheumatol. 2013 Mar; 19(2): 72-7. PMID: 23364665, DOI: 10.1097/RHU.0b013e3182863447, ISSN: 1536-7355.

Oddis CV, Reed AM, Aggarwal R, Rider LG, Ascherman DP, Levesque MC, Barohn RJ, Feldman BM, Harris-Love MO, Koontz DC, Fertig N, Kelley SS, Pryber SL, Miller FW, Rockette HE, . Rituximab in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Feb; 65(2): 314-24. PMID: 23124935, PMCID: PMC3558563, DOI: 10.1002/art.37754, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Srikuea R, Symons TB, Long DE, Lee JD, Shang Y, Chomentowski PJ, Yu G, Crofford LJ, Peterson CA. Association of fibromyalgia with altered skeletal muscle characteristics which may contribute to postexertional fatigue in postmenopausal women. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Feb; 65(2): 519-28. PMID: 23124535, PMCID: PMC3558634, DOI: 10.1002/art.37763, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Bush HM, Pagorek S, Kuperstein J, Guo J, Ballert KN, Crofford LJ. The Association of Chronic Back Pain and Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Womens Health Phys Therap. 2013 Jan; 37(1): 11-8. PMID: 23794961, PMCID: PMC3688274, DOI: 10.1097/JWH.0b013e31828c1ab3, ISSN: 1556-6803.

Crofford LJ. Use of NSAIDs in treating patients with arthritis. Arthritis Res. Ther [print-electronic]. 2013; 15 Suppl 3: S2. PMID: 24267197, PMCID: PMC3891482, PII: ar4174, DOI: 10.1186/ar4174, ISSN: 1478-6362.

McCarthy MK, Levine RE, Procario MC, McDonnell PJ, Zhu L, Mancuso P, Crofford LJ, Aronoff DM, Weinberg JB. Prostaglandin E2 induction during mouse adenovirus type 1 respiratory infection regulates inflammatory mediator generation but does not affect viral pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(10): e77628. PMID: 24147040, PMCID: PMC3797793, PII: PONE-D-13-22956, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077628, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Salt E, Crofford L. Rheumatoid arthritis: new treatments, better outcomes. Nurse Pract. 2012 Nov 11/10/2012; 37(11): 16-22; quiz 23. PMID: 23032511, DOI: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000421427.01505.0e, ISSN: 1538-8662.

Hanaoka BY, Peterson CA, Crofford LJ. Glucocorticoid effects on skeletal muscle: benefit and risk in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatoid diseases [editorial]. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012 Nov; 8(8): 695-7. PMID: 23167679, DOI: 10.1586/eci.12.76, ISSN: 1744-8409.

Brogden NK, Milewski M, Ghosh P, Hardi L, Crofford LJ, Stinchcomb AL. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects. J Control Release [print-electronic]. 2012 Oct 10/28/2012; 163(2): 220-9. PMID: 22929967, PMCID: PMC3725617, PII: S0168-3659(12)00627-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.08.015, ISSN: 1873-4995.

Aschbacher K, Adam EK, Crofford LJ, Kemeny ME, Demitrack MA, Ben-Zvi A. Linking disease symptoms and subtypes with personalized systems-based phenotypes: a proof of concept study. Brain Behav. Immun [print-electronic]. 2012 Oct; 26(7): 1047-56. PMID: 22687333, PMCID: PMC3725324, PII: S0889-1591(12)00144-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.06.002, ISSN: 1090-2139.

Hanaoka BY, Peterson CA, Horbinski C, Crofford LJ. Implications of glucocorticoid therapy in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Nat Rev Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2012 Aug; 8(8): 448-57. PMID: 22688888, PII: nrrheum.2012.85, DOI: 10.1038/nrrheum.2012.85, ISSN: 1759-4804.

Arnold LM, Williams DA, Hudson JI, Martin SA, Clauw DJ, Crofford LJ, Wang F, Emir B, Lai C, Zablocki R, Mease PJ. Development of responder definitions for fibromyalgia clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Mar; 64(3): 885-94. PMID: 21953205, PMCID: PMC3252491, DOI: 10.1002/art.33360, ISSN: 1529-0131.

Arnold LM, Stanford SB, Welge JA, Crofford LJ. Development and testing of the fibromyalgia diagnostic screen for primary care. J Womens Health (Larchmt) [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb; 21(2): 231-9. PMID: 22165952, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3029, ISSN: 1931-843X.

Shang Y, Gurley K, Symons B, Long D, Srikuea R, Crofford LJ, Peterson CA, Yu G. Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2012; 14(6): R236. PMID: 23116302, PMCID: PMC3674608, PII: ar4079, DOI: 10.1186/ar4079, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Schiopu E, Phillips K, MacDonald PM, Crofford LJ, Somers EC. Predictors of survival in a cohort of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: effect of corticosteroids, methotrexate and azathioprine. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2012; 14(1): R22. PMID: 22284862, PMCID: PMC3392815, PII: ar3704, DOI: 10.1186/ar3704, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Sarnes E, Crofford L, Watson M, Dennis G, Kan H, Bass D. Incidence and US costs of corticosteroid-associated adverse events: a systematic literature review. Clin Ther [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct; 33(10): 1413-32. PMID: 21999885, PII: S0149-2918(11)00617-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.09.009, ISSN: 1879-114X.

Mitchell MD, Mannino DM, Steinke DT, Kryscio RJ, Bush HM, Crofford LJ. Association of smoking and chronic pain syndromes in Kentucky women. J Pain. 2011 Aug; 12(8): 892-9. PMID: 21816352, PII: S1526-5900(11)00419-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2011.02.350, ISSN: 1528-8447.

Mease PJ, Clauw DJ, Christensen R, Crofford LJ, Gendreau RM, Martin SA, Simon LS, Strand V, Williams DA, Arnold LM, . Toward development of a fibromyalgia responder index and disease activity score: OMERACT module update. J. Rheumatol. 2011 Jul; 38(7): 1487-95. PMID: 21724721, PMCID: PMC3426365, PII: 38/7/1487, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.110277, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Hardy JK, Crofford LJ, Segerstrom SC. Goal conflict, distress, and pain in women with fibromyalgia: a daily diary study. J Psychosom Res [print-electronic]. 2011 Jun; 70(6): 534-40. PMID: 21624576, PII: S0022-3999(10)00417-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.10.013, ISSN: 1879-1360.

Nes LS, Carlson CR, Crofford LJ, de Leeuw R, Segerstrom SC. Individual differences and self-regulatory fatigue: optimism, conscientiousness, and self-consciousness. Pers Individ Dif. 2011 Apr; 50(4): PMID: 24409005, PMCID: PMC3882511, DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.11.011, ISSN: 0191-8869.

Kojima F, Matnani RG, Kawai S, Ushikubi F, Crofford LJ. Potential roles of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in rheumatoid arthritis. Inflamm Regen. 2011 Mar; 31(2): 157-66. PMID: 22308189, PMCID: PMC3269760, ISSN: 1880-9693.

Garabedian MJ, Lain KY, Hansen WF, Garcia LS, Williams CM, Crofford LJ. Violence against women and postpartum depression. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Mar; 20(3): 447-53. PMID: 21323583, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2010.1960, ISSN: 1931-843X.

Monrad SU, Kojima F, Kapoor M, Kuan EL, Sarkar S, Randolph GJ, Crofford LJ. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 abolishes PGE2 production in murine dendritic cells and alters the cytokine profile, but does not affect maturation or migration. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar; 84(3-4): 113-21. PMID: 21190819, PMCID: PMC3072052, PII: S0952-3278(10)00190-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2010.10.003, ISSN: 1532-2823.

Freibert SM, Mannino DM, Bush H, Crofford LJ. The association of adverse pregnancy events and cardiovascular disease in women 50 years of age and older. J Womens Health (Larchmt) [print-electronic]. 2011 Feb; 20(2): 287-93. PMID: 21265636, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2097, ISSN: 1931-843X.

Csepeggi C, Jiang M, Kojima F, Crofford LJ, Frolov A. Somatic cell plasticity and Niemann-Pick type C2 protein: fibroblast activation. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2011 Jan 1/21/2011; 286(3): 2078-87. PMID: 21084287, PMCID: PMC3023505, PII: M110.135897, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.135897, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Lommel K, Bandyopadhyay A, Martin C, Kapoor S, Crofford L. A pilot study of a combined intervention for management of juvenile primary fibromyalgia symptoms in adolescents in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2011; 23(3): 193-7. PMID: 22191183, ISSN: 0334-0139.

McCann MR, Monemdjou R, Ghassemi-Kakroodi P, Fahmi H, Perez G, Liu S, Shi-Wen X, Parapuram SK, Kojima F, Denton CP, Abraham DJ, Martel-Pelletier J, Crofford LJ, Leask A, Kapoor M. MPGES-1 null mice are resistant to bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. Arthritis Res. Ther [print-electronic]. 2011; 13(1): R6. PMID: 21266028, PMCID: PMC3546456, PII: ar3226, DOI: 10.1186/ar3226, ISSN: 1478-6362.

Mirrielees J, Crofford LJ, Lin Y, Kryscio RJ, Dawson DR, Ebersole JL, Miller CS. Rheumatoid arthritis and salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease. J. Clin. Periodontol [print-electronic]. 2010 Dec; 37(12): 1068-74. PMID: 20880053, PMCID: PMC2980566, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01625.x, ISSN: 1600-051X.

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Thomas RJ, Mietus JE, Peng CK, Goldberger AL, Crofford LJ, Chervin RD. Impaired sleep quality in fibromyalgia: Detection and quantification with ECG-based cardiopulmonary coupling spectrograms [letter]. Sleep Med [print-electronic]. 2010 May; 11(5): 497-8. PMID: 20015685, PMCID: PMC2854867, PII: S1389-9457(09)00399-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.09.003, ISSN: 1878-5506.

Crofford LJ. Adverse effects of chronic opioid therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010 Apr; 6(4): 191-7. PMID: 20357788, PII: nrrheum.2010.24, DOI: 10.1038/nrrheum.2010.24, ISSN: 1759-4804.

Choy EH, Arnold LM, Clauw DJ, Crofford LJ, Glass JM, Simon LS, Martin SA, Strand CV, Williams DA, Mease PJ. Content and criterion validity of the preliminary core dataset for clinical trials in fibromyalgia syndrome. J. Rheumatol. 2009 Oct; 36(10): 2330-4. PMID: 19820222, PMCID: PMC3412585, PII: 36/10/2330, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.090368, ISSN: 0315-162X.

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Chervin RD, Teodorescu M, Kushwaha R, Deline AM, Brucksch CB, Ribbens-Grimm C, Ruzicka DL, Stein PK, Clauw DJ, Crofford LJ. Objective measures of disordered sleep in fibromyalgia. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep; 36(9): 2009-16. PMID: 19684146, PMCID: PMC2909463, PII: jrheum.090051, DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.090051, ISSN: 0315-162X.

Kunisch E, Jansen A, Kojima F, Löffler I, Kapoor M, Kawai S, Rubio I, Crofford LJ, Kinne RW. Prostaglandin E2 differentially modulates proinflammatory/prodestructive effects of TNF-alpha on synovial fibroblasts via specific E prostanoid receptors/cAMP. J. Immunol [print-electronic]. 2009 Jul 7/15/2009; 183(2): 1328-36. PMID: 19542367, PII: jimmunol.0900801, DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0900801, ISSN: 1550-6606.

Kojima F, Kapoor M, Kawai S, Yang L, Aronoff DM, Crofford LJ. Prostaglandin E2 activates Rap1 via EP2/EP4 receptors and cAMP-signaling in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts: involvement of Epac1 and PKA. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun; 89(1-2): 26-33. PMID: 19464664, PMCID: PMC2738595, PII: S1098-8823(09)00018-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2009.03.001, ISSN: 1098-8823.

Russell IJ, Crofford LJ, Leon T, Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin AG, Whalen E, Barrett JA, Sadosky A. The effects of pregabalin on sleep disturbance symptoms among individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome. Sleep Med [print-electronic]. 2009 Jun; 10(6): 604-10. PMID: 19410509, PII: S1389-9457(09)00058-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.01.009, ISSN: 1878-5506.

Boomershine CS, Crofford LJ. A symptom-based approach to pharmacologic management of fibromyalgia. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009 Apr; 5(4): 191-9. PMID: 19337283, PII: nrrheum.2009.25, DOI: 10.1038/nrrheum.2009.25, ISSN: 1759-4804.

Boomershine CS, Crofford LJ. A symptom-based approach to pharmacologic management of fibromyalgia. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009 Apr; 5(4): 191-9. PMID: 19337283, PII: nrrheum.2009.25, DOI: 10.1038/nrrheum.2009.25, ISSN: 1759-4804.

Arnold LM, Crofford LJ, Mease PJ, Burgess SM, Palmer SC, Abetz L, Martin SA. Patient perspectives on the impact of fibromyalgia. Patient Educ Couns [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct; 73(1): 114-20. PMID: 18640807, PMCID: PMC2564867, PII: S0738-3991(08)00279-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2008.06.005, ISSN: 0738-3991.

Crofford LJ. Determining long-term efficacy for treatment of chronic pain in fibromyalgia patients [letter]. Pain [print-electronic]. 2008 Aug 8/31/2008; 138(2): 473-4; author reply 474. PMID: 18684565, PII: S0304-3959(08)00415-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.07.017, ISSN: 1872-6623.

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Mease PJ, Arnold LM, Crofford LJ, Williams DA, Russell IJ, Humphrey L, Abetz L, Martin SA. Identifying the clinical domains of fibromyalgia: contributions from clinician and patient Delphi exercises. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Jul 7/15/2008; 59(7): 952-60. PMID: 18576290, DOI: 10.1002/art.23826, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Kojima F, Kapoor M, Yang L, Fleishaker EL, Ward MR, Monrad SU, Kottangada PC, Pace CQ, Clark JA, Woodward JG, Crofford LJ. Defective generation of a humoral immune response is associated with a reduced incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 null mice. J. Immunol. 2008 Jun 6/15/2008; 180(12): 8361-8. PMID: 18523303, PMCID: PMC2435291, PII: 180/12/8361, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Crofford LJ, Mease PJ, Simpson SL, Young JP, Martin SA, Haig GM, Sharma U. Fibromyalgia relapse evaluation and efficacy for durability of meaningful relief (FREEDOM): a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with pregabalin. Pain [print-electronic]. 2008 Jun; 136(3): 419-31. PMID: 18400400, PII: S0304-3959(08)00105-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.02.027, ISSN: 1872-6623.

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Turk DC, Vierck CJ, Scarbrough E, Crofford LJ, Rudin NJ. Fibromyalgia: combining pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to treating the person, not just the pain. J Pain [print-electronic]. 2008 Feb; 9(2): 99-104. PMID: 17936075, PII: S1526-5900(07)00850-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2007.08.006, ISSN: 1526-5900.

Dadabhoy D, Crofford LJ, Spaeth M, Russell IJ, Clauw DJ. Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia. Evidence-based biomarkers for fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Res. Ther [print-electronic]. 2008; 10(4): 211. PMID: 18768089, PMCID: PMC2575617, PII: ar2443, DOI: 10.1186/ar2443, ISSN: 1478-6362.

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Crofford LJ. Violence, stress, and somatic syndromes. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2007 Jul; 8(3): 299-313. PMID: 17596347, PII: 8/3/299, DOI: 10.1177/1524838007303196, ISSN: 1524-8380.

Kapoor M, Kojima F, Qian M, Yang L, Crofford LJ. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 deficiency is associated with elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: regulation by prostaglandin E2 via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt pathway. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb 2/23/2007; 282(8): 5356-66. PMID: 17186945, PII: M610153200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M610153200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Kapoor M, Kojima F, Yang L, Crofford LJ. Sequential induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory prostaglandins and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma during normal wound healing: a time course study. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb; 76(2): 103-12. PMID: 17239574, PMCID: PMC1847382, PII: S0952-3278(06)00185-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2006.11.006, ISSN: 0952-3278.

Kapoor M, Kojima F, Qian M, Yang L, Crofford LJ. Shunting of prostanoid biosynthesis in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 null embryo fibroblasts: regulatory effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitrite synthesis. FASEB J [print-electronic]. 2006 Nov; 20(13): 2387-9. PMID: 17023389, PMCID: PMC4415996, PII: fj.06-6366fje, DOI: 10.1096/fj.06-6366fje, ISSN: 1530-6860.

Crofford LJ, Breyer MD, Strand CV, Rushitzka F, Brune K, Farkouh ME, Simon LS. Cardiovascular effects of selective COX-2 inhibition: is there a class effect? The International COX-2 Study Group. J. Rheumatol [print-electronic]. 2006 Jul; 33(7): 1403-8. PMID: 16724374, PII: 06/13/058, ISSN: 0315-162X.

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Srinivasan DM, Kapoor M, Kojima F, Crofford LJ. Growth factor receptors: implications in tumor biology. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Dec; 6(12): 1246-9. PMID: 16370390, ISSN: 1472-4472.

Mease PJ, Clauw DJ, Arnold LM, Goldenberg DL, Witter J, Williams DA, Simon LS, Strand CV, Bramson C, Martin S, Wright TM, Littman B, Wernicke JF, Gendreau RM, Crofford LJ. Fibromyalgia syndrome. J. Rheumatol. 2005 Nov; 32(11): 2270-7. PMID: 16265715, PII: 0315162X-32-2270, ISSN: 0315-162X.

McLean SA, Williams DA, Harris RE, Kop WJ, Groner KH, Ambrose K, Lyden AK, Gracely RH, Crofford LJ, Geisser ME, Sen A, Biswas P, Clauw DJ. Momentary relationship between cortisol secretion and symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Nov; 52(11): 3660-9. PMID: 16258904, DOI: 10.1002/art.21372, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Kocheril SV, Appleton BE, Somers EC, Kazerooni EA, Flaherty KR, Martinez FJ, Gross BH, Crofford LJ. Comparison of disease progression and mortality of connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug 8/15/2005; 53(4): 549-57. PMID: 16082627, DOI: 10.1002/art.21322, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Crofford LJ. The relationship of fibromyalgia to neuropathic pain syndromes. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2005 Aug; 75: 41-5. PMID: 16078360, PII: 03800903-75-41, ISSN: 0380-0903.

Crofford LJ, Rowbotham MC, Mease PJ, Russell IJ, Dworkin RH, Corbin AE, Young JP, LaMoreaux LK, Martin SA, Sharma U, . Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Apr; 52(4): 1264-73. PMID: 15818684, DOI: 10.1002/art.20983, ISSN: 0004-3591.

Crofford LJ. Immunomodulatory therapy for SSc: will high-intensity immunosuppression with stem cell rescue improve outcome?. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2005 Apr; 7(2): 142-9. PMID: 15760594, ISSN: 1523-3774.

Glass JM, Park DC, Minear M, Crofford LJ. Memory beliefs and function in fibromyalgia patients. J Psychosom Res. 2005 Mar; 58(3): 263-9. PMID: 15865951, PII: S0022-3999(04)00634-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.09.004, ISSN: 0022-3999.

Crofford LJ, McDonagh KT, Guo S, Mehta H, Bian H, Petruzelli LM, Roessler BJ. Adenovirus binding to cultured synoviocytes triggers signaling through MAPK pathways and induces expression of cyclooxygenase-2. J Gene Med. 2005 Mar; 7(3): 288-96. PMID: 15515144, DOI: 10.1002/jgm.661, ISSN: 1099-498X.

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Gupta S, Blaivas M, Ike RW, Crofford LJ. Polymyositis evolving after rhabdomyolysis associated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a report of two cases. J Clin Rheumatol. 2001 Oct; 7(5): 332-5. PMID: 17039165, PII: 00124743-200110000-00015, ISSN: 1076-1608.

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