Jonathan E. Schmitz, Ph.D., M.D.

Assistant Professor

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Faculty Appointments
Assistant Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology Assistant Professor of Urology
M.D., Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkPh.D., Rockefeller University, New York, New YorkM.Phil., Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United KingdomA.B., Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
Office Address
Medical Center North, T2315
1161 21st Avenue South
Nashville, TN 37232
Research Description
As a Clinical Microbiologist and investigator of microbial pathogenesis, I am drawn to academic questions in which these two sub-disciplines of microbiology complement one another. In this context, the large majority of organisms that we isolate within the diagnostic laboratory would be considered ‘opportunistic pathogens’. Although these bacteria and fungi can elicit symptomatic infections under certain circumstances, they can also represent commensal species within the body — as part the normal human microbiome — or common environmental organisms to which we are routinely exposed. The factors that govern a microbe’s balance between harmful and benign are critical in elucidating infectious mechanisms and interpreting the significance of these organisms diagnostically. My primary research efforts and collaborations address these questions of opportunistic pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on how interactions between different organisms influence pathogenic behavior. It is important to recall that opportunistic pathogens do not encounter the human host in isolation, but against the background of numerous other organisms.

This work is part of my broader interest in the ‘personalization’ or microbial discovery, in which we can re-purpose the unique, patient-specific organisms that we isolate in the clinical laboratory to dissect questions of microbial physiology and host-interaction. Much like the human host, tremendous genotypic and phenotypic diversity exists within individual strains of these same microbial species, diversity that is not well accounted for by traditional experimental models of pathogenesis. By leveraging these derivatives of clinical care for the purpose of academic discovery, I hope to better align the goals of clinical diagnosis and basic investigation.
Clinical Description
Within the PMI Division of Laboratory Medicine, I serve as the Director of Translational Microbial Diagnostics, a position which serves to connect our clinical infectious disease testing with our paired academic mission. This includes the Department's Center for Personalized Microbiology (for which I serve as Co-Director) and its microVU Biorepository, through which microbial derivates-of-care from the clinical lab are banked in mass, with linkage to the underlying patient scenarios/phenotypes. In addition, I serve as an Attending on the Clinical Microbiology Service. In this role, I provide consultative support (clinical interpretation and technical guidance) for testing that we conduct across the modalities of infectious-disease diagnostics (culture based, microscopy, molecular, and immunodiagnostic).

Prior to this current role, I served from 2016-2021 in the VUMC Diagnostic Laboratory as the Medical Director of the Molecular Infectious Diseases Laboratory (MIDL). We are currently amidst a paradigm shift in the field of Clinical Microbiology, in which PCR and other nucleic acid techniques are complementing (or even replacing) traditional culture-based methods for diagnosing infections. Within the Vanderbilt Health System, these assays — across bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens — are performed within MIDL. In this role, I oversaw the development and implementation of COVID-19 testing, as part of our institutional response to the pandemic.
Research Keywords
Personalized microbiology; opportunistic pathogens; microbial pathogenesis; molecular epidemiology, microbe-microbe interactions; urinary tract infections
Clinical Research Keywords
Clinical microbiology; molecular diagnostics
Morales G, Abelson B, Reasoner S, Miller J, Earl AM, Hadjifrangiskou M, Schmitz J. The Role of Mobile Genetic Elements in Virulence Factor Carriage from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Cases of Escherichia coli Bacteriuria. Microbiol Spectr [print-electronic]. 2023 Jun 6/15/2023; 11(3): e0471022. PMID: 37195213, PMCID: PMC10269530, DOI: 10.1128/spectrum.04710-22, ISSN: 2165-0497.

Chan A, Rebeiro PF, Schmitz J. Risk Factors for Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Children: Correspondence [letter]. Pediatr Infect Dis J [print-electronic]. 2023 Jun 6/1/2023; 42(6): e220-e221-e221. PMID: 36854122, PII: 00006454-990000000-00369, DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003886, ISSN: 1532-0987.

Humphries RM, Bragin E, Parkhill J, Morales G, Schmitz JE, Rhodes PA. Machine-Learning Model for Prediction of Cefepime Susceptibility in Escherichia coli from Whole-Genome Sequencing Data. J Clin Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2023 Mar 3/23/2023; 61(3): e0143122. PMID: 36840604, PMCID: PMC10035297, DOI: 10.1128/jcm.01431-22, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Rolfes MA, Talbot HK, McLean HQ, Stockwell MS, Ellingson KD, Lutrick K, Bowman NM, Bendall EE, Bullock A, Chappell JD, Deyoe JE, Gilbert J, Halasa NB, Hart KE, Johnson S, Kim A, Lauring AS, Lin JT, Lindsell CJ, McLaren SH, Meece JK, Mellis AM, Moreno Zivanovich M, Ogokeh CE, Rodriguez M, Sano E, Silverio Francisco RA, Schmitz JE, Vargas CY, Yang A, Zhu Y, Belongia EA, Reed C, Grijalva CG. Household Transmission of Influenza A Viruses in 2021-2022. JAMA. 2023 Feb 2/14/2023; 329(6): 482-9. PMID: 36701144, PMCID: PMC9880862, PII: 2800976, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2023.0064, ISSN: 1538-3598.

Thomas CM, White EB, Kojima N, Fill MA, Hanna S, Jones TF, Newhouse CN, Orejuela K, Roth E, Winders S, Chandler DR, Grijalva CG, Schaffner W, Schmitz JE, DaSilva J, Kirby MK, Mellis AM, Rolfes MA, Sumner KM, Flannery B, Talbot HK, Dunn JR. Early and Increased Influenza Activity Among Children - Tennessee, 2022-23 Influenza Season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 Jan 1/20/2023; 72(3): 49-54. PMID: 36656786, PMCID: PMC9869745, DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7203a1, ISSN: 1545-861X.

Nelson DJ, Shilts MH, Pakala SB, Das SR, Schmitz JE, Haselton FR. Ligation-based assay for variant typing without sequencing: Application to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Influenza Other Respir Viruses [print-electronic]. 2023 Jan; 17(1): e13083. PMID: 36510692, PMCID: PMC9835417, DOI: 10.1111/irv.13083, ISSN: 1750-2659.

Weiss A, Laut CL, Antoine-Reid T, Skaar EP, Schmitz JE. Mobilizing an Institutional Research Enterprise to Support Pandemic Diagnostic Care. Arch Pathol Lab Med [print-electronic]. 2022 Dec 12/20/2022; PMID: 36538384, PII: 489436, DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2022-0155-SA, ISSN: 1543-2165.

Haddadin Z, Halasa N, McHenry R, Varjabedian R, Lynch TL, Chen H, Abdul Ghani MO, Schmitz JE, Sucre J, Isenberg K, Zamora I, Danko M, Blakely M, Olson J, Jackson GP, Lovvorn HN. SARS-CoV-2 Testing of Aerosols Emitted During Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Prospective, Case-Controlled Study. Am Surg [print-electronic]. 2022 Nov; 88(11): 2710-8. PMID: 35148619, DOI: 10.1177/00031348211067707, ISSN: 1555-9823.

Sultana S, Crompton ME, Meurer K, Jankiewicz O, Morales GH, Johnson C, Horbach E, Hoffmann KP, Kr P, Shah R, Anderson GM, Mortimer NT, Schmitz JE, Hadjifrangiskou M, Foti A, Dahl JU. Redox-Mediated Inactivation of the Transcriptional Repressor RcrR is Responsible for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli's Increased Resistance to Reactive Chlorine Species. MBio [print-electronic]. 2022 Oct 10/26/2022; 13(5): e0192622. PMID: 36073817, PMCID: PMC9600549, DOI: 10.1128/mbio.01926-22, ISSN: 2150-7511.

Schmitz JE, Stratton CW, Persing DH, Tang YW. Forty Years of Molecular Diagnostics for Infectious Diseases. J Clin Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2022 Oct 10/19/2022; 60(10): e0244621. PMID: 35852340, PMCID: PMC9580468, DOI: 10.1128/jcm.02446-21, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Wrenn JO, Pakala SB, Vestal G, Shilts MH, Brown HM, Bowen SM, Strickland BA, Williams T, Mallal SA, Jones ID, Schmitz JE, Self WH, Das SR. COVID-19 severity from Omicron and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants. Influenza Other Respir Viruses [print-electronic]. 2022 Sep; 16(5): 832-6. PMID: 35415869, PMCID: PMC9111734, DOI: 10.1111/irv.12982, ISSN: 1750-2659.

Victoriano CM, Pask ME, Malofsky NA, Seegmiller A, Simmons S, Schmitz JE, Haselton FR, Adams NM. Direct PCR with the CDC 2019 SARS-CoV-2 assay: optimization for limited-resource settings. Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 7/11/2022; 12(1): 11756. PMID: 35817781, PMCID: PMC9272867, PII: 10.1038/s41598-022-15356-7, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-15356-7, ISSN: 2045-2322.

Steenwyk JL, Buida TJ, Gonçalves C, Goltz DC, Morales G, Mead ME, LaBella AL, Chavez CM, Schmitz JE, Hadjifrangiskou M, Li Y, Rokas A. BioKIT: a versatile toolkit for processing and analyzing diverse types of sequence data. Genetics. 2022 Jul 7/4/2022; 221(3): PMID: 35536198, PMCID: PMC9252278, PII: 6583183, DOI: 10.1093/genetics/iyac079, ISSN: 1943-2631.

Gilchuk P, Thomsen I, Yoder S, Brady E, Chappell JD, Stevens LJ, Denison MR, Sutton RE, Chen RE, VanBlargan LA, Suryadevara N, Zost SJ, Schmitz J, Pulley JM, Diamond MS, Rhoads JP, Bernard GR, Self WH, Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Crowe JE, Carnahan RH. Standardized two-step testing of antibody activity in COVID-19 convalescent plasma. IScience [print-electronic]. 2022 Jan 1/21/2022; 25(1): 103602. PMID: 34901783, PMCID: PMC8653399, PII: S2589-0042(21)01572-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.103602, ISSN: 2589-0042.

Haddadin Z, Spieker AJ, Rahman H, Rankin DA, Talj R, Yanis A, Amarin JZ, Schmitz J, Chappell J, Halasa NB. Respiratory pathogens during the COVID-19 pandemic: Alterations in detection and seasonality in Nashville, Tennessee. PLoS One. 2022; 17(8): e0270469. PMID: 35921608, PMCID: PMC9348857, PII: PONE-D-21-18541, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0270469, ISSN: 1932-6203.

McNaughton CD, Adams NM, Hirschie Johnson C, Ward MJ, Schmitz JE, Lasko TA. Diurnal Variation in SARS-CoV-2 PCR Test Results: Test Accuracy May Vary by Time of Day [letter]. J Biol Rhythms [print-electronic]. 2021 Dec; 36(6): 595-601. PMID: 34696614, PMCID: PMC8599649, DOI: 10.1177/07487304211051841, ISSN: 1552-4531.

Katz SE, McHenry R, Mauer LG, Chappell JD, Stewart LS, Schmitz JE, Halasa N, Edwards KM, Banerjee R. Low In-School COVID-19 Transmission and Asymptomatic Infection Despite High Community Prevalence. J Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2021 Oct; 237: 302-306.e1-306.e1. PMID: 34144028, PMCID: PMC8271352, PII: S0022-3476(21)00532-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.06.015, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Katz SE, McHenry R, Mauer LG, Chappell JD, Stewart LS, Schmitz JE, Halasa N, Edwards KM, Banerjee R. Low In-School COVID-19 Transmission and Asymptomatic Infection Despite High Community Prevalence. J Pediatr [print-electronic]. 2021 Oct; 237: 302-306.e1-306.e1. PMID: 34144028, PMCID: PMC8271352, PII: S0022-3476(21)00532-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.06.015, ISSN: 1097-6833.

Howard LM, Garguilo K, Gillon J, LeBlanc K, Seegmiller AC, Schmitz JE, Byrne DW, Domenico HJ, Moore RP, Webber SA, Halasa NB, Banerjee R. The first 1000 symptomatic pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infections in an integrated health care system: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2021 Sep 9/13/2021; 21(1): 403. PMID: 34517879, PMCID: PMC8435399, PII: 10.1186/s12887-021-02863-1, DOI: 10.1186/s12887-021-02863-1, ISSN: 1471-2431.

Angaramo S, Law JC, Maris AS, Schmitz JE, Liu Y, Chen Q, Chomsky A. Potential impact of oral flora dispersal on patients wearing face masks when undergoing ophthalmologic procedures. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2021; 6(1): e000804. PMID: 34660909, PMCID: PMC8493904, PII: bmjophth-2021-000804, DOI: 10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000804, ISSN: 2397-3269.

Probst V, Datyner EK, Haddadin Z, Rankin DA, Hamdan L, Rahman HK, Spieker A, Stewart LS, Guevara C, Yepsen E, Schmitz JE, Halasa NB. Human adenovirus species in children with acute respiratory illnesses. J Clin Virol [print-electronic]. 2021 Jan; 134: 104716. PMID: 33360858, PMCID: PMC8324062, PII: S1386-6532(20)30458-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104716, ISSN: 1873-5967.

Kuriakose K, Pettit AC, Schmitz J, Moncayo A, Bloch KC. Assessment of Risk Factors and Outcomes of Severe Ehrlichiosis Infection. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Nov 11/2/2020; 3(11): e2025577. PMID: 33201233, PMCID: PMC7672514, PII: 2773048, DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25577, ISSN: 2574-3805.

Crook J, Xu M, Slaughter JC, Willis J, Browning W, Estrada C, Gay J, Thomas G, Benton A, Quinn C, Schmitz J, Banerjee R. Impact of clinical guidance and rapid molecular pathogen detection on evaluation and outcomes of febrile or hypothermic infants. Infection control and hospital epidemiology [print-electronic]. 2020 Sep 9/3/2020; 1-7. PMID: 32880255, PII: S0899823X20003177, DOI: 10.1017/ice.2020.317, ISSN: 1559-6834.

Antoine-Reid T, Malone J, Maris AS, White-Abell J, Schmitz JE. Cross-Comparison of a Chemiluminescent Platform and a Commercial Receptor Binding Domain-Based ELISA Assay for Detecting SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The journal of applied laboratory medicine [print-electronic]. 2020 Aug 8/4/2020; PMID: 32750140, PMCID: PMC7454603, PII: 5880553, DOI: 10.1093/jalm/jfaa133, ISSN: 2576-9456.

Eberly AR, Beebout CJ, Tong CMC, Van Horn GT, Green HD, Fitzgerald MJ, De S, Apple EK, Schrimpe-Rutledge AC, Codreanu SG, Sherrod SD, McLean JA, Clayton DB, Stratton CW, Schmitz JE, Hadjifrangiskou M. Data highlighting phenotypic diversity of urine-associated Escherichia coli isolates. Data Brief. 2020 Aug; 31: 105811. PMID: 32566710, PMCID: PMC7298415, PII: S2352-3409(20)30705-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105811, ISSN: 2352-3409.

Adams NM, Leelawong M, Benton A, Quinn C, Haselton FR, Schmitz JE. COVID-19 diagnostics for resource-limited settings: Evaluation of "unextracted" qRT-PCR. Journal of medical virology [print-electronic]. 2020 Jul 7/23/2020; PMID: 32779772, PMCID: PMC7405028, DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26328, ISSN: 1096-9071.

Harriott MM, Carnes SK, Stratton CW, Wright PW, Schmitz JE. The Brief Case: Mold Infection of an Indwelling Cranial Device-a Perplexing Combination of "Classic" Laboratory Findings [editorial]. J. Clin. Microbiol [electronic-print]. 2020 Apr 4/23/2020; 58(5): PMID: 32327542, PMCID: PMC7180266, PII: 58/5/e01116-19, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01116-19, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Harriott MM, Carnes SK, Stratton CW, Wright PW, Schmitz JE. Closing the Brief Case: Mold Infection of an Indwelling Cranial Device-a Perplexing Combination of "Classic" Laboratory Findings [editorial]. J Clin Microbiol [electronic-print]. 2020 Apr 4/23/2020; 58(5): PMID: 32327543, PMCID: PMC7180260, PII: 58/5/e01117-19, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01117-19, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Tang YW, Schmitz JE, Persing DH, Stratton CW. The Laboratory Diagnosis of COVID-19 Infection: Current Issues and Challenges. J. Clin. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2020 Apr 4/3/2020; PMID: 32245835, PII: JCM.00512-20, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00512-20, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Eskind CC, Shilts MH, Boone HH, Schmitz JE, Shaver CM, Satyanarayana G, Das SR. Acute Infection Disrupts the Respiratory Microbiome of Lung Transplant Recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant [print-electronic]. 2020 Apr; 39(4S): S202. PMID: 32465061, PII: S1053-2498(20)30829-9, DOI: 10.1016/j.healun.2020.01.812, ISSN: 1557-3117.

Wright MF, Weiss VL, Lewis JS, Schmitz JE, Ely KA. Determination of high-risk HPV status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using the Roche cobas HPV test on cytologic specimens and acellular supernatant fluid. Cancer Cytopathol [print-electronic]. 2020 Mar 3/4/2020; PMID: 32129949, DOI: 10.1002/cncy.22258, ISSN: 1934-6638.

Colby JM, Wheeler FC, Petrie KA, Gould KL, Schmitz JE. Institutional Training Opportunities for PhD Students in Laboratory Medicine: An Unmet Career Development Need?. J Appl Lab Med. 2020 Mar 3/1/2020; 5(2): 412-6. PMID: 32445389, PII: 5762644, DOI: 10.1093/jalm/jfz028, ISSN: 2576-9456.

Juttukonda LJ, Katz S, Gillon J, Schmitz J, Banerjee R. Impact of a rapid blood culture diagnostic test in a children's hospital depends on Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative organism and day vs. night shift. J. Clin. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2019 Dec 12/18/2019; PMID: 31852761, PII: JCM.01400-19, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01400-19, ISSN: 1098-660X.

Eberly AR, Beebout CJ, Carmen Tong CM, Van Horn GT, Green HD, Fitzgerald MJ, De S, Apple EK, Schrimpe-Rutledge AC, Codreanu SG, Sherrod SD, McLean JA, Clayton DB, Stratton CW, Schmitz JE, Hadjifrangiskou M. Defining a Molecular Signature for Uropathogenic versus Urocolonizing Escherichia coli: The Status of the Field and New Clinical Opportunities. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2019 Nov 11/30/2019; PMID: 31794727, PII: S0022-2836(19)30672-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2019.11.008, ISSN: 1089-8638.

Harriott MM, Bhindi N, Kassis S, Summitt B, Perdikis G, Wormer BA, Rankin TM, Kaoutzanis C, Samaha M, Stratton C, Schmitz JE. Comparative Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Wound Care Solutions on Bacterial and Fungal Biofilms. Ann Plast Surg. 2019 Oct; 83(4): 404-10. PMID: 31524733, PII: 00000637-201910000-00011, DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001996, ISSN: 1536-3708.

Capoor MN, Birkenmaier C, Wang JC, McDowell A, Ahmed FS, Brüggemann H, Coscia E, Davies DG, Ohrt-Nissen S, Raz A, Ruzicka F, Schmitz JE, Fischetti VA, Slaby O. A review of microscopy-based evidence for the association of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in degenerative disc disease and other diseased human tissue. Eur Spine J [print-electronic]. 2019 Jul 7/29/2019; PMID: 31359216, PII: 10.1007/s00586-019-06086-y, DOI: 10.1007/s00586-019-06086-y, ISSN: 1432-0932.

Capoor MN, Lochman J, McDowell A, Schmitz JE, Solansky M, Zapletalova M, Alamin TF, Coscia MF, Garfin SR, Jancalek R, Ruzicka F, Shamie AN, Smrcka M, Wang JC, Birkenmaier C, Slaby O. Intervertebral disc penetration by antibiotics used prophylactically in spinal surgery: implications for the current standards and treatment of disc infections. Eur Spine J [print-electronic]. 2019 Apr; 28(4): 783-91. PMID: 30506486, PII: 10.1007/s00586-018-5838-z, DOI: 10.1007/s00586-018-5838-z, ISSN: 1432-0932.

Lines T, Greene M, Nesbitt WJ, Stratton CW, Schmitz JE. Enterococcus faecalis and Penicillin Susceptibility Testing: The Challenge of Multiple Methods and Agent-to-Agent Predictions. The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine. 2019 Jan; 3(4): 730-2. DOI: 10.1373/jalm.2018.027821.

Schmitz JE, Tang YW. The GenMark ePlex®: another weapon in the syndromic arsenal for infection diagnosis. Future Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2018 Dec; 13: 1697-708. PMID: 30547684, PMCID: PMC6439521, DOI: 10.2217/fmb-2018-0258, ISSN: 1746-0921.

Sefers S, Schmitz JE. Molecular Contamination and Amplification Product Inactivation - In: Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology (Tang and Stratton, eds). Cham (Switzerland): Springer; 2018 Nov 11/10/2018.ISBN-13: 978-3-319-33899-6.. Available from:

Lawson SK, Chung D, Das S, Friesen J, Sefers S, Dunbar S, Schmitz JE. Analytical and Workflow Evaluation of the ARIES Sample-to-Result Molecular Assay for Clostridium difficile. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 2018 Mar; 48(2): 168-76. PMID: 29678843, PII: 48/2/168, ISSN: 1550-8080.

Capoor MN, Ruzicka F, Sandhu G, Rollason J, Mavrommatis K, Ahmed FS, Schmitz JE, Raz A, Brüggemann H, Lambert PA, Fischetti VA, Slaby O. Importance of Propionibacterium acnes hemolytic activity in human intervertebral discs: A microbiological study. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13(11): e0208144. PMID: 30496247, PMCID: PMC6264842, PII: PONE-D-18-19770, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208144, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Juttukonda LJ, Berends ETM, Zackular JP, Moore JL, Stier MT, Zhang Y, Schmitz JE, Beavers WN, Wijers CD, Gilston BA, Kehl-Fie TE, Atkinson J, Washington MK, Peebles RS, Chazin WJ, Torres VJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP. Dietary Manganese Promotes Staphylococcal Infection of the Heart. Cell Host Microbe [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct 10/11/2017; 22(4): 531-542.e8. PMID: 28943329, PMCID: PMC5638708, PII: S1931-3128(17)30342-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.08.009, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Eberly AR, Floyd KA, Beebout CJ, Colling SJ, Fitzgerald MJ, Stratton CW, Schmitz JE, Hadjifrangiskou M. Biofilm Formation by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Is Favored under Oxygen Conditions That Mimic the Bladder Environment. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Sep 9/30/2017; 18(10): PMID: 28973965, PMCID: PMC5666759, PII: ijms18102077, DOI: 10.3390/ijms18102077, ISSN: 1422-0067.

Guckes KR, Breland EJ, Zhang EW, Hanks SC, Gill NK, Algood HM, Schmitz JE, Stratton CW, Hadjifrangiskou M. Signaling by two-component system noncognate partners promotes intrinsic tolerance to polymyxin B in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Sci Signal. 2017 Jan 1/10/2017; 10(461): PMID: 28074004, PII: 10/461/eaag1775, DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aag1775, ISSN: 1937-9145.

Gilmer DB, Schmitz JE, Thandar M, Euler CW, Fischetti VA. The Phage Lysin PlySs2 Decolonizes Streptococcus suis from Murine Intranasal Mucosa. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(1): e0169180. PMID: 28046082, PII: PONE-D-16-12740, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169180, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Capoor MN, Ruzicka F, Schmitz JE, James GA, Machackova T, Jancalek R, Smrcka M, Lipina R, Ahmed FS, Alamin TF, Anand N, Baird JC, Bhatia N, Demir-Deviren S, Eastlack RK, Fisher S, Garfin SR, Gogia JS, Gokaslan ZL, Kuo CC, Lee YP, Mavrommatis K, Michu E, Noskova H, Raz A, Sana J, Shamie AN, Stewart PS, Stonemetz JL, Wang JC, Witham TF, Coscia MF, Birkenmaier C, Fischetti VA, Slaby O. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(4): e0174518. PMID: 28369127, PMCID: PMC5378350, PII: PONE-D-17-02125, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174518, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Schmitz JE, Taniguchi T, Misawa N, Cover TL. Epithelial Coculture and l-Lactate Promote Growth of Helicobacter cinaedi under H2-Free Aerobic Conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol [electronic-print]. 2016 Nov 11/15/2016; 82(22): 6701-14. PMID: 27613684, PMCID: PMC5086564, PII: AEM.01943-16, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01943-16, ISSN: 1098-5336.

Capoor MN, Ruzicka F, Machackova T, Jancalek R, Smrcka M, Schmitz JE, Hermanova M, Sana J, Michu E, Baird JC, Ahmed FS, Maca K, Lipina R, Alamin TF, Coscia MF, Stonemetz JL, Witham T, Ehrlich GD, Gokaslan ZL, Mavrommatis K, Birkenmaier C, Fischetti VA, Slaby O. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in Intervertebral Discs of Patients Undergoing Lumbar Microdiscectomy: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11(8): e0161676. PMID: 27536784, PMCID: PMC4990245, PII: PONE-D-16-28739, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161676, ISSN: 1932-6203.

Schmitz JE and Stratton CW. Neisseria meningitidis - In: Molecular Medical Microbiology (Tang, et al., eds). New York (United States): Elsevier / Academic Press; 2015.ISBN-13: 978-0-12-397169-2.. Available from:

Hammer ND, Cassat JE, Noto MJ, Lojek LJ, Chadha AD, Schmitz JE, Creech CB, Skaar EP. Inter- and intraspecies metabolite exchange promotes virulence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Oct 10/8/2014; 16(4): 531-7. PMID: 25299336, PMCID: PMC4197139, PII: S1931-3128(14)00335-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.09.002, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Gilmer DB, Schmitz JE, Euler CW, Fischetti VA. Novel bacteriophage lysin with broad lytic activity protects against mixed infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother [print-electronic]. 2013 Jun; 57(6): 2743-50. PMID: 23571534, PMCID: PMC3716137, PII: AAC.02526-12, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02526-12, ISSN: 1098-6596.

Pelzek AJ, Schuch R, Schmitz JE, Fischetti VA, et al. Isolation, Culture, and Characterization, of Bacteriophages. Current Protocols Essential Laboratory Techniques. 2013; 4(4): 1-31.

Pelzek AJ, Schuch R, Schmitz JE, Fischetti VA, et al. Isolation of Bacteriophages from Environmental Sources, and Creation of Functional Screening of Phage DNA Libraries. Current Protocols Essential Laboratory Techniques. 2013; 13(3): 1-35.

Pettit AC, Kropski JA, Castilho JL, Schmitz JE, Rauch CA, Mobley BC, Wang XJ, Spires SS, Pugh ME. The index case for the fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med [print-electronic]. 2012 Nov 11/29/2012; 367(22): 2119-25. PMID: 23083311, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1212292, ISSN: 1533-4406.

Schmitz JE, Ossiprandi MC, Rumah KR, Fischetti VA. Lytic enzyme discovery through multigenomic sequence analysis in Clostridium perfringens. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol [print-electronic]. 2011 Mar; 89(6): 1783-95. PMID: 21085950, PMCID: PMC3711215, DOI: 10.1007/s00253-010-2982-8, ISSN: 1432-0614.

Schmitz JE, Schuch R, Fischetti VA. Identifying active phage lysins through functional viral metagenomics. Appl. Environ. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2010 Nov; 76(21): 7181-7. PMID: 20851985, PMCID: PMC2976241, PII: AEM.00732-10, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00732-10, ISSN: 1098-5336.

Schmitz JE, Schuch R, Fischetti VA. Identifying Phage Lytic Enzymes: Past, Present, and Future - In: Enzybiotics (Villa and Veiga-Crespo, eds.). 1. Hoboken (United States): Wiley; 2010.

Schmitz JE, Daniel A, Collin M, Schuch R, Fischetti VA. Rapid DNA library construction for functional genomic and metagenomic screening. Appl. Environ. Microbiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Mar; 74(5): 1649-52. PMID: 18083885, PMCID: PMC2258639, PII: AEM.01864-07, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01864-07, ISSN: 1098-5336.

Schmitz JE, Kettunen MI, Hu DE, Brindle KM. 1H MRS-visible lipids accumulate during apoptosis of lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Magn Reson Med. 2005 Jul; 54(1): 43-50. PMID: 15968678, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.20529, ISSN: 0740-3194.

Du J, Stankiewicz MJ, Liu Y, Xi Q, Schmitz JE, Lekstrom-Himes JA, Ackerman SJ. Novel combinatorial interactions of GATA-1, PU.1, and C/EBPepsilon isoforms regulate transcription of the gene encoding eosinophil granule major basic protein. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Nov 11/8/2002; 277(45): 43481-94. PMID: 12202480, PII: M204777200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M204777200, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Schmitz, JE, Kansal, AR, and Torquato, S. A Cellular Automaton Model of Brain Tumor Treatment and Resistance. Journal of Theoretical Medicine. 2002; 4(4): 223-39.