Norman Edwin Trevathan, M.D.

Professor

edwin.trevathan@vanderbilt.edu
Faculty Appointments
Professor of Pediatrics Professor of NeurologyAmos Christie Chair
Education
M.P.H., Emory University, Atlanta, GeorgiaM.D., Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GeorgiaB.S., Chemistry, David Lipscomb University, Nashville, Tennessee
Research Description
Dr. Trevathan (https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2370-5970), a pediatric neurologist and epidemiologist, has spent his career at the interface between pediatric neurology, epidemiology, global public health, and global health leadership. Having previously spent several years in senior leadership positions at Washington University in St. Louis, the CDC, Saint Louis University and Baylor University, Dr. Trevathan now directs the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health (VIGH. VIGH is an institute without walls that facilitates multi-disciplinary research and education across Vanderbilt, with sites collaborative throughout the world.

Trevathan's current research includes two large projects that address childhood epilepsy in low-middle income countries (LMICs) in Africa. Bridging the Childhood Treatment Gap in Africa (BRIDGE) seeks to develop and test methods for reducing the epilepsy treatment gap in Africa. About 80% of the world's children with epilepsy live in LMICs - many in Africa. Of children with epilepsy in Africa, about 60-90% are without any treatment and many have never been properly diagnosed - the "epilepsy treatment gap". BRIDGE has developed novel epilepsy screening and seizure classification tools, epilepsy education programs for community health workers and piloted a novel system for shifting epilepsy care from physicians to specially-trained community health workers. BRIDGE-1, a 5-year project funded by Fogarty International Center (FIC) and National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) at NIH (1R01 NS113171), is a large cluster randomized clinical trial (cRCT) at 60 sites in 3 cities in northern Nigeria; BRIDGE-1 compares epilepsy outcomes among children diagnosed and receiving care from epilepsy-trained community health workers (task-shifted care) versus children diagnosed and treated by local physicians. Outcomes are measured by physician epilepsy experts who are blinded as to the type of care received by each child. BRIDGE-1, scheduled to be completed in 2024, will be the first major cRCT testing the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommendation for addressing diagnosis and treatment gaps in epilepsy and other major neurological disorders. BRIDGE-1 also investigates the implementation and the cost-effectiveness of task-shifted epilepsy care in Africa. Future BRIDGE studies being planned include genomics and pharmacogenomics of childhood epilepsy in northern Nigeria, and genetic epidemiology studies of childhood epilepsy in northern Nigeria.

Childhood Status Epilepticus and Epilepsy Determinants of Outcome (SEED) is a new 5-year study with a planned launch in the summer of 2020. SEED-1 is a large cohort study of children with status epilepticus (SE) in Kano, northern Nigeria. SEED-1 plans to enroll about 1650-1800 children with SE over 24 months, and follow each child for 24 months. The specific aims are: (a) deep phenotyping of children with SE in northern Nigeria using point-of-care EEG and EEG-video, detailed clinical assessments, and brain MRI; (b) clinical predictors of short-term, including benzodiazepine resistance, and short-term mortality, and long-term outcomes including mortality, morbidity, and development of epilepsy among children who have SE as their first seizure; and, (c) genomic predictors of SE short-term and long-outcomes, initially with genome wide association studies (GWAS) with controls from H3Africa.

Clinical Description
Dr. Trevathan is a pediatric neurologist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Research Keywords
Status epilepticus, childhood epilepsy, genomics, pharmacogenomics, benzodiazepine resistance, epidemiology
Publications
Luo Y, Trevathan E, Qian Z, Li Y, Li J, Xiao W, Tu N, Zeng Z, Mo P, Xiong Y, Ye G. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Household Contacts of a Healthcare Provider, Wuhan, China. Emerging Infect. Dis [print-electronic]. 2020 Apr 4/24/2020; 26(8): PMID: 32330112, DOI: 10.3201/eid2608.201016, ISSN: 1080-6059.

Aliyu MH, Abdullahi AT, Iliyasu Z, Salihu AS, Adamu H, Sabo U, Garcia JP, Abdullahi SU, Mande A, Xian H, Yakasai HM, Schootman M, Ingles DJ, Patel AA, Yakasai A, Curry-Johnson S, Wudil UJ, DeBaun MR, Trevathan E, . Bridging the childhood epilepsy treatment gap in northern Nigeria (BRIDGE): Rationale and design of pre-clinical trial studies. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2019 Sep; 15: 100362. PMID: 31049462, PMCID: PMC6484289, PII: 100362, PII: S2451-8654(18)30199-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100362, ISSN: 2451-8654.

Tikellis G, Dwyer T, Paltiel O, Phillips GS, Lemeshow S, Golding J, Northstone K, Boyd A, Olsen S, Ghantous A, Herceg Z, Ward MH, Håberg SE, Magnus P, Olsen J, Ström M, Mahabir S, Jones RR, Ponsonby AL, Clavel J, Charles MA, Trevathan E, Qian ZM, Maule MM, Qiu X, Hong YC, Brandalise S, Roman E, Wake M, He JR, Linet MS, . The International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C): A research platform of prospective cohorts for studying the aetiology of childhood cancers. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol [print-electronic]. 2018 Nov; 32(6): 568-83. PMID: 30466188, DOI: 10.1111/ppe.12519, ISSN: 1365-3016.

Kothare SV, Trevathan E. Sudden death risk among children with epilepsy [editorial]. Neurology [print-electronic]. 2018 Jul 7/10/2018; 91(2): 57-8. PMID: 29884736, PII: WNL.0000000000005763, DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005763, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Lin H, Ma W, Qiu H, Wang X, Trevathan E, Yao Z, Dong GH, Vaughn MG, Qian Z, Tian L. Using daily excessive concentration hours to explore the short-term mortality effects of ambient PM2.5 in Hong Kong. Environ. Pollut [print-electronic]. 2017 Oct; 229: 896-901. PMID: 28760525, PII: S0269-7491(17)30525-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.060, ISSN: 1873-6424.

Yang S, Yang R, Liang S, Wang J, Weaver NL, Hu K, Hu R, Trevathan E, Huang Z, Zhang Y, Yin T, Chang JJ, Zhao J, Shen L, Dong G, Zheng T, Xu S, Qian Z, Zhang B. Symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and their association with low birth weight in Chinese women: a nested case control study. Arch Womens Ment Health [print-electronic]. 2017 Apr; 20(2): 283-90. PMID: 28013409, PII: 10.1007/s00737-016-0697-2, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-016-0697-2, ISSN: 1435-1102.

Xu SL, Trevathan E, Qian Z, Vivian E, Yang BY, Hu LW, Zeng XW, Li M, Zhou Y, Qin XD, Bao WW, Yuan P, Zhang YZ, Wang J, Zhang C, Tian YP, Nian M, Xiao X, Dong GH. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to pet ownership, blood pressure, and hypertension in children: the Seven Northeastern Cities study. J. Hypertens. 2017 Feb; 35(2): 259-65. PMID: 28005698, PII: 00004872-201702000-00011, DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001166, ISSN: 1473-5598.

Chen X, Zhang LW, Huang JJ, Song FJ, Zhang LP, Qian ZM, Trevathan E, Mao HJ, Han B, Vaughn M, Chen KX, Liu YM, Chen J, Zhao BX, Jiang GH, Gu Q, Bai ZP, Dong GH, Tang NJ. Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and lung cancer mortality: A 12-year cohort study in Northern China. Sci. Total Environ [print-electronic]. 2016 Nov 11/15/2016; 571: 855-61. PMID: 27425436, PII: S0048-9697(16)31510-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.064, ISSN: 1879-1026.

Trevathan E. Editorial brain malformation surveillance in the Zika era [editorial]. Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 2016 Nov; 106(11): 869-74. PMID: 27891785, PMCID: PMC5132043, DOI: 10.1002/bdra.23582, ISSN: 1542-0760.

Qian Z, Zhang B, Liang S, Wang J, Yang S, Hu K, Trevathan E, Yang R, Li Q, Flick LH, Hu R, Huang Z, Zhang Y, Hu S, Wang J, Shen L, Lu Y, Peng H, Yu Y, Yang L, Chen W, Liu W, Zhang W. Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2016 Sep; (189): 1-65. PMID: 29659240, ISSN: 1041-5505.

Joseph M, Elliott M, Zelicoff A, Qian Z, Trevathan E, Chang JJ. Racial disparity in the association between body mass index and self-reported asthma in children: a population-based study. J Asthma [print-electronic]. 2016 Jun; 53(5): 492-7. PMID: 26787188, DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2015.1116084, ISSN: 1532-4303.

Qian Z, Liang S, Yang S, Trevathan E, Huang Z, Yang R, Wang J, Hu K, Zhang Y, Vaughn M, Shen L, Liu W, Li P, Ward P, Yang L, Zhang W, Chen W, Dong G, Zheng T, Xu S, Zhang B. Ambient air pollution and preterm birth: A prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China. Int J Hyg Environ Health [print-electronic]. 2016 Mar; 219(2): 195-203. PMID: 26639560, PII: S1438-4639(15)00153-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.11.003, ISSN: 1618-131X.

Liu RQ, Qian Z, Trevathan E, Chang JJ, Zelicoff A, Hao YT, Lin S, Dong GH. Poor sleep quality associated with high risk of hypertension and elevated blood pressure in China: results from a large population-based study. Hypertens. Res [print-electronic]. 2016 Jan; 39(1): 54-9. PMID: 26333359, PII: hr201598, DOI: 10.1038/hr.2015.98, ISSN: 1348-4214.

Qin XD, Qian Z, Vaughn MG, Trevathan E, Emo B, Paul G, Ren WH, Hao YT, Dong GH. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study. Sci. Total Environ [print-electronic]. 2015 Oct 10/1/2015; 529: 243-8. PMID: 26022408, PII: S0048-9697(15)30099-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.041, ISSN: 1879-1026.

Yang S, Zhou A, Xiong C, Yang R, Bassig BA, Hu R, Zhang Y, Yao C, Zhang Y, Qiu L, Qian Z, Trevathan E, Flick L, Xu S, Wang Y, Xia W, Zheng T, Zhang B. Parental Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Risk of Macrosomia: a Population-Based Case-Control Study in China. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol [print-electronic]. 2015 Sep; 29(5): 462-71. PMID: 26228295, DOI: 10.1111/ppe.12213, ISSN: 1365-3016.

Dong GH, Qian ZM, Trevathan E, Zeng XW, Vaughn MG, Wang J, Zhao Y, Liu YQ, Ren WH, Qin XD. Air pollution associated hypertension and increased blood pressure may be reduced by breastfeeding in Chinese children: the Seven Northeastern Cities Chinese Children's Study. Int. J. Cardiol [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct 10/20/2014; 176(3): 956-61. PMID: 25186732, PII: S0167-5273(14)01644-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.08.099, ISSN: 1874-1754.

Dong GH, Qian ZM, Wang J, Trevathan E, Liu MM, Wang D, Ren WH, Chen W, Simckes M, Zelicoff A. Home renovation, family history of atopy, and respiratory symptoms and asthma among children living in China. Am J Public Health [print-electronic]. 2014 Oct; 104(10): 1920-7. PMID: 24228648, PMCID: PMC4167110, DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301438, ISSN: 1541-0048.

Kakooza-Mwesige A, Ssebyala K, Karamagi C, Kiguli S, Smith K, Anderson MC, Croen LA, Trevathan E, Hansen R, Smith D, Grether JK. Adaptation of the "ten questions" to screen for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in Uganda. Autism [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 18(4): 447-57. PMID: 23536263, PII: 1362361313475848, DOI: 10.1177/1362361313475848, ISSN: 1461-7005.

Jette N, Trevathan E. Saving lives by treating epilepsy in developing countries [editorial]. Neurology [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb 2/18/2014; 82(7): 552-3. PMID: 24443455, PII: WNL.0000000000000133, DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000133, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Dong GH, Qian Z, Fu Q, Wang J, Trevathan E, Ma W, Liu MM, Wang D, Ren WH, Ong KH, Ferguson TF, Riley E, Simckes M. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Cause (MIMIC) model of respiratory health and household factors in Chinese children: the seven Northeastern cities (SNEC) study. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Jan; 18(1): 129-37. PMID: 23440490, PII: 10.1007/s10995-013-1245-6, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-013-1245-6, ISSN: 1573-6628.

Dong GH, Qian ZM, Wang J, Trevathan E, Ma W, Chen W, Xaverius PK, Buckner-Petty S, Ray A, Liu MM, Wang D, Ren WH, Emo B, Chang JJ. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study. Sci. Total Environ [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct 10/1/2013; 463-464: 389-94. PMID: 23820011, PII: S0048-9697(13)00606-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.063, ISSN: 1879-1026.

Dong GH, Qian ZM, Liu MM, Wang D, Ren WH, Bawa S, Fu J, Wang J, Lewis R, Zelicoff A, Simckes M, Trevathan E. Breastfeeding as a modifier of the respiratory effects of air pollution in children. Epidemiology. 2013 May; 24(3): 387-94. PMID: 23429406, DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182877eb8, ISSN: 1531-5487.

Dong GH, Qian ZM, Xaverius PK, Trevathan E, Maalouf S, Parker J, Yang L, Liu MM, Wang D, Ren WH, Ma W, Wang J, Zelicoff A, Fu Q, Simckes M. Association between long-term air pollution and increased blood pressure and hypertension in China. Hypertension [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar; 61(3): 578-84. PMID: 23357184, PII: HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00003, DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00003, ISSN: 1524-4563.

Sejvar JJ, Kakooza AM, Foltz JL, Makumbi I, Atai-Omoruto AD, Malimbo M, Ndyomugyenyi R, Alexander LN, Abang B, Downing RG, Ehrenberg A, Guilliams K, Helmers S, Melstrom P, Olara D, Perlman S, Ratto J, Trevathan E, Winkler AS, Dowell SF, Lwamafa D. Clinical, neurological, and electrophysiological features of nodding syndrome in Kitgum, Uganda: an observational case series. Lancet Neurol [print-electronic]. 2013 Feb; 12(2): 166-74. PMID: 23305742, PII: S1474-4422(12)70321-6, DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70321-6, ISSN: 1474-4465.

Trevathan E. A model strategy: targeting infant mortality can produce results. Health Prog. 2013 Jan; 94(1): 36-42. PMID: 23393728, ISSN: 0882-1577.

Trevathan E. Introducing public health--your new partner. Health Prog. 2013 Jan; 94(1): 4-5. PMID: 23393722, ISSN: 0882-1577.

Dong GH, Qian Z, Liu MM, Wang D, Ren WH, Fu Q, Wang J, Simckes M, Ferguson TF, Trevathan E. Obesity enhanced respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in Chinese children: the Seven Northeastern Cities study. Int J Obes (Lond) [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 37(1): 94-100. PMID: 22846775, PII: ijo2012125, DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2012.125, ISSN: 1476-5497.

Boyle CA, Cordero JF, Trevathan E. The National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities: past, present, and future. Am J Prev Med. 2012 Dec; 43(6): 655-8. PMID: 23159262, PMCID: PMC4445684, PII: S0749-3797(12)00605-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.08.015, ISSN: 1873-2607.

Michelson DJ, Shevell MI, Sherr EH, Moeschler JB, Gropman AL, Ashwal S, Trevathan E. So what? Does the test lead to improved health outcomes? [letter]. Neurology. 2012 Feb 2/7/2012; 78(6): 440-1; author reply 441. PMID: 22311931, PII: 78/6/440, DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318248042c, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Trevathan E. So what? Does the test lead to improved health outcomes? [editorial]. Neurology [print-electronic]. 2011 Oct 10/25/2011; 77(17): 1586-7. PMID: 21956715, PII: WNL.0b013e3182395d81, DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182395d81, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Trevathan E. "Flying blind" without epilepsy surveillance data [editorial]. Neurology. 2011 Jan 1/4/2011; 76(1): 10-1. PMID: 21205686, PII: 76/1/10, DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318203e9b0, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Pellock JM, Hrachovy R, Shinnar S, Baram TZ, Bettis D, Dlugos DJ, Gaillard WD, Gibson PA, Holmes GL, Nordl DR, O'Dell C, Shields WD, Trevathan E, Wheless JW. Infantile spasms: a U.S. consensus report. Epilepsia. 2010 Oct; 51(10): 2175-89. PMID: 20608959, PII: EPI2657, DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02657.x, ISSN: 1528-1167.

Autry AR, Trevathan E, Van Naarden Braun K, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Increased risk of death among children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and infantile spasms. J. Child Neurol [print-electronic]. 2010 Apr; 25(4): 441-7. PMID: 20023065, PII: 0883073809348355, DOI: 10.1177/0883073809348355, ISSN: 1708-8283.

Kogan MD, Blumberg SJ, Schieve LA, Boyle CA, Perrin JM, Ghandour RM, Singh GK, Strickland BB, Trevathan E, van Dyck PC. Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the US, 2007. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2009 Nov; 124(5): 1395-403. PMID: 19805460, PII: peds.2009-1522, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-1522, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Trevathan E, Dietz WH. Obesity in neurology practice: a call to action [editorial]. Neurology [print-electronic]. 2009 Sep 9/1/2009; 73(9): 654-5. PMID: 19641167, PII: WNL.0b013e3181b64c11, DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b64c11, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Grosse SD, Schechter MS, Kulkarni R, Lloyd-Puryear MA, Strickland B, Trevathan E. Models of comprehensive multidisciplinary care for individuals in the United States with genetic disorders. Pediatrics. 2009 Jan; 123(1): 407-12. PMID: 19117908, PII: 123/1/407, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-2875, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Ekinci O, Titus JB, Rodopman AA, Berkem M, Trevathan E. Depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with epilepsy: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment. Epilepsy Behav [print-electronic]. 2009 Jan; 14(1): 8-18. PMID: 18804186, PII: S1525-5050(08)00271-0, DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.08.015, ISSN: 1525-5069.

Trevathan E. Epilepsy-associated bone mineral density loss should be prevented [editorial]. Neurology. 2008 Jan 1/15/2008; 70(3): 166-7. PMID: 18195262, PII: 70/3/166, DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000299751.87703.c5, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Mathern GW, Trevathan E. Childhood-onset temporal lobe epilepsy: neuroimaging predicts seizure control [editorial]. Neurology. 2006 Dec 12/26/2006; 67(12): 2117-8. PMID: 17190930, PII: 67/12/2117, DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000249110.13783.d6, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Johnston JM, Mangano FT, Ojemann JG, Park TS, Trevathan E, Smyth MD. Complications of invasive subdural electrode monitoring at St. Louis Children's Hospital, 1994-2005. J. Neurosurg. 2006 Nov; 105(5 Suppl): 343-7. PMID: 17328255, DOI: 10.3171/ped.2006.105.5.343, ISSN: 0022-3085.

Trevathan E, Kerls SP, Hammer AE, Vuong A, Messenheimer JA. Lamotrigine adjunctive therapy among children and adolescents with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Pediatrics [print-electronic]. 2006 Aug; 118(2): e371-8. PMID: 16847080, PII: peds.2006-0148, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0148, ISSN: 1098-4275.

Gurnett CA, Trevathan E. Defining the phenotype to discover the genotype [editorial]. Neurology. 2006 Jun 6/13/2006; 66(11): 1622-3. PMID: 16769931, PII: 66/11/1622, DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000224695.39903.b9, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Trevathan E. Does temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in children improve functional outcomes?. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2006 Mar; 2(3): 130-1. PMID: 16932537, PII: ncpneuro0131, DOI: 10.1038/ncpneuro0131, ISSN: 1745-834X.

Trevathan E. Ellen R. Grass Lecture: Rapid EEG analysis for intensive care decisions in status epilepticus. Am J Electroneurodiagnostic Technol. 2006 Mar; 46(1): 4-17. PMID: 16605169, ISSN: 1086-508X.

Trevathan E. To sleep, perchance to speak: the search for epileptic language regression [editorial]. Neurology. 2005 Jul 7/12/2005; 65(1): 11-2. PMID: 16009878, PII: 65/1/11, DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000171598.47352.20, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Trevathan E. Seizures and epilepsy among children with language regression and autistic spectrum disorders. J. Child Neurol. 2004 Aug; 19 Suppl 1: S49-57. PMID: 15526970, DOI: 10.1177/088307380401900106, ISSN: 0883-0738.

Trevathan E. Patient page. The diagnosis of epilepsy and the art of listening. Neurology. 2003 Dec 12/23/2003; 61(12): E13-4. PMID: 14694071, DOI: 10.1212/wnl.61.12.e13, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Trevathan E, Gilliam F. Lost years: delayed referral for surgically treatable epilepsy [editorial]. Neurology. 2003 Aug 8/26/2003; 61(4): 432-3. PMID: 12939411, DOI: 10.1212/wnl.61.4.432, ISSN: 1526-632X.

Trevathan E. Antiepileptic drug development for "therapeutic orphans". Epilepsia. 2003; 44 Suppl 7: 19-25. PMID: 12919335, PII: 7001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1528-1157.44.s7.1.x, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Trevathan E. Infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. J. Child Neurol. 2002 Feb; 17 Suppl 2: 2S9-2S22. PMID: 11952036, DOI: 10.1177/08830738020170021201, ISSN: 0883-0738.

Wong M, Trevathan E. Infantile spasms. Pediatr. Neurol. 2001 Feb; 24(2): 89-98. PMID: 11275456, PII: S0887-8994(00)00238-1, DOI: 10.1016/s0887-8994(00)00238-1, ISSN: 0887-8994.

Trevathan E. Epilepsy syndrome-specific anti-epileptic drug therapy for children. Lancet. 2000 Nov 11/11/2000; 356(9242): 1623-4. PMID: 11089816, PII: S0140-6736(00)03151-2, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03151-2, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Guberman AH, Besag FM, Brodie MJ, Dooley JM, Duchowny MS, Pellock JM, Richens A, Stern RS, Trevathan E. Lamotrigine-associated rash: risk/benefit considerations in adults and children. Epilepsia. 1999 Jul; 40(7): 985-91. PMID: 10403224, DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1999.tb00807.x, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Trevathan E, Murphy CC, Yeargin-Allsopp M. The descriptive epidemiology of infantile spasms among Atlanta children. Epilepsia. 1999 Jun; 40(6): 748-51. PMID: 10368073, DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1999.tb00773.x, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Smith CD, Trevathan ER, Zhang M, Andersen AH, Avison MJ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for task-specific activation of developmentally abnormal visual association cortex. Ann. Neurol. 1999 Apr; 45(4): 515-8. PMID: 10211477, DOI: 10.1002/1531-8249(199904)45:4<515::aid-ana14>3.0.co;2-#, ISSN: 0364-5134.

Vining EP, Freeman JM, Ballaban-Gil K, Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Holmes GL, Shinnar S, Shuman R, Trevathan E, Wheless JW. A multicenter study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Arch. Neurol. 1998 Nov; 55(11): 1433-7. PMID: 9823827, DOI: 10.1001/archneur.55.11.1433, ISSN: 0003-9942.

Cereghino JJ, Mitchell WG, Murphy J, Kriel RL, Rosenfeld WE, Trevathan E. Treating repetitive seizures with a rectal diazepam formulation: a randomized study. The North American Diastat Study Group. Neurology. 1998 Nov; 51(5): 1274-82. PMID: 9818845, DOI: 10.1212/wnl.51.5.1274, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Trevathan E, Mullens EL, Manasco P. Lamotrigine for generalized seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [letter]. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998 Sep 9/17/1998; 339(12): 851-2. PMID: 9750085, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199809173391218, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Trevathan E, Medina MT, Madrid A. Antiepileptic drugs in developing countries [letter]. Lancet. 1998 Apr 4/18/1998; 351(9110): 1210-1. PMID: 9643725, PII: S0140-6736(05)79163-7, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)79163-7, ISSN: 0140-6736.

Motte J, Trevathan E, Arvidsson JF, Barrera MN, Mullens EL, Manasco P. Lamotrigine for generalized seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Lamictal Lennox-Gastaut Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997 Dec 12/18/1997; 337(25): 1807-12. PMID: 9400037, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199712183372504, ISSN: 0028-4793.

Trevathan E, Murphy CC, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence and descriptive epidemiology of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome among Atlanta children. Epilepsia. 1997 Dec; 38(12): 1283-8. PMID: 9578523, DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1997.tb00065.x, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Murphy CC, Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia. 1995 Sep; 36(9): 866-72. PMID: 7544279, DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1995.tb01629.x, ISSN: 0013-9580.

Mikati MA, Trevathan E, Krishnamoorthy KS, Lombroso CT. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: EEG investigations and long-term follow-up. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1991 Mar; 78(3): 215-21. PMID: 1707793, PII: 0013-4694(91)90035-3, DOI: 10.1016/0013-4694(91)90035-3, ISSN: 0013-4694.

Trevathan E. Rett syndrome [letter]. Pediatrics. 1989 Apr; 83(4 Pt 2): 636-7. PMID: 2928012, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Trevathan E, Cascino GD. Partial epilepsy presenting as focal paroxysmal pain. Neurology. 1988 Feb; 38(2): 329-30. PMID: 3124020, DOI: 10.1212/wnl.38.2.329, ISSN: 0028-3878.

Trevathan E, Naidu S. The clinical recognition and differential diagnosis of Rett syndrome. J. Child Neurol. 1988; 3 Suppl: S6-16. PMID: 3058788, DOI: 10.1177/0883073888003001s03, ISSN: 0883-0738.

Trevathan E, Adams MJ. The epidemiology and public health significance of Rett syndrome. J. Child Neurol. 1988; 3 Suppl: S17-20. PMID: 3058784, DOI: 10.1177/0883073888003001s04, ISSN: 0883-0738.

Trevathan E, Dooling EC. Large thrombotic strokes in hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J. Pediatr. 1987 Dec; 111(6 Pt 1): 863-6. PMID: 3681553, PII: S0022-3476(87)80207-X, DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3476(87)80207-x, ISSN: 0022-3476.

Trevathan E. Suctioning and cerebral blood flow [letter]. Pediatrics. 1984 Apr; 73(4): 570. PMID: 6538680, ISSN: 0031-4005.

Trevathan E, Layde P, Webster LA, Adams JB, Benigno BB, Ory H. Cigarette smoking and dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. JAMA. 1983 Jul 7/22/1983; 250(4): 499-502. PMID: 6864947, ISSN: 0098-7484.